Lead Oxide Patents (Class 429/228)
  • Patent number: 5587258
    Abstract: A sealed galvanic cell which has high power and energy densities, a low self discharge, and an open circuit voltage which is related to state of discharge, and which is useful for supplying electrical power to an implantable device, such as a defibrillator and a nerve stimulator, with a large current consumption, and method of making same. The galvanic cell includes a casing; a cathode unit having at least one electrode composed of a mixture of at least one metal oxide and at least one lead compound; an anode unit having at least one electrode comprised of an alkali metal; and an organic electrolyte comprised of a mixture of (a) ethylene- and/or propylene carbonate, (b), 2-dimethoxyethane, and (c) a conducting salt. The mixture of the cathode unit is one of (a) a mixture of CrO.sub.x (x=2.5 to 2.7) and at least one lead compound from among PbCrO.sub.4, PbMoO.sub.4 and PbO, (b) a mixture of CrO.sub.x (x=2.5 to 2.7), MnO.sub.2, and at least one lead compound from among PbCrO.sub.4, PbMoO.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 24, 1996
    Assignee: Litronik Batterietechnologie GmbH & Co.
    Inventors: Gerd Fehrmann, Rainer Frommel, Rudiger Wolf
  • Patent number: 5585209
    Abstract: Bipolar lead/acid batteries are provided, having at least one cored bipolar battery plate. The bipolar battery plate comprises a core element having an active surface at each side thereof, with lead at the negative side and lead oxide at the positive side of the cored battery plate. The core element comprises titanium or other appropriate high barrier height material, at least at each surface thereof which faces the respective lead and lead oxide active surfaces. A molded polymer frame is provided around the bipolar plate, and appropriate negative and positive end plates are provided opposite the outer most positive or negative sides of the battery so as to provide a functioning battery structure. The polymer frame is such that it may be sealed against electrolyte leakage so that the electrolyte is confined within the structure by the battery frames. The battery frame may be vented so as to permit pressurized gas to flow from the battery when the pressure exceeds a predetermined pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1996
    Inventor: Robert S. Feldstein
  • Patent number: 5571600
    Abstract: A sulfur/aluminum battery in which an aluminum anode and an aqueous alkaline/polysulfide electrolytic solution are in direct contact. At high polysulfide concentrations, parasitic chemical reactions between the aluminum and sulfur are minimized, allowing for efficient oxidation of the aluminum anode, and resulting in a battery having high energy and power densities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Assignee: Clark University
    Inventor: Stuart Licht
  • Patent number: 5556627
    Abstract: Bipolar battery cells, bipolar batteries, and related methods are disclosed. The disclosed bipolar plate comprises a composite of long carbon fibers and a filler of carbon particles and a fluoroelastomer. A fluoroelastomeric sealant for placement between adjacent cells is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 17, 1996
    Assignee: Bipolar Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Rodney M. LaFollette
  • Patent number: 5549990
    Abstract: A battery element comprising a porous substrate optionally having a coating of electrically conductive tin oxide on at least a portion of all three dimensions thereof. The porous substrate is useful in the positive active material of lead acid batteries.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 27, 1996
    Assignee: Ensci Inc
    Inventors: Thomas J. Clough, Victor L. Grosvenor, Naum Pinsky
  • Patent number: 5544681
    Abstract: Methods for fabricating cored structures are provided. The cored structures may particularly find usefulness as cored battery plates for use in lead/acid batteries. A pre-formed core element is provided, and on its surfaces there is placed a thin layer of an active surface material. That active surface material is one which may enter into a chemical or electrochemical process when in use and in the presence of an electrolyte or other agent which will promote such chemical or electrochemical process. In the case of lead/acid batteries, the active surface is lead or lead oxide. The core element is generally one which does not bond with the active surface material, but will if the active surface material is ion bombarded or neutral atom embedded into the surface of the core, and where the amount of bombardment or embedment is determined by controlling the accelerator voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1996
    Assignee: Derafe, Ltd.
    Inventor: Robert S. Feldstein
  • Patent number: 5526223
    Abstract: An electrochemical capacitor device (10) including an anode (20) and a cathode (30) separated by a separator (40) and surrounded by an electrolyte (50). The anode (20) and cathode (30) is fabricated from a multi-valent, multiple oxidation state material. The material has a high, an intermediate, and a low oxidation state. In an initial condition, both the anode and cathode are in the intermediate oxidation state. During charging, one electrode will be oxidized to the higher states, while the other electrode will be reduced to the lower state. The processes are reversed during discharge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Motorola, Inc.
