Fiber Optic Network Patents (Class 380/256)
  • Patent number: 9294271
    Abstract: There is provided a quantum-key-distribution receiving device used in a quantum key distribution system that utilizes a pair of quantum-entangled photons including a signal photon and an idler photon, the quantum-key-distribution receiving device including a single-photon detector in which a secure-key generation rate is dependent on a first performance index ?/(1+Pa), ? denoting a detection efficiency and Pa denoting an after-pulse probability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2016
    Assignee: Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Shin Arahira
  • Patent number: 9270448
    Abstract: Systems and methods for the secure distribution of encryption keys in a network are provided. A Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange protocol can be utilized in a network where keys are exchanged between hosts connected by a wire. Such a KLJN secure key exchange protocol provides information security that is information theoretically secure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2016
    Assignee: The Texas A&M University System
    Inventors: Elias Eliceo Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert S. Balog
  • Patent number: 9238383
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for producing a security element (1), to a security element (1) obtainable by the method according to the invention, to transfer materials having the security elements according to the invention, and to objects of value secured by the security elements according to the invention. The security element (1) according to the invention has at least two functional layers (12, 22), whereby each functional layer forms a motif and the motifs are either congruent, or one motif represents a photographic negative of the other motif. In the method according to the invention, the motif of one functional layer (12) is transferred into the other functional layer (22) with the help of an adhesive layer (30).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 19, 2016
    Assignee: Giesecke & Devrient GmbH
    Inventors: Winfried Hoffmuller, Patrick Renner, Manfred Heim
  • Patent number: 9219605
    Abstract: An apparatus including: an input optical interface configured to receive a series of optical input signals each including photons; an encoder configured to encode a quantum key for distribution by encoding each of the series of received optical input signals with a measurable state; an attenuator configured to attenuate each of the encoded optical input signals to create a series of quantum optical signals; and an output optical interface configured to send the series of quantum optical signals to the remote apparatus via a quantum communication channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2015
    Assignee: Nokia Technologies Oy
    Inventors: Antti Niskanen, Li Hongwei, Anthony Laing, Mirko Lobino, Mark Thompson, Jeremy O'Brien
  • Patent number: 9184912
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for sharing information. First bits are selected from a shared secret key in a first device. The first bits have a selected length. Second bits with the selected length in signals are sent from the first device to a second device. The signals have selected types of properties based on the first bits. The second bits are encoded in states for the selected types of properties. A key is generated in the first device. The key is based on the second bits received at the second device having the selected types of properties identified as matching expected types of properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2015
    Assignee: THE BOEING COMPANY
    Inventor: James William Harrington
  • Publication number: 20150146871
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a visible light encryption method, a decryption method, a communication device and a communication system. The method includes: receiving a visible light signal from a transmit end, where the visible light signal is encrypted at the transmit end by using a key; and obtaining the key, and decrypting the visible light signal according to the key, where the obtaining the key includes: obtaining a key corresponding to a state of a state machine of a receive end; or, obtaining indication information according to the visible light signal and obtaining the key according to the indication information, where the indication information is used to obtain the key. The present invention solves a problem of decryption failure in visible light encryption and decryption, and improves accuracy of decryption.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 29, 2015
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Applicant: KUANG-CHI INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY LTD.
