Fiber Optic Network Patents (Class 380/256)
  • Publication number: 20110206203
    Abstract: The present invention includes various novel techniques, apparatus, and systems for optical WDM communications that involve dynamically modifying certain aspects of the WDM transmission (and corresponding receive) process at the optical (physical) layer to significantly enhance data/network security. These various dynamic modifications can be employed individually or in combination to provide even greater security depending upon the desired application and design tradeoffs. WDM transmission steps typically include encoding the client signals, mapping them to one or more subchannels within or across ITU channels, modulating them onto subcarrier frequencies, and multiplexing them together for optical transmission. By dynamically modifying one or more of these processing steps over time (in addition to any encryption of the underlying client signals), the current invention provides additional security at the physical (optical) layer of an optical network and thus greatly enhances overall network security.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 21, 2011
    Publication date: August 25, 2011
    Applicant: VELLO SYSTEMS, INC.
    Inventors: Pavan Voruganti, Karl May
  • Publication number: 20110206204
    Abstract: The invention solves the following complicated problems. Elaboration of the procedure for secret key extraction from the lower layer optic signal even in a presence of noise in fiber-optic cable. The realization of the quantum protection amplification scheme to clean states of the entangling polarized photons against noise in optical channels, especially in case of use Einstein-Podolsky-Rozen method with single photon source for transmitting and measuring secret keys photon polarization in ROADM network. The development of a system for code key transmission that satisfies requirements of fortuitousness and privacy along with speed enlargement of the key generation in ROADM network. The achievement of the acceptable optical fiber amplification without losing its behavior and the protocol determination, which will allow to detect and correct bit errors in fiber optic cable and ROADM network, caused by linear and nonlinear effects. The development of quantum encoding systems for telecommunication topologies.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 16, 2009
    Publication date: August 25, 2011
    Inventor: Dmitry Ivanovich Sychev
  • Publication number: 20110200192
    Abstract: An optical communications network incorporating photonic layer security, with secure key exchange without loss of data, and a method of operating the network are disclosed. The network comprises a transmit side and a receive side. The transmit side includes first and second scramblers and a transmit side switch; and the receive side includes first and second descramblers and a receive side switch. The scramblers use encryption keys to encrypt optical signals, and the descramblers use the encryption keys to decrypt the encrypted optical signals. The encryption keys can be updated randomly and at will by installing new encryption keys on the scramblers and descramblers, and the transmit side and receive side switches are synchronized so that all of the optical signals that are encrypted using a new or updated encryption key are decrypted using the same new or updated encryption key.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 28, 2010
    Publication date: August 18, 2011
    Applicant: TELCORDIA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Shahab Etemad, Paul Toliver
  • Publication number: 20110182428
    Abstract: Systems and methods to communicate securely includes communicating quantum encryption data on a first wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON); and communicating data over separate classical channels of a second WDM-PON, wherein the second WDM-PON synchronizes with the first WDM-PON while providing data communication over the classical channels.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 30, 2010
    Publication date: July 28, 2011
    Applicant: NEC LABORATORIES AMERICA, INC.
    Inventors: Yi Zhao, Martin Roetteler, Lei Xu, Ting Wang
  • Publication number: 20110170690
    Abstract: The invention provides a system and method for secure communication that involve encoding and transmitting an optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signal. Each subcarrier of an optical carrier in OFDM transmission is modulated with data individually, and a variety of data format are used, such as QPSK, OOK, QAM, etc. The data format of each subcarrier may change in time according to a predetermined pattern. An optical receiver uncovers the data transmitted via an optical link. It is based on a coherent optical receiver and a digital signal processing (DSP) unit. A key to the data mapping and change is transmitted via the same optical link or by a separate channel. In one embodiment, the key is transmitted using quantum encryption technique. Besides subcarrier modulation encoding, the system may provide additional layers of security: optical carrier frequency hopping and polarization scrambling.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 24, 2011
    Publication date: July 14, 2011
    Inventor: Isaac Shpantzer
  • Publication number: 20110167268
    Abstract: In general, this disclosure relates to maintaining security between an optical network terminal (ONT) and an optical network aggregation device in an Active Ethernet network. An optical network aggregation device includes one or more optical Ethernet switches that can be adaptively configured to support authentication of one or more ONTs. For example, the optical network aggregation device may include a controller with an authentication unit for managing ONT authentication and an optical Ethernet interface for transmitting and receiving data over the optical network. The authentication unit may exchange authentication request messages via the optical Ethernet interface with an ONT and grant the ONT access to the provider network based on the exchange, thereby preventing rogue devices from gaining access to the provider network.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 6, 2010
    Publication date: July 7, 2011
    Applicant: Calix Networks, Inc.