    Inventors: Han Wu, John E. Nerz
  • Patent number: 5510213
    Abstract: The invention provides an electrode for a lead-acid battery, formed in an essentially continuous process without the need for curing under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. This is accomplished by using a relatively high metallic lead content precursor powder intermingled with a leady-oxide powder. Another aspect of the invention is the use of relatively high surface area leady-oxide powder which contributes to performance. Another important aspect of the invention is that the active material paste is prepared without the use of an acid in a water based process which provides a simpler pasting chemistry. The process eliminates the complex basic lead sulfate reactions found in present methods.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 23, 1996
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: Eugene G. Gagnon, Daniel J. Lisi
  • Patent number: 5507842
    Abstract: The present invention provides improved processes for forming anti-corrosion layers, particularly barium metaplumbate, on lead, lead alloy-, and lead oxide-containing substrates. The processes of the invention are used to form corrosion-resistant current collectors which are assembled into lead-acid batteries. The inventive methods used to form barium metaplumbate employ a salt solution which includes a barium compound and a solvent salt. In a first embodiment, a substrate material having at least a surface comprising elemental lead reacts with a salt solution to form barium metaplumbate. The salt solution includes a barium compound and an oxidizing agent. The solvent salt or barium compound may themselves be oxidizing agents, or an additional oxidant may be added to the solution. The molten salt solution is applied to the substrate in any known manner such as dipping, spraying, and brushing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1996
    Assignee: AT&T Corp.
    Inventor: Mary E. Fiorino
  • Patent number: 5503930
    Abstract: In a layer structure oxide in crystallite form having a composition of the formula: AMO.sub.2 wherein A is Li or Na and M is Co, Ni, Fe or Cr, at least one additive element Z which is Bi, Pb or B is present in the form of an oxide on the surface of crystallites or between crystallites. Atomic ratio Z/M is from 0.0001 to 0.1. Since the crystallites have an increased size, the layer structure oxide has improved properties and is suitable for use as a positive electrode material of a secondary cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1996
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Satoshi Maruyama, Makoto Kondo
  • Patent number: 5411821
    Abstract: An integral battery electrode structure for lead/acid battery plates is provided. The principle structure material is elemental lead or lead alloyed with antimony or calcium. At least the surface of the lead or alloy has an ion implanted or atomic embedded graded junction of at least one other atomic species, such as titanium, cadmium, or bismuth. Additionally, highly oxidative atomic species such as fluorine, chlorine, or metallic components such as titanium, tin, vanadium, chromium, or rhodium may be added at the surface of the lead or lead alloy. Optionally, an element such as cadmium, arsenic, uranium, barium or bismuth may be added at the surface and within several atomic layers below the surface in such a manner that the concentration may be from 0.05% to about 10.0% of the total mass in that region but that the total concentration in the electrode structure is from about 50 to about 350 parts per billion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 2, 1995
    Assignee: Derafe, Ltd.
    Inventor: Robert S. Feldstein
  • Patent number: 5401596
    Abstract: The invention is related to hermetically sealed dry accumulators having significantly larger power output per units of mass in a proportionately smaller volume. The accumulator includes one electrode comprising copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, or iron, and another electrode of lead dioxide. An immobilized electrolyte containing a silica gel and sulfuric acid is in contact with the electrodes. A method for producing a novel silica gel which is especially suited for use in the immobilized electrolyte is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1995
    Inventors: Georgi T. Stoilov, Vladimir G. Stoilov, Boiko G. Stoilov, Christo T. Chervenkov, Pavel A. Lazov
  • Patent number: 5376477
    Abstract: A battery-plate separator system includes three layers in face-to-face relationship, the first and third layers including a porous mat of randomly oriented fibers, and, between the first and third layers, a second layer comprising a porous organic polymeric sheet with tortuosity and pores sufficiently small to substantially block penetration by metallic particles. A storage battery includes a plurality of positive lead peroxide elec-trodes, a plurality of negative metallic lead electrodes, and the same three-layer separator system in a closed case with a body of electrolyte to which the system is inert, that is absorbed by the separator system, and that is maintained in contact with the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: Teledyne Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Eugene I. Aidman, Galina Aidman, Joseph A. Orsino, John E. James