    Inventors: Ruopeng LIU, Lin LUAN, Guangjin XIAO
  • Patent number: 9031236
    Abstract: Substantially identical numerical sequences known only to stations A and B are generated in a manner not subject to duplication by an eavesdropper and not subject to cryptanalytic attack because they are not derived using a mathematical function (such, as for example, factoring). The sequences are independently derived utilizing a physical phenomena that can only be “measured” precisely the same at stations A and B. Signals are simultaneously transmitted from each station toward the other through a communication channel having a characteristic physical property capable of modifying the signals in a non-deterministic way, such as causing a phase shift. Each signal is “reflected” by the opposite station back toward its station of origin. The effect of the communication channel is “measured” by comparing original and reflected signals. Measured differences are quantized and expressed as numbers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2015
    Assignee: The MITRE Corporation
    Inventors: Nicholas C. Donnangelo, Marvin D. Drake, Christophe F. Bas, Joseph J. Rushanan, David Gervais
  • Patent number: 9002009
    Abstract: Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution (“QKD”) between a quantum communication (“QC”) card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Los Alamos National Security, LLC
    Inventors: Jane Elizabeth Nordholt, Richard John Hughes, Raymond Thorson Newell, Charles Glen Peterson, Danna Rosenberg, Kevin Peter McCabe, Kush T. Tyagi, Nicholas Dallman
  • Patent number: 8995650
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for implementing a secure quantum cryptography system using two non-orthogonal states. For each qubit, the emitter station prepares a quantum system in one of two non-orthogonal quantum states in the time-basis to code bit values. Intra- and inter-qubit interference is then used to reveal eavesdropping attempts. Witness states are used to help reveal attacks performed across the quantum system separation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: ID Quantique SA
    Inventors: Nicolas Gisin, Grégoire Ribordy, Hugo Zbinden
  • Publication number: 20150071439
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present invention provide a method and system of encryption, decryption, and encryption and decryption based on visible light communication. A transmit end performs a logical operation on an original data signal and a pseudocode signal varying with a unit interval to obtain a scrambling code signal, and sends the scrambling code signal in a form of a visible light signal. A receive end receives the visible light signal sent by the transmit end, and converts the visible light signal into a digital signal; and decodes the digital signal and a pseudocode signal varying with a unit interval, so as to obtain the original data signal. The visible light signal transmitted between the transmit end and the receive end is not original data, but a scrambling code signal varying with a unit interval, thereby improving security of the photonic Internet of Things.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2013
    Publication date: March 12, 2015
    Applicant: KUANG-CHI INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY LTD.
    Inventors: Ruopeng Liu, Lin Luan, Guangjin Xiao
  • Patent number: 8964989
    Abstract: An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2013
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: UT-Battelle LLC
    Inventor: Warren P. Grice
  • Patent number: 8949300
    Abstract: A random number quality control circuit capable of fast control of the level of random number quality is present. When a “0” output section and a “1” output section generate random numbers by individually receiving a random number signal, a random number quality monitor monitors an unbalance between the numbers of “0”s and “1”s. If a deviation from a desired ratio is found, a drive controller controls the reception characteristics of the “0” output section and “1” output section individually so that the deviation will be compensated for. The amount of information intercepted between a sender and a receiver can be reduced by maintaining the mark ratio of shared random numbers at 50%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Akihiro Tanaka, Akio Tajima, Seigo Takahashi, Wakako Maeda
  • Patent number: 8942378
    Abstract: A method for encrypting multicast services in a passive optical network system is provided in the present invention, and the method includes: an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) generating a public key, and using the public key to encrypt the multicast service data in a bearer channel and then transmitting the encrypted data, the multicast service data in the same one bearer channel being encrypted using the same public key; and said OLT sending the public key ,which is used to encrypt the multicast service data, via a management control channel to an Optical Network Unit (ONU) which is activated successfully and requests to receive said multicast service data. A device for encrypting multicast services in a passive optical network system is also provided in the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Assignee: ZTE Corporation
    Inventors: Dezhi Zhang, Liquan Yuan
  • Patent number: 8942379
    Abstract: An Optical Transport Network (OTN) frame comprises an optical channel payload unit that is divided into a plurality of timeslots. This OTN frame is received at a transmitter and the timeslots are grouped into blocks of timeslots. Two or more blocks of timeslots are selected for encryption and are encrypted/authenticated in parallel to generate an encrypted OTN frame in which only certain blocks of timeslots are encrypted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Assignee: Cisco Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Gilberto Loprieno, Giacomo Losio
  • Publication number: 20150016610
    Abstract: Systems and methods for encoding a message are disclosed. A message may be passed from a first node to a second node via a communication link using a multi-stage cryptography algorithm distributed between the first node and the second node and applied by circuitry within the first node and the second node in which the multi-stage cryptography algorithm includes instructions for transmitting at least two optical signal transmissions across the communication path and using a number of independent transformations of polarization state of the optical signal transmission by a combination of the first node and the second node at least equal to the number of optical signal transmissions across the communication link.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 11, 2014
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Inventors: Pramode Verma, Mayssaa El Rifai, Nikhil Vishnu Punekar
  • Patent number: 8923517
    Abstract: A quantum entangled photon pair generating device, an optical frequency dividing filter, a 2N-input/2N-output optical switch, a 2N number of quantum key receiving devices, an optical transmission path and a control unit are provided. The quantum entangled photon pair generating device generates quantum entangled photon pairs. The optical frequency dividing filter receives the quantum entangled photon pairs, divides an optical frequency region by 2N, and performs output. The 2N-input/2N-output optical switch allocates photons of the 2N number of optical frequency regions to any one of a 2N number of output ports, and outputs the photons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Assignee: Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Shin Arahira