    Inventors: Berkay Baykal, Shaun Noel Missett
  • Patent number: 7965843
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus are provided for improving both node-based and message-based security in a fibre channel network. Entity to entity authentication and key exchange services can be included in existing initialization messages used for introducing fibre channel network entities into a fibre channel fabric, or with specific messages exchanged over an already initialized communication channel. Both per-message authentication and encryption mechanisms can be activated using the authentication and key exchange services. Messages passed between fibre channel network entities can be encrypted and authenticated using information provided during the authentication sequence. Security services such as per-message authentication, confidentiality, integrity protection, and anti-replay protection can be implemented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2011
    Assignee: Cisco Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Fabio R. Maino, Marco Di Benedetto, Claudio Desanti
  • Publication number: 20110096925
    Abstract: An optical fiber secure communication apparatus and a data encryption method therefor are provided. The apparatus comprises a transmitter and a receiver being connected with each other via an optical fiber. The transmitter comprises a PPC processor unit, a field programmable gate array test board, a light-emitting module, an optical fiber coupler and a connection optical fiber. The receiver comprises a wavelength division multiplexer, a connection optical fiber, a photodetector, a field programmable gate array test board, a PPC processor unit and a signal output interface. At the transmitter end, two or more paths of input data are forwarded by the PPC, encrypted by the FPGA and then transmitted to the light-emitting module of two or more wavelengths for conversion from electrical signals into optical signals. At the receiver end, signals of two or more wavelengths enter the photodetector for conversion into electrical signals, which are decrypted by the FPGA and then forwarded by the PPC for output.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 4, 2010
    Publication date: April 28, 2011
    Applicant: Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Inventors: Ninghua Zhu, Wei Chen, Jianguo Liu
  • Patent number: 7929700
    Abstract: A continuous variable quantum encryption key distribution system comprises a sender (Alice) able to randomly choose the phase and the amplitude of each coherent light pulse of a signal, to provide a coherent state defined by a first quadrature and a second quadrature that are random, and to transmit to a receiver (Bob) the signal pulses (S) and a local oscillator (LO), the receiver comprising a homodyne detector (36) for measuring a randomly chosen quadrature of a signal pulse. The sender comprises a device for time-division multiplexing the pulses of the signal (S) and of the local oscillator (LO) to handle the transmission over an optical fiber (10) of the signal and local oscillator pulses to the receiver. The receiver comprises a demultiplexer (31), able to send the received pulses over a first channel (32), or over a second channel (33). The channels are applied as inputs to the homodyne detector (36).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignees: Thales, Le Centre National de la Recherche
    Inventors: Jerome Lodewyck, Thierry Debuisschert, Rosa Tualle-Brouri, Philippe Grangier
  • Patent number: 7928356
    Abstract: The resolution obtained by an imaging system utilizing separable photons can be achieved by an imaging system making use of entangled photons. Since resolution is not being increased from the separable-photon system, the imaging system utilizing entangled photons can take advantage of a smaller aperture. This results in a smaller and lighter system, which can be especially valuable in satellite imaging where weight and size play a vital role.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: The MITRE Corporation
    Inventors: Gerald N. Gilbert, Michael D. Hamrick, Yaakov S. Weinstein, Stephen P. Pappas, Anthony Donadio
  • Patent number: 7929690
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for implementing a secure quantum cryptography system using two non-orthogonal states. For each qubit, the to emitter station prepares a quantum system in one of two non-orthogonal quantum states in the time-basis to code bit values. Intra- and inter-qubit interference is then used to reveal eavesdropping attempts. Witness states are used to help reveal attacks performed across the quantum system separation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: ID Quantique SA
    Inventors: Nicolas Gisin, Grégoire Ribordy, Hugo Zbinden
  • Patent number: 7907850
    Abstract: An optical communication apparatus that can perform stable intensity and phase modulation on an optical pulse at high speed is provided, as well as a quantum key distribution system using the apparatus. Using multilevel signals for the electric signals (RF1, RF2) to be applied to two arms of a two-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator, phase modulation is performed on an optical pulse in accordance with the average of the levels of the signals (RF1, RF2), and intensity modulation is performed on the optical pulse in accordance with the voltage difference between the signals (RF1, RF2), whereby stable high-speed multilevel modulation can be realized. The cryptographic key generation rate in a decoy quantum key distribution system is enhanced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Akihiro Tanaka, Akio Tajima, Seigo Takahashi, Wakako Maeda
  • Patent number: 7907731