  • Patent number: 5368958
    Abstract: Lithium based electrical cells having a new anode electrode construction are described. The cells have a sandwich construction of lithium sheet, conductive foil and lithium sheet, wherein the anode tab is welded directly onto the conductive foil not onto the lithium. Alternatively, the tab is connected onto the lithium in an area where the lithium does not dissolve during discharge, so that the tab will not become disconnected from the anode sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Assignee: Advanced Energy Technologies Incorporated
    Inventors: Toshiro Hirai, Jun-ichi Yamaki
  • Patent number: 5368960
    Abstract: The battery system and process of the present invention enables the increase of the specific energy of the lead-acid battery by using new starting pastes which will allow significantly higher utilization efficiencies of the positive and negative pastes. The invention enables the increased utilization efficiency of both electrodes, to thereby increase the specific energy of the battery. Two paste combinations have been found to be advantageous. First, a battery has at its positive terminal, a lead sulfate (PbSO.sub.4) paste and at its negative terminal, a tribasic lead sulfate (3PbO'PbSO.sub.4 'H.sub.2 O). In a second combination, a paste of lead sulfate (PbSO.sub.4) is used at the positive electrode and while a monobasic lead sulfate (PbO.PbSO.sub.4), is applied to the negative electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Inventor: John J. Rowlette
  • Patent number: 5352549
    Abstract: A co-doped lead oxide for use in the manufacture of storage battery plates, the use of such lead oxides improving the efficiency of lead-acid batteries, comprising, as co-dopants, based upon the total weight of the lead oxide, copper in an amount of from about 0.01 to 0.1% and either tin in an amount of from about 0.008 to 0.1% or antimony in an amount of from about 0.005 to 0.08%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1994
    Assignee: GNB Battery Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Purushothama Rao, Frederick L. Marsh
  • Patent number: 5344727
    Abstract: A bipolar electrode for a Pb-acid battery comprising a lead septum plate and a porous coating on at least one face of the septum plate for anchoring at least the positive active material paste to the septum. The porous coating comprises multiple layers of lead particles fused together and to the septum face so as to define a plurality of interconnected, interstitial pores therebetween. The particles are fused droplets of lead arc-sprayed into the surface of the septum. A particular bipolar and battery construction useful with the bipolar electrode is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1994
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: Clarence A. Meadows, James R. Bish, Robert E. Adams
  • Patent number: 5328586
    Abstract: A process for the manufacture of an electrode for lead-acid storage battery wherein a current-conducting backing is subjected to electrochemical treatment, to produce an active material. Said active material is formed from the outer layer of the current-conducting backing. The active material is subjected to compression by applying a pressure to the surface thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1994
    Assignee: Gorodskoi Studenchesko-Molodezhny Tsentr "Praktika"
    Inventors: Mikhail B. Konovalov, Vladislav N. Demin, Oleg N. Demin
  • Patent number: 5314766
    Abstract: Positive plates are prepared by forming partially oxidized tetrabasic lead sulfate (4 PbO.sub.n . PbSO.sub.4) having at least a part of the oxide (PbO.sub.n) portion in the form of alpha lead dioxide (.varies. - PbO.sub.n), and forming beta lead dioxide (B-PbO.sub.2). Next the oxidized tetrabasic lead sulfate (OXYTTB) and the beta lead dioxide are intermingled in a wet mixture. The wet mixture is applied to the oxidized surface of a lead support substrate. Then, it is heated and pressed for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to form an adhered or retained coating of active material on the substrate. The OXYTTB is formed by reaction of tetrabasic lead sulfate with magnesium hydroxide and sodium persulfate. Preferably, beta lead dioxide is formed by reacting red lead oxide (Pb.sub.3 O.sub.4) with nitric acid to provide an oxidation product, at least a major portion of which is beta PbO.sub.2, and which has a surface area of at least 10 m.sup.2 /gram.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: Romeo R. Witherspoon, Armand R. Poirier
  • Patent number: 5304433
    Abstract: A lead-acid battery with a charge capacity indicator comprises a sensor that includes a reversible electrode, such as PbO.sub.2, as a reference electrode that does not participate in the battery charge and discharge reactions, and the voltage is measured between the reference electrode and the negative plates, for example, by using the negative terminal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1994
    Assignee: GNB Battery Technologies Inc.
    Inventor: Jing-Yih Cherng
  • Patent number: 5302476
    Abstract: An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Globe-Union Inc.