  • Publication number: 20140362989
    Abstract: A data stream with a given data rate is distributed into a plurality of virtual lanes or streams, each with a lower data rate than the data stream. Virtual lanes permit the use of lower cost electronics at the optical-electrical conversion points. Security information is generated that includes a unique initialization vector. The security information is distributed or allocated across some or all of the of the virtual data streams in a virtual lane alignment marker in a portion of the alignment marker used to maintain direct current (DC) transmission balance, but that otherwise does not provide useful information.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 5, 2013
    Publication date: December 11, 2014
    Inventors: Luca Della Chiesa, Gilberto Loprieno, Giacomo Losio
  • Patent number: 8903094
    Abstract: The invention concerns a cryptographic key distribution system comprising a server node, a repeater network connected to the server node through a quantum channel, and a client node connected to the repeater network through a quantum channel; wherein in use: the repeater network and the client node cooperatively generate a transfer quantum key which is supplied to a system subscriber by the client node; the server node and the repeater network cooperatively generate a link quantum key; the repeater network encrypts the link quantum key based on the transfer quantum key and sends the encrypted link quantum key to the system subscriber through a public communication channel; the server node encrypts a traffic cryptographic key based on the link quantum key and a service authentication key and sends the encrypted traffic cryptographic key to the system subscriber through a public communication channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Selex Sistemi Integrati S.p.A.
    Inventor: Fabio Antonio Bovino
  • Patent number: 8903091
    Abstract: A secure optical communication system and method are disclosed. Short optical pulses are first modulated with data, then dispersed in time so that they spread out over multiple bit periods, then the desired code is applied to the dispersed pulses. The encoding may include frequency shifts or phase shifts or other. The dispersed optical symbols overlap in time so an applied code chip thus acts on multiple symbols simultaneously. There are generally multiple code chips per dispersed symbol. The coding device does not need to be synchronized to the data rate. Multiple wavelength division multiplexed channels may be encoded simultaneously. The signal propagates to a decoder that is synchronized with encoder to apply a complementary code thereby canceling out the effect of the encoder. The encoder and decoder can be realized by varying the wavelength of an optical pump to a parametric amplifier, allowing for a wide-band frequency shift.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Nucript LLC
    Inventor: Gregory S. Kanter
  • Patent number: 8891767
    Abstract: It has long been assumed in physics that for information to travel in empty space between two parties (the Sender and the Receiver), “physically real” entities have to travel between the parties. The recently discovered technique of interaction-free measurement—wherein the presence of an object is inferred without the object directly interacting with the interrogating light—has caused this basic assumption to be questioned. This technique has found application in quantum key distribution in the form of counterfactual quantum key distribution—albeit with limited efficiency. In the present invention, using the “chained” quantum Zeno effect, this logic is taken to its natural conclusion and, in the ideal limit, information can be transferred between the Sender and the Receiver without any physical particles whatsoever traveling between them.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: Texas A&M University System
    Inventors: Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, Zhenghong Li, Mohammad D. Al-Amri, Hatim A. Salih
  • Patent number: 8885828
    Abstract: This invention relates to an optical star network in which different communities of users, such as different businesses, are provided through use of quantum key distribution (QKD). At least one QKD device is located at the central hub of the star network and communicates with QKD devices at the endpoints to establish a separate quantum key, i.e. a cryptographic key established by QKD, with each endpoint. A separate key manager is provided for each different community and each key manager is arranged to use the appropriate quantum keys for endpoints within that community to deliver the same community key to each endpoint. This community key can be used by for encrypting network traffic between members of the same community with security. Traffic passing through the network switch is encrypted, but the community keys are not delivered via the switch and hence the switch an error in the switch does not compromise security.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2014
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventors: Simon Robert Wiseman, Brian Sinclair Lowans, Richard Andrew Oak
  • Patent number: 8885829
    Abstract: A method of segregating a hybrid fiber cable network involves assigning a packet identifier (PID) to each of a plurality of hubs on the hybrid fiber cable network; assigning a distinct decryption method to each of the plurality of hubs, so that each of the plurality of hubs is identifiable by its associated decryption method and PID; generating selectively multiple encrypted content for transmission to the hubs, where content encrypted for use by each hub is identified by the hub's assigned PID; and transmitting the selectively multiple encrypted content over the hybrid fiber cable network to the plurality of hubs. This abstract is not to be considered limiting, since other embodiments may deviate from the features described in this abstract.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2014
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Brant L. Candelore, Leo M. Pedlow, Jr., Steven Richman, Frederick J. Zustak
  • Patent number: 8867742
    Abstract: A configuration method of an optical signal, an encryption device, and an encryption system makes it possible for a legitimate communicating party to ensure information-theoretic security against a known plain text attack and to communicate long-distance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: Tamagawa K-12 & University
    Inventor: Osamu Hirota
  • Patent number: 8861735
    Abstract: A system and method for securing communications between a plurality of users communicating over an optical network. The system utilizes a fixed or tunable source optical generator to generate entangled photon pairs, distribute the photons and establish a key exchange between users. The distribution of entangled photon pairs is implemented via at least one wavelength selective switch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: AT&T Intellectual Property II, L.P.