    Abstract: A data communication system that enhances concealment by significantly increasing the time required for a wiretapper to decrypt a cipher text. The data communication system is constituted by connecting a data transmitting apparatus (13105) to a data receiving apparatus (11201) via a transmission path (110). In the data transmitting apparatus (13105), a multilevel encoding part (111) receives a predetermined first initial value (key information) and information data and generates a multilevel signal that varies in level substantially in a random number manner. A dummy signal superimposing part (118) superimposes a dummy signal on the multilevel signal. A modulating part (112) converts the multilevel signal to a modulated signal of a predetermined modulation form and transmits the modulated signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Masaru Fuse, Satoshi Furusawa, Tsuyoshi Ikushima, Toru Shiozaki
  • Patent number: 7907849
    Abstract: A communication system, the communication system includes: a first decision entity; and a long laser that includes a first reflector and a second reflector; wherein a lasing characteristic of the long laser is responsive to: (i) first data unit that is provided by a first user and affects a reflection spectrum of the first reflector, and (ii) second data unit that is provided by a second user and affects a reflection spectrum of the second reflector; and wherein the first decision entity is adapted to receive the first data unit and information representative of the lasing characteristic, as well as to determine (i) a relationship between the first data unit and the second data unit, or (ii) a content of the second data unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Assignee: Ramot At Tel-Aviv University Ltd.
    Inventor: Jacob Scheuer
  • Publication number: 20110033049
    Abstract: Methods and systems for encrypting and decrypting data are described. An exemplary system includes an optical transceiver that includes at least one of an encryption block and a decryption block. The optical transceiver also has at least one encryption and decryption key stored at the transceiver. The encryption block receives unencrypted data and performs encryption operations on the data using the encryption and decryption key. The decryption block receives encrypted data and performs a decryption operation using the encryption and decryption key.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 7, 2010
    Publication date: February 10, 2011
    Applicant: Finisar Corporation
    Inventors: Lewis B. Aronson, Jahye Jenny Aronson
  • Publication number: 20110029773
    Abstract: A network component comprising at least one processor coupled to a memory and configured to exchange security information using a plurality of attributes in a management entity (ME) in an optical network unit (ONU) via an ONU management control interface (OMCI) channel, wherein the attributes provide security features for the ONU and an optical line terminal (OLT). Also included is an apparatus comprising an ONU configured to couple to an OLT and comprising an OMCI ME, wherein the OMCI ME comprises a plurality of attributes that support a plurality of security features for transmissions between the ONU and the OLT, and wherein the attributes are communicated via an OMCI channel between the ONU and the OLT and provide the security features for the ONU and the OLT.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 27, 2010
    Publication date: February 3, 2011
    Applicant: FUTUREWEI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventor: Frank J. Effenberger
  • Publication number: 20110019823
    Abstract: The invention provides time-synchronised transmission of data on the (polarisation or phase-modulated) QKD channel and the (on-off modulated) conventional channel such that a QKD bit is only transmitted when a zero, or sequence of zeros, is transmitted on the conventional channel. Also, there is co-directional propagation of the QKD and conventional channel. Further, there is dispersion management through wavelength selection or control of fibre properties or other means such that the “walk-off in time of the QKD pulses and the Raman pulses generated by the ones on the conventional channel is less than or of the order of one bit period. The latter can be achieved, for example, by placing the conventional and QKD channel wavelengths close to the point where the group velocity-induced time delay for optical pulses propagating in the fibre reaches a minimum. This dispersion minimum occurs at a wavelength of 1.3 microns in standard fibre. The invention discloses a receiver embodiment to implement the invention.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2009
    Publication date: January 27, 2011
    Applicant: UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK, NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND, CORK
    Inventor: Paul Townsend
  • Patent number: 7877012
    Abstract: A control module is configured to receive one or more input signals. An optical selection network includes a plurality of optical input ports configured to receive respective optical waves at an operative wavelength, and at least one optical output port configured to provide an optical wave at the optical wavelength. The optical selection network is configured to receive one or more control signals from the control module, and in response to the control signals, provide a high transmission path for the operative wavelength from an optical input port, determined by the input signals, to the optical output port at a predetermined time with respect to a time reference in at least one of the input signals, and provide a low transmission path for the operative wavelength from each of a plurality of optical input ports, determined by the input signals, to the optical output port at the predetermined time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2011