    Inventors: Wen-Hong Kao, Norma K. Bullock, Ralph A. Petersen
  • Patent number: 5252105
    Abstract: In a preferred method, an electrode for a lead-acid battery is prepared in a new continuous process without the conventional curing step. The general procedure for preparing electrodes includes preparing a mixture (paste) comprising an active material precursor and an inhibitor. The active material precursor includes lead oxides having at least 10% by weight lead oxide in the form of Pb.sub.3 O.sub.4 (red lead), and a BET surface area of at least about 0.8 m.sup.2 /gram; desirably about 1.00 to 1.50 m.sup.2 /gram and preferably about 1.0 to 1.25 m.sup.2 /gram. The inhibitor prevents formation of tribasic lead sulfate and tetrabasic lead sulfate from the precursor material, except at elevated temperature. The paste is applied to electrode grids and reacted at elevated temperatures for between about 5 and about 30 minutes, to form the active material of the electrode for both positive and negative electrodes. Plates are then assembled into batteries and charged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1993
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: Romeo R. Witherspoon, Gregory C. Garabedian
  • Patent number: 5250374
    Abstract: A method of making a rechargeable modified manganese-containing material is disclosed. The method includes mixing manganese nitrate with a doping material which may be a nitrate of a second metal and placing this mixture in an aqueous solution. Electrodes are then submerged in the solution and a current is passed through the electrodes to electrolyze the solution. This results in an electrolytic deposition of a first material on the cathode and a second material on the anode. The material deposited on the cathode is a rechargeable modified manganese-containing material in the discharge state. The material deposited on the anode is a modified manganese-dioxide material in the charged state. A battery employing the modified manganese-containing material is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1993
    Assignee: RBC Universal
    Inventor: Chaojiong Zhang
  • Patent number: 5232797
    Abstract: An assembled battery including a plurality of bipolar cells is disclosed. In one embodiment, the battery a plurality of conduits for introducing electrolyte into the bipolar cells, each of the conduits acting to introduce electrolyte into a different one of the bipolar cells. In another embodiment, the battery comprises at least one spacer element acting to maintain the spacing between plates and/or electrodes in the battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1993
    Assignee: Ensci, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard J. Moulton, Thomas J. Clough
  • Patent number: 5149606
    Abstract: Improved formation efficiencies for positive pasted plates used in lead-acid batteries are provided by treatment of the positive plates with a stabilized aqueous alkaline persulfate solution to effect the conversion of lead monoxide to lead dioxide. Use of the alkaline persulfate solution enhances both formation and initial performance of the fabricated batteries. A stabilizing agent is added to the alkaline persulfate solution to stabilize the lead sulfate and basic lead sulfates in the paste. A preferred method for producing positive plates of a lead-acid battery comprises the steps of (a) heating the pasted plate, (b) spray coating with or dipping the plate in a persulfate solution, and (c) reheating the plate to accelerate the reaction of lead monoxide with persulfate to form lead dioxide. The persulfate treatment may be applied to uncured pasted plates and used with plate paste containing free lead, and the spray-coating procedure offers an easy and efficient manufacturing step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1992
    Assignee: Globe-Union Inc.
    Inventors: Norma K. Bullock, Ralph A. Petersen
  • Patent number: 5143806
    Abstract: A process for coating a solid substrate with a layer of barium metaplumbate includes steps of forming a layer of lead oxide on the substrate, if not already present, and then reacting this layer with a barium salt at an elevated temperature to form a layer of coating of barium metaplumbate. Reaction temperature is a key aspect of this process, along with use of a barium salt which will react at the temperature selected. In particular, the reaction temperature must be sufficiently high to allow the reaction to proceed, but lower than the melting point of the substrate. The described process eliminates the need to preform BaPbO.sub.3 prior to coating and can be conducted at a much lower range of temperatures than prior processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1992
    Assignee: Globe-Union Inc.
    Inventors: Norma K. Bullock, Wen-Hong Kao
  • Patent number: 5096611
    Abstract: A process for making a battery paste includes steps of forming an active material in an aqueous slurry, then dewatering the slurry to form a battery paste. In one described embodiment, a slurry containing one or more basic lead sulfates suitable for use as the active material in lead-acid battery electrodes is formed in a continuously stirred tank reactor (36). The slurry is withdrawn from the reactor (36) and fed to a belt press (67) which reduces the moisture content of the slurry to the desired level. Battery pastes produced according to the invention may be fed continuously to a paster (89) for mass production of positive and negative battery plates from grids (91).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1992
    Assignee: Globe-Union Inc.