    Inventors: Mikhail Brodsky, Mark David Feuer
  • Patent number: 8850197
    Abstract: A network component comprising at least one processor coupled to a memory and configured to exchange security information using a plurality of attributes in a management entity (ME) in an optical network unit (ONU) via an ONU management control interface (OMCI) channel, wherein the attributes provide security features for the ONU and an optical line terminal (OLT). Also included is an apparatus comprising an ONU configured to couple to an OLT and comprising an OMCI ME, wherein the OMCI ME comprises a plurality of attributes that support a plurality of security features for transmissions between the ONU and the OLT, and wherein the attributes are communicated via an OMCI channel between the ONU and the OLT and provide the security features for the ONU and the OLT.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Futurewei Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Frank J. Effenberger
  • Patent number: 8837735
    Abstract: A system and method for securing communications over a wave division multiplexing optical network between a plurality of users connected to the network. The system utilizes a primary optical source generator that is either tunable, or capable of generating a plurality of wavebands of different frequencies equal to the sum of wavebands serving individual users of the network to facilitate a key exchange between the individual users of the network using summed wavebands, each of which serving an individual user.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: AT&T Intellectual Property II, L.P.
    Inventors: Mikhail Brodsky, Mark David Feuer
  • Publication number: 20140254798
    Abstract: A system and method for securing communications between a plurality of users communicating over an optical network. The system utilizes a fixed or tunable source optical generator to generate entangled photon pairs, distribute the photons and establish a key exchange between users. The distribution of entangled photon pairs is implemented via at least one wavelength selective switch.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 20, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: AT&T Intellectual Property II, L.P.
    Inventors: Mikhail Brodsky, Mark David Feuer
  • Patent number: 8831222
    Abstract: A bilateral data transfer system comprising a first node, a second node, a first one-way link for unidirectional transfer of first data from the first node to the second node, and a second one-way link for unidirectional transfer of second data from the second node to the first node, wherein the unidirectional transfer of the first data across the first one-way link and the unidirectional transfer of the second data across the second one-way link are independently administered by the bilateral data transfer system. Under such bilateral data transfer system, each of the one-way data links may be subject to separately administered security restrictions and data filtering processes, enabling secure bilateral communications across different network security domains.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: Owl Computing Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Jeffrey C. Menoher, James Hope, Ronald Mraz
  • Patent number: 8831426
    Abstract: A high data rate optical signal is inverse multiplexed into a multitude of lower-rate tributaries, each of which is coded by its unique OCDM code, and the combined coded tributaries are injected into a common phase scrambler. Coherent summation of these optically encoded tributaries pass through a shared phase or phase and frequency scrambler before exiting the secure location. The setting of the scrambler acts as the key. The authorized recipient with the correct key retrieves the ones and zeros of the several decoded signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: Telcordia Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Shahab Etemad, Janet Jackel, Sarry Habiby
  • Patent number: 8792791
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an improved quantum signal transmitter, which has a plurality of quantum output channels having at least one optical source and at least one optical splitter acting on the output of said at least one source. Such a transmitter can easily be used with existing passive optical network (PON) systems and can be a compact piece of equipment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2014
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventors: Simon Robert Wiseman, Brian Sinclair Lowans, Stephen Gerard Ayling, Ewan David Finlayson
  • Patent number: 8774641
    Abstract: The first photon in single-photon state is divided into two components by the half beam splitter, and the first component is sent to the sender while the second component is sent to the receiver. The sender measures the first component of the first photon when he sends “1”. The sender doesn't measure the first component of the first photon when he sends “0”. The receiver makes the second component of the first photon enter into the Sagnac interferometer, and the receiver also makes the reference light enter into the Sagnac interferometer at the same time. The receiver makes the second component of the first photon interact with the reference light in the nonlinear optical medium arranged in the Sagnac interferometer. The receiver knows the signal from the phase modulation of the reference light caused by the interaction with the second component of the first photon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Inventor: Narumi Ohkawa
  • Patent number: 8767958