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Jeffrey H. Shapiro, Franco N. C. Wong
  • Patent number: 7876901
    Abstract: An alternative design is given for an optimized quantum cryptographic entangling probe for attacking the BB84 protocol of quantum key distribution. The initial state of the probe has a simpler analytical dependence on the set error rate to be induced by the probe than in the earlier design. The new device yields maximum information to the probe for a full range of induced error rates. As in the earlier design, the probe contains a single CNOT gate which produces the optimum entanglement between the BB84 signal states and the correlated probe states.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2011
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventor: Howard E. Brandt
  • Patent number: 7869599
    Abstract: A quantum cryptography key distributing system includes an optical fiber; a transmission unit and a reception unit. The transmission unit is connected with the optical fiber, generates a transmission optical pulse signal from an optical pulse signal based on a first data in synchronism with an optical clock signal and transmits the transmission optical pulse signal to the reception unit via the optical fiber. Polarization of the transmission optical pulse signal is different from that of the optical pulse signal. The reception unit is connected with the optical fiber, transmits the optical pulse signal to the transmission unit via the optical fiber, phase-modulates a part of the transmission optical pulse signal based on a second data in synchronism with the optical clock signal, and detects a reception data corresponding to the first data based on the transmission optical pulse signal in synchronism with the optical clock signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Akio Tajima
  • Patent number: 7869600
    Abstract: A dynamic range of intensity modulation is set to range from a maximum intensity Smax to a minimum intensity Smin. A difference ?(=Smax?Smin) between the maximum intensity Smax and the minimum intensity Smin is divided by the number 2M of multilevel signals. Thus, a distance (an intensity difference) between adjacent signals is [?/2M]. The number 2M of multilevel signals is selected such that the distance [?/2M] between adjacent multilevel signals (between an intensity Si and an intensity Si+1) is sufficiently buried within a range of quantum fluctuations obtained when heterodyne measurements are made or buried within a range of quantum shot noise obtained when a direct detection is made. Bases of a basis group are each positioned for intensity signals so as to have a high intensity and a low intensity between which a distance is set to be a certain value smaller than a middle point intensity [?/2].
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Masaru Fuse, Osamu Hirota, Masaki Souma
  • Patent number: 7864958
    Abstract: A quantum key distribution (QKD) method involves the sending of random data from a QKD transmitter to a QKD receiver over a quantum signal channel, and the QKD transmitter and receiver respectively processing the data transmitted and received over the quantum signal channel in order to seek to derive a common random data set. This processing is effected with the aid of messages exchanged between QKD transmitter and receiver over an insecure classical communication channel. The processing concludes with a check, effected by an exchange of authenticated messages over the classical communication channel, that the QKD transmitter and receiver have derived the same random data set. At least some of the other messages exchanged during processing are exchanged without authentication and integrity checking. A QKD transmitter and QKD receiver are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventors: Keith Alexander Harrison, William John Munro, Liqun Chen
  • Publication number: 20100329459
    Abstract: This invention relates to an optical star network in which different communities of users, such as different businesses, are provided through use of quantum key distribution (QKD). At least one QKD device is located at the central hub of the star network and communicates with QKD devices at the endpoints to establish a separate quantum key, i.e. a cryptographic key established by QKD, with each endpoint. A separate key manager is provided for each different community and each key manager is arranged to use the appropriate quantum keys for endpoints within that community to deliver the same community key to each endpoint. This community key can be used by for encrypting network traffic between members of the same community with security. Traffic passing through the network switch is encrypted, but the community keys are not delivered via the switch and hence the switch an error in the switch does not compromise security.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 23, 2009
    Publication date: December 30, 2010
    Applicant: QINETIQ LIMITED
    Inventors: Simon Robert Wiseman, Brian Sinclair Lowans, Richard Andrew Oak
  • Patent number: 7853801
    Abstract: A system and a method for providing a secured transmission through an authenticated encryption for each ONU in downlink transmission of an OLT in GPON are provided. The GPON system includes an OLT for generating a GTC downlink frame by receiving data from an external service provider and ONUs for receiving the GTC downlink frame from the OLT and processing the received GTC downlink frame. The OLT performs the authenticated encryption for the generated GTC downlink frame according to the ONU by including an authentication generator and the ONU determines whether the GTC downlink frame is allowed to be processed or not by checking the authentication of the received GTC downlink frame through an authentication checker.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2010