    Abstract: A secure, open-air communication system utilizes a plurality of “decoy” data signals to hide one or more true data signals. The true data signal(s) are channel hopped with the plurality of decoy data signals to form a multi-channel “scrambled” output signal that is thereafter transmitted in an open-air communication system. The greater the number of decoy signals, the greater the security provided to the open-air system. Further security may be provided by encrypting both the true and decoy signals prior to scrambling and/or by utilizing a spatially diverse set of transmitters and receivers. Without the knowledge of the channel assignment(s) for the true signal(s), an eavesdropper may be able to intercept (and, with time, perhaps descramble) the open-air transmitted signals, will not be able to distinguish the true data from the decoys without also knowing the channel assignment(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Assignee: AT&T Intellectual Property II, LP
    Inventors: David M. Britz, Robert Raymond Miller, II, Nemmara K. Shankaranarayanan
  • Publication number: 20140177837
    Abstract: It has long been assumed in physics that for information to travel in empty space between two parties (the Sender and the Receiver), “physically real” entities have to travel between the parties. The recently discovered technique of interaction-free measurement—wherein the presence of an object is inferred without the object directly interacting with the interrogating light—has caused this basic assumption to be questioned. This technique has found application in quantum key distribution in the form of counterfactual quantum key distribution albeit with limited efficiency. In the present invention, using the “chained” quantum Zeno effect, this logic is taken to its natural conclusion and, in the ideal limit, information can be transferred between the Sender and the Receiver without any physical particles whatsoever traveling between them.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: June 26, 2014
    Applicants: KING ABDULAZIZ CITY FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, THE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
    Inventors: Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, Zhenghong Li, Mohammad D. Al-Amri, Hatim A. Salih
  • Patent number: 8762714
    Abstract: An optical transceiver module is authenticated in a host system. A host generates a data string and writes the data string to a first predetermined memory location known to the transceiver. The data string is cryptographically altered (either encrypted or decrypted) by the transceiver and written to a second predetermined memory location known to the host. The host retrieves the cryptographically altered data string and performs a complementary cryptographic operation (either a decryption or encryption, respectively) thereon, creating a resulting data string. If the resulting data string is equal to the data string written to the first predetermined memory location, the transceiver is authenticated. The host and the transceiver may switch roles, with the transceiver generating the data string, the host cryptographically altering it, and so on. The host encrypts data strings when the transceiver decrypts data strings, and vice versa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2014
    Assignee: Finisar Corporation
    Inventor: John Hsieh
  • Patent number: 8762728
    Abstract: A method of authentication between first (QNodeX) and second (QNodeY) network nodes within a network suitable for implementing quantum cryptography comprises steps in which the first and second nodes each generate a cryptographic hash ([MXY]AI, [MYX]AJ) of a message ([MXY], [MYX]) using respective authentication keys (AI, AJ) shared with a third network node (QNodeW). The messages may be those exchanged between the first and second nodes during agreement of a quantum key to be used between the nodes. An authentication key to be shared by the first and second nodes may be established using the quantum key. The invention therefore allows an authentication key to be established and shared between the first and second network nodes without direct physical intervention. Networks having large numbers of network nodes may be re-keyed following replacement or maintenance of a network node much more quickly and easily than is the case where re-keying is achieved by physically supplying shared authentication keys.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2014
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventor: Simon Robert Wiseman
  • Patent number: 8755525
    Abstract: A method of key distribution from a first entity to a second entity including the first entity communicating with a moveable key device so as to share a secret data with said moveable key device, relocating said moveable key device to a location having a quantum link with said second entity, transmitting a quantum signal from said moveable key device to said second entity on said quantum link, the quantum signal being based on said secret data; and said first entity and said second entity undertaking key agreement based on the quantum signal received by the second entity. Such a method allows the principles of quantum key distribution to be applied even in the absence of a suitable quantum communications link between the first and second entities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 17, 2014
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventor: Simon Robert Wiseman
  • Publication number: 20140153720
    Abstract: Described herein are techniques related to implementation of a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme by a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). For example, the PIC is a component in a wireless device that is used for quantum communications in a quantum communications system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 5, 2012
    Publication date: June 5, 2014
    Inventors: Christopher J. Jezewski, Kelin J. Kuhn, Marko Radosavljevic
  • Publication number: 20140146969
    Abstract: A method for providing spectral and temporal stealthy information transmitted over an optical communication channel, according to which, at the transmitting side, the power spectral density of a pulse sequence bearing the information is reduced by encrypting the temporal phase of the pulse sequence. The power of the pulse sequence is spread in the frequency domain, to be below the noise level, by sampling the pulse sequence. Spectral phase encoding is used to temporally spread the pulse sequence and to prevent coherent addition of its spectral replicas in frequency domain. The resulting signal, encrypted both in time and frequency domains, is then transmitted. Spectral phase decoding is performed at the receiving side by performing coherent detection and folding all the spectral replicas of the transmitted signal to the baseband by means of sampling. The temporal phase of the signal is decrypted and the information which is delivered by the pulse sequence is decoded.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 17, 2012
    Publication date: May 29, 2014
    Inventors: Dan Sadot, Zeev Zalevsky, Tomer Yeminy
  • Patent number: 8737618
    Abstract: An optical communications network incorporating photonic layer security, with secure key exchange without loss of data, and a method of operating the network are disclosed. The network comprises a transmit side and a receive side. The transmit side includes first and second scramblers and a transmit side switch; and the receive side includes first and second descramblers and a receive side switch. The scramblers use encryption keys to encrypt optical signals, and the descramblers use the encryption keys to decrypt the encrypted optical signals. The encryption keys can be updated randomly and at will by installing new encryption keys on the scramblers and descramblers, and the transmit side and receive side switches are synchronized so that all of the optical signals that are encrypted using a new or updated encryption key are decrypted using the same new or updated encryption key.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2014
    Assignee: Telcordia Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Shahab Etemad, Paul Toliver
  • Publication number: 20140133653
    Abstract: An Optical Transport Network (OTN) frame comprises an optical channel payload unit that is divided into a plurality of timeslots. This OTN frame is received at a transmitter and the timeslots are grouped into blocks of timeslots. Two or more blocks of timeslots are selected for encryption and are encrypted/authenticated in parallel to generate an encrypted OTN frame in which only certain blocks of timeslots are encrypted.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2012
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Applicant: CISCO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
    Inventor: Cisco Technology, Inc.
  • Patent number: 8712039
    Abstract: An efficient implementation of SHA-512, and similarly SHA-384, on an ARM processor. The implementation maximizes reuse of the register values between iterations so as to minimize the need to load these values from memory. This is achieved by categorizing the iterations into even and odd ones such that the sequence of computation in the even iteration is reversed in the odd iteration and the register values at the end of one iteration are consumed at the beginning of the following one.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2014
    Assignee: Certicom Corp.
    Inventors: Nevine Maurice Nassif Ebeid, Robert John Lambert
  • Patent number: 8705741
    Abstract: The present invention includes various novel techniques, apparatus, and systems for optical WDM communications that involve dynamically modifying certain aspects of the WDM transmission (and corresponding receive) process at the optical (physical) layer to significantly enhance data/network security. These various dynamic modifications can be employed individually or in combination to provide even greater security depending upon the desired application and design tradeoffs. WDM transmission steps typically include encoding the client signals, mapping them to one or more subchannels within or across ITU channels, modulating them onto subcarrier frequencies, and multiplexing them together for optical transmission. By dynamically modifying one or more of these processing steps over time (in addition to any encryption of the underlying client signals), the current invention provides additional security at the physical (optical) layer of an optical network and thus greatly enhances overall network security.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: Vello Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Pavan Voruganti, Karl May
  • Patent number: 8699883
    Abstract: The invention is directed toward a variable spectral phase encoder. The variable spectral phase encoder includes a plurality of switches and at least one encoder. The encoder is coupled between a first switch and second switch among the plurality of switches. The first switch selectively routes an optical signal to some combination of fixed encoders such that their collective product applies one of the Hadamard sequences to the optical signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: TTI Inventions E LLC
    Inventor: Ronald C. Menendez
  • Patent number: 8701161
    Abstract: An optical communication system has a transmitter that generates an optical signal containing payload data and security data. The transmitter double modulates an optical signal where payload data is in-band and security data is out-of-band. If a man-in-the-middle attack occurs and the intrusion device is unable to detect the out-of-band signal, the intrusion device will not replicate the out-of-band signal thereby allowing the presence of the intrusion device to be detected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: ADTRAN, Inc.