    Assignee: Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Kwang ok Kim, Yool Kwon, Bong Tae Kim
  • Patent number: 7848517
    Abstract: A secure, open-air communication system utilizes a plurality of “decoy” data signals to hide one or more true data signals. The true data signal(s) are channel hopped with the plurality of decoy data signals to form a multi-channel “scrambled” output signal that is thereafter transmitted in an open-air communication system. The greater the number of decoy signals, the greater the security provided to the open-air system. Further security may be provided by encrypting both the true and decoy signals prior to scrambling and/or by utilizing a spatially diverse set of transmitters and receivers. Without the knowledge of the channel assignment(s) for the true signal(s), an eavesdropper may be able to intercept (and, with time, perhaps descramble) the open-air transmitted signals, will not be able to distinguish the true data from the decoys without also knowing the channel assignment(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: AT&T Intellectual Property II, L.P.
    Inventors: David M. Britz, Robert Raymond Miller, II, Nemmara K. Shankaranarayanan
  • Patent number: 7844188
    Abstract: A light collecting device is disclosed that is able to couple light from a light emission structure to an optical fiber at low loss.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2010
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventor: Kazuya Takemoto
  • Patent number: 7831048
    Abstract: A system and method of implementing quantum key distribution are provided that possess increased data rates and enhanced security. These increased data rates are provided through the use of biphotons. Through encoding bits of information on the intra-biphoton delay time and enabling separate polarization bases for each of the photons comprising each biphoton, the system and method increase data bandwidth available for quantum key distribution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2010
    Assignee: General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Keith Kastella, Ralph S. Conti, Kenneth A. Augustyn
  • Patent number: 7831049
    Abstract: Techniques to bolster the security of an AlphaEta cryptosystem using spectral phase encoding. In one aspect, a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to change the spectral code (spectral phase) of each optical bit in response to the output of an extended key generator based on a cryptographic algorithm. In other aspects, additional time and polarization modulations are used to maintain high security levels as well as good performance levels. Such methods are combined with traditional key generation methods such as key-distribution centers or one-way mathematical algorithms to bolster the security of traditional key generation as well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2010
    Assignee: Nucrypt, LLC
    Inventor: Gregory S. Kanter
  • Patent number: 7831050
    Abstract: A key distribution scheme comprising a generation and reception system and a specific operation protocol is described. This system allows fast and secure key distribution in optical channels by two stations A and B. One or two true-random physical sources are used to generate random bits and a random sequence received provides the cipher to the following one to be sent. A starting shared secret key is used and the method can be described as a one-time-pad unlimited extender. The minimum probability of error in signal determination by an eavesdropper can be set arbitrarily close to the pure guessing level of one-half and the security of the method comes from the quantum noise of light as well as from the starting secret key. This system allows for optical amplification without security degradation within its operational boundaries.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2010
    Inventor: Geraldo Alexandre Barbosa
  • Patent number: 7826749
    Abstract: A system and a method for quantum key distribution over a multi-user wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network are disclosed. The system comprises a tunable or multi-wavelength transmitter; a plurality of receivers, each assigned a receiving-wavelength; and a multi-user WDM network linking the transmitter to the receivers. The transmitter can select a receiver among the receivers to be communicated therewith and transmit quantum signals to the selected receiver over the WDM network. The quantum signals are at a wavelength equal to a receiving-wavelength of the receiver. Therefore the WDM network allows quantum signals to be communicated between the transmitter and the receivers by wavelength routing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2005
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: The Chinese University of Hong Kong
    Inventors: Yuhui Luo, Kam Tai Chan
  • Publication number: 20100272259
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of registering only an authorized optical network terminal among a plurality of optical network terminals with the same serial number, in an optical line terminal, using a public key encryption algorithm, in a Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON). According to an exemplary aspect, a GPON system encrypts a physical layer OAM message transmitted/received for serial number registration of an optical network terminal, using a key distributed according to a public key encryption algorithm, and authenticates registration of the optical network terminal using the encrypted physical layer OAM message. Accordingly, it is possible to securely authenticate registration of an authorized optical network terminal and block registration of unauthorized optical network terminals.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 16, 2009