    Inventors: Vinay Kumar Bannai, Henrik Boggild Kristensen, Sohail Mallick, Jacqueline M. Zoucha, Raja Narayan, Curtis W. Dodd
  • Publication number: 20140098955
    Abstract: The present invention provides a quantum-enabled security (QES) protocol which creates a revolutionary new cybersecurity capability: quantum (single-photon) communications are integrated with optical communications to provide a strong, innate security foundation at the photonic layer for optical fiber networks or free-space optical communications. The new protocols will also allow the formation of ad hoc coalitions of users in order to deliver quantum-enabled security users between users who may not have direct quantum communications.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2009
    Publication date: April 10, 2014
    Applicant: LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC
    Inventors: Richard John Hughes, Charles Glen Peterson, Jane Elizabeth Nordholt, Raymond Thorson Newell
  • Patent number: 8693688
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for adaptive packet ciphering is disclosed. The apparatus can include a transceiver capable of communicating in a wireless network and specifying a packet number (PN) and an integrity check value (ICV) as separate packet data units (PDUs) in a stream of a PDUs. The data between a PN-PDU and an ICV-PDU can be enciphered as a single payload of concentrated PDUs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2014
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventor: David Johnston
  • Patent number: 8681982
    Abstract: A method of establishing a quantum key for use between a first network node (QNode1) and a second network node (QNode3) in a network for carrying out quantum cryptography includes a key agreement step carried out by a third node (QNode2) and the second node (QNode3) and a subsequent authentication step carried out by the first and second nodes directly. As the key agreement step does not involve QNode1, another key agreement step may be simultaneously performed by another pair of network nodes QNode4, QNode5 to agree a quantum key for use by network nodes QNode1 and QNode5. The invention allows respective quantum keys to be established between a network node and each of a set of other nodes more rapidly than is the case if each quantum key is established serially by key agreement and authentication steps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2014
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventors: Simon Robert Wiseman, Richard Middleton Hicks, Brian Sinclair Lowans
  • Patent number: 8683192
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for use in quantum key distribution (QKD) are described. A quantum QKD signal is generated at a source and transmitted through a fiber optic network to an endpoint, a key being agreed with communication over a classical QKD channel. The classical QKD channel contains additional information relevant to a network over which keys are distributed, and may be processed at nodes intermediate between the source and the endpoint.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2014
    Assignee: Qinetiq
    Inventors: Stephen Gerard Ayling, Simon Robert Wiseman, Brian Sinclair Lowans
  • Patent number: 8675870
    Abstract: There is provided an encryption apparatus including an idle data inserting unit that takes input of a frame including a fixed-length header and a variable-length payload and an encrypting unit that receives an output of the idle data inserting unit. If the length of a block to be processed, included in the payload, is less than a predetermined value, the idle data inserting unit appends idle data following the block and transmits the frame including the block padded with the idle data to the encrypting unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaki Ohira, Norihiro Sakamoto
  • Patent number: 8670124
    Abstract: An apparatus, method and computer program wherein the apparatus includes at least one interferometer where the at least one interferometer is configured to cause interference of an electromagnetic input signal; wherein the at least one interferometer is configured to receive at least one sensor input signal from at least one sensor such that the sensor input signal controls the interference of the electromagnetic input signal by the at least one interferometer; wherein the at least one interferometer is configured to provide a plurality of outputs where each of the plurality of outputs is provided by the at least one interferometer responding to the at least one sensor input signal with a different sensitivity; and at least one detector configured to detect the plurality of outputs of the at least one interferometer and provide a digital output signal indicative of the at least one sensor input signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: Nokia Corporation
    Inventors: Antti Niskanen, Hongwei Li