    Publication date: October 28, 2010
    Applicant: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Kwang-ok Kim, Geun-yong Kim, Dong-soo Lee
  • Patent number: 7822342
    Abstract: An optical communication system is provided. In one embodiment, a source creates a multiplicity of photon pairs, with each photon pair comprising a first photon and a second photon. The first photon is sent to a transmitter, and either remains in the transmitter or is transmitted by the transmitter to a receiver. The second photon is sent to the receiver. Data is decoded by determining a polarization direction and a time of detection of any photon pairs detected at the receiver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2010
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Mark W. Roberts, Markham E. Lasher
  • Publication number: 20100254535
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for remotely controlling access to the components of an optically interconnected information processing infrastructure is presented. Access to the infrastructure is controlled independently of the infrastructure operating system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2010
    Publication date: October 7, 2010
    Applicant: Companion Diagnostic, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard H. Selinfreund, Fred Berry
  • Patent number: 7809268
    Abstract: A method for integrating an Optical Service Channel (OSC) with a Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) channel across a DWDM network having a single mode optical fiber is provided. An optical signal is received. An OSC is coupled with the optical signal. A QKD channel is integrated with the OSC on the single mode optical fiber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2010
    Assignee: Cisco Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Fausto Meli, Gabriele Maria Galimberti
  • Patent number: 7809269
    Abstract: Systems and methods for multiplexing two or more channels of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system are disclosed. A method includes putting the optical public channel signal (SP1) in return-to-zero (RZ) format in a transmitter (T) in one QKD station (Alice) and amplifying this signal (thereby forming SP1*) just prior to this signal being detected with a detector (30) in a receiver (R) at the other QKD station (Bob). The method further includes precisely gating the detector via a gating element (40) and a coincident signal (PN1?) with pulses that coincide with the expected arrival times of the pulses in the detected (electrical) public channel signal (SP2). This allows for the public channel signal to have much less power, making it more amenable for multiplexing with the other QKD signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2010
    Assignee: MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: J. Howell Mitchell, Harry Vig
  • Patent number: 7809143
    Abstract: Systems and methods for verifying error-free transmission of the synchronization (“sync”) channel of a QKD system are disclosed. The method includes sending a first pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) over the sync channel from Alice to Bob, and verifying at Bob the accurate transmission of the first PRBS. The method also includes sending a second pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) over the sync channel from Bob to Alice, and verifying at Alice the accurate transmission of the first PRBS. If the transmissions of a select number of bits in the first and second PRBSs are error-free, then the sync channel is verified and the QKD system can commence operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2010
    Assignee: Magiq Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan Young, Harry Vig, J. Howell Mitchell, Jr.
  • Publication number: 20100239092
    Abstract: Alice generates a sequence of key bits forming an initial cryptographic key. Alice then uses the sequence of key bits and a sequence of cipher bits to control respective control parameters of a quantum encoding process applied to a sequence of quantum pulses, where the sequence of cipher bits used is known to Bob. Alice then releases the encoded pulses towards Bob over a quantum channel. Bob uses the previously agreed-upon sequence of cipher bits to control a control parameter, such as the quantum basis, of a quantum detection process applied to the pulses received from Alice, thus producing a detection outcome for each received pulse. Bob then derives a final cryptographic key from the detection outcomes. Because the cipher bits used to select the quantum bases used by both Alice and Bob are known by both parties, the method allows the final cryptographic key to be distributed with full basis alignment compared to 50% for BB84, thus allowing efficient quantum key distribution over multiple hops.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2010
    Publication date: September 23, 2010
    Inventor: Randy Kuang
  • Publication number: 20100239250
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for implementing a secure quantum cryptography system using two non-orthogonal states. For each qubit, the emitter station prepares a quantum system in one of two non-orthogonal quantum states in the time-basis to code bit values. Intra- and inter-qubit interference is then used to reveal eavesdropping attempts.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 4, 2010
    Publication date: September 23, 2010
    Inventors: Nicolas GISIN, Grégoire Ribordy, Hugo Zbinden
  • Patent number: 7792288
    Abstract: A communication system using quantum cryptography, comprising subscriber stations (1.i, 2.i) which are connected to quantum channels (3) and quantum-cryptographic devices (10, 11) which are associated with the quantum channels for generating a quantum key, wherein several interconnected switching stations (1, 2) are provided to which the subscriber stations (1,i, 2.i) are connected via the quantum channels (3) in order to generate a respective temporary quantum key.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Assignee: ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH
    Inventor: Christian Kollmitzer
  • Patent number: 7787628
    Abstract: A method of distributing a quantum key from a sender to a recipient. The recipient generates a pulse having multiple photons; splits the pulse into first and second sub-pulses; phase modulates the first sub-pulse with a secret key; and transmits both the phase-modulated first sub-pulse and the second sub-pulse to the sender. The sender receives the phase-modulated first sub-pulse and the second sub-pulse from the recipient; encodes a quantum key bit into one of the sub-pulses received from the recipient; and transmits both the phase-modulated first sub-pulse and the second sub-pulse back to the recipient. Then, the recipient receives the phase-modulated first sub-pulse and the second sub-pulse from the sender; phase modulates the second sub-pulse with the secret key; combines the phase-modulated first sub-pulse and the phase-modulated second sub-pulse to produce a composite pulse; and processes the composite pulse in an attempt to detect the quantum key bit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Nortel Networks Limited
    Inventors: Randy Kuang, Guo Qiang Wang, John Stankus
  • Patent number: 7787625
    Abstract: A quantum key distribution (QKD) cascaded network with loop-back capability is disclosed. The QKD system network includes a plurality of cascaded QKD relays each having two QKD stations Alice and Bob. Each QKD relay also includes an optical switch optically coupled to each QKD station in the relay, as well as to input ports of the relay. In a first position, the optical switch allows for communication between adjacent relays and in a second position allows for pass-through communication between the QKD relays that are adjacent the relay whose switch is in the first position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Harry Vig, Audrius Berzanskis
  • Publication number: 20100208893
    Abstract: A quantum cryptography communication apparatus performs quantum cryptography communication between a transmitter and a receiver. The quantum cryptography communication apparatus includes first communicating unit transmitting and receiving a communication signal including relatively strong pulse light between the transmitter and the receiver, and second communicating unit transmitting and receiving a relatively weak quantum cryptography signal between the transmitter and the receiver in a period in which the communication signal is off and the attitude axis for the receiver can be adjusted to that for the transmitter by the second communicating unit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 2, 2008
    Publication date: August 19, 2010
    Applicant: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Morio Toyoshima, Mikio Fujiwara, Hiroo Kunimori
  • Publication number: 20100202612
    Abstract: An optical network system including an OLT and ONUs is provided that can prevent the loss of a multicast signal. When receiving an encryption key generation request from the OLT, the ONU generates an encryption key, and transmits the generated encryption key to the OLT. When receiving a notice of timing from the OLT, the ONU updates the encryption key of a belonging group. When receiving a report message from a STB through the ONU, the OLT analyzes the report message, stores a group that the STB belongs to as well as the ONU in a second table, and transmits the encryption key generation request to the ONU. When receiving the encryption key from the ONU, the OLT further stores the encryption key in the second table, and transmits to the ONU a notice of the timing in which the encryption key is valid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 10, 2009
    Publication date: August 12, 2010
    Inventors: Taiki Nema, Tohru Kazawa, Ryosuke Kurata
  • Patent number: 7774602
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method and system for secure access to computer equipment. An embodiment includes a secure access controller connected to a link between a transceiver (such as a modem) and the computer equipment. Public and private keys are used by the secure access controller and a remote user. The keys are provided to the secure access controller by an authentication server. Once the transceiver establishes a communication link with the user, the access controller uses these keys to authenticate packets issued by the user to the computer equipment. If the packet is authenticated, the access controller passes the packet to the computer equipment. Otherwise, the packet is discarded. Another embodiment includes a secure access controller having a plurality of ports for connection to a plurality of different pieces of computer equipment. The secure access controller thus intermediates communications between the modem and the plurality of different pieces of computer equipment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2010
    Assignee: BCE Inc.
    Inventors: William G. O'Brien, Tet Hin Yeap, Dafu Lou
  • Publication number: 20100195831
    Abstract: In a quantum cryptographic transmitter (11), a phase modulator (1103, 1104) and an LN intensity modulator (1105) apply optical phase modulation and light intensity modulation to an optical signal based on desired data to generate a desired optical signal to be transmitted to a quantum cryptographic receiver (13). Based on the number of photons detected from the desired optical signal, a bias control circuit (1108) controls an operating point in light intensity modulation of the LN intensity modulator (1105).
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 9, 2008
    Publication date: August 5, 2010
    Inventors: Akihiro Tanaka, Akio Tajima, Seigo Takahashi, Wakako Maeda
  • Patent number: 7769173
    Abstract: Various method and system embodiments of the present invention are directed to executing bit-commitment protocols. In one embodiment of the present invention, a method for executing a bit-commitment protocol for transmitting a bit from a first party to a second party comprises preparing a three qubits are entangled in a W-state, and storing a first of the three qubits in a first storage device controlled by the first party, a second of the three qubits is stored in a second storage device controlled by the second party, and a third of the three qubits is stored in a third storage device controlled by a third party. The bit is revealed to the second party by transmitting the first and third qubits to the second party and measuring the states of the three qubits to which of the entangled W-states the three qubits are in.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2010
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventors: William John Munro, Timothy Paul Spiller, Raymond Beausoleil, Keith Harrison, Marco Fiorentino
  • Patent number: 7768692
    Abstract: A single-photon generator includes a single-photon generating device generating a single-photon pulse having a wavelength on the shorter wavelength side than a communication wavelength band, and a single-photon wavelength conversion device performing wavelength conversion of the single-photon pulse into a single-photon pulse of the communication wavelength band, using pump pulse light for single-photon wavelength conversion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2010
    Assignees: Fujitsu Limited, The University of Tokyo
    Inventors: Kazuya Takemoto, Tatsuya Usuki, Yasuhiko Arakawa
  • Publication number: 20100183309
    Abstract: A system and method for transporting encrypted data having a transmitter and a receiver is provided. The transmitter generates a sequence of optical pulses, which are copied and output as identical channels. The identical channels are modulated by a plurality of modulators using data to generate a modulated data signal. Respective spectral phase encoders coupled to each of the plurality of data modulators encode respective modulated data signals using a plurality of mutually orthogonal phase codes that are individually associated with the respective spectral phase encoder. These encoded data signals are combined and code-scrambling by a spectral phase scrambler t using a scramble code as an encryption key to generate an encrypted signal. A receiver reverses the encryption to extract the data.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 26, 2009
    Publication date: July 22, 2010
    Applicant: TELCORDIA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Shahab Etemad, Thomas Banwell, Janet Jackel, Ronald Menendez, Paul Toliver
  • Publication number: 20100158252
    Abstract: Provided is a polarization coding quantum cryptography system. The quantum cryptography includes a light source, a quantum channel, an optical path selector, and a path-dependent polarization selector. The light source generates a signal light. The quantum channel is used as a path to transmit the signal light to a receiver unit. The optical path selector is disposed between the light source and the quantum channel to transmit the signal light to one of a plurality of propagation paths. The path-dependent polarization selector is disposed between the optical path selector and the quantum channel. Herein, the path-dependent polarization selector is configured to determine the polarization direction of the signal light according to the propagation path of the signal light.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 7, 2009
    Publication date: June 24, 2010
    Applicant: ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    Inventors: Chun-Ju Youn, Tae-Gon Noh
  • Publication number: 20100150349
    Abstract: A method and system for performing a quantum bit commitment protocol is provided. The method of performing a quantum bit commitment protocol to send bit information from a first party to a second party includes a pre-commit phase to randomly select and send, by the second party, a quantum state to the first party; a commit phase to perform, by the first party, a unitary transformation on the quantum state to combine the bit information with the quantum state and send the unitary-transformed quantum state to the second party; a hold phase to hold the unitary-transformed quantum state for a predetermined time period; and a reveal phase to provide, by the first party, information about the unitary transformation to the second party to open the bit information to the second party. The reveal phase may include a verification process to check if the opened bit information matches the bit information committed in the commit phase.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 4, 2009
    Publication date: June 17, 2010
    Applicant: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Jeong Woon CHOI, Ku-Young CHANG, Dowon HONG, Dong Pyo CHI