    Inventors: Coonen A. Matthew, Ralph A. Petersen, Conrad E. Weinlein
  • Patent number: 5045170
    Abstract: An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate contains an inorganic metal oxide additive which enhances the formation of the plate. The additive is electrically conductive, stable in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, but does not participate in the electrode reaction. Suitable metal oxides include barium metaplumbate and other ceramic perovskite materials having similar properties. The conductive ceramic may also be used in electrodes for bipolar lead-acid batteries and in an electrode, particularly an anode (positive electrode), used in electrolytic processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 3, 1991
    Assignee: Globe-Union, Inc.
    Inventors: Norma K. Bullock, Wen-Hong Kao
  • Patent number: 5017446
    Abstract: An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate contains an inorganic metal oxide additive which enhances the formation of the plate. The additive is electrically conductive, stable in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, but does not participate in the electrode reaction. Suitable metal oxides include conductive oxides such as TiO.sub.2-x, WO.sub.3-x, MoO.sub.3-x, V.sub.2 O.sub.5-x, Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5-x, wherein x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 1, mixtures thereof and mixed conductive oxides of these elements. The conductive oxides may also be used in electrodes for bipolar lead-acid batteries.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1991
    Assignee: Globe-Union Inc.
    Inventors: Benjamin Reichman, James I. Strebe
  • Patent number: 4986317
    Abstract: This invention relates to a method of producing a paste-type electrode for a lead storage battery which comprises packing into an active material support a paste prepared by kneading a lead oxide having a conversion ratio to red lead (Pb.sub.3 O.sub.4) of 90% or less or a mixture of this lead oxide powder with water and sulfuric acid as the principal components. Because this lead oxide contains red lead less than 90%, red lead formed on the surface of this oxide and lead oxide (PbO) formed in the particle core are directly bonded. This enhances the bonding power between the active materials. The paste-type electrode prepared by this method provides high adhesion of the paste to the active material support and high bonding power between the active materials. Therefore, both improvements in life and in efficiency of formation charge can be attained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 22, 1991
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Katsuhiro Takahashi, Kazuyoshi Yonezu, Hiroshi Yasuda, Ichiro Sano, Toshiaki Kimura
  • Patent number: 4758372
    Abstract: In order to reduce the duration of the method of producing lead paste for batteries by mixing lead oxide, sulphuric acid, water and possibly conventional additives below a limit temperature with at least partial cooling, acid is first added at substantially the maximum speed possible for distribution in the mix, without causing burning therein, and so quickly that the amount of heat supplied to the mix is greater than the amount of heat which is removed by cooling, and then, when the material being mixed reaches a predetermined operating temperature which is below the limit temperature, the addition of acid is regulated in dependence on constant temperature measurements in the material being mixed, in such a way that the temperature remains at the level of the operating temperature substantially until the end of the operation of adding acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1988
    Inventors: Hubert Eirich, Walter Eirich, Paul Eirich
  • Patent number: 4735870
    Abstract: The power characteristics of a lead-acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). The avoiding of positive plate reversal to prevent reduction of the tin oxide is accomplished by (a) employing an oversized positive plate and pre-charging it; (b) by pre-discharging the negative plate; and/or (c) by placing a circuit breaker (26) in combination with the plates (16, 18) and terminals (22, 24) to remove the load when the voltage of the positive plate falls below a pre-selected level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1988
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventor: John J. Rowlette
  • Patent number: 4708918
    Abstract: A battery element useful as at least a portion of the positive plates in a lead-acid battery comprises: an acid resistant substrate at least partially coated with an electrically conductive coating; and a fluid impervious matrix layer having mutually opposing first and second surfaces situated such that at least a portion of the coated substrate is embedded in the matrix layer which comprises polymer having increased polarity relative to polypropylene. This battery element may also be used in the bipolar plates of a lead-acid battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1987
    Assignee: Ensci, Inc.
    Inventors: Maurice E. Fitzgerald, David M. Braunstein, Saulius A. Alkaitis, Naum Pinsky
  • Patent number: 4707911
    Abstract: Porous electrodes are provided for lead-acid storage batteries without supporting plates or grids. The electrodes are porous, self-supporting, structurally integral and electrically continuous. Lead-acid batteries incorporating such electrodes exhibit improved performance characteristics as compared to conventional lead-acid batteries. The electrodes are made by forming a molten mixture of a metal (e.g. lead) and a pore forming component (e.g. cadmium), cooling and forming the molten mixture into a solid electrode with the pore forming component distributed therethrough, removing the pore forming component from the solid electrode to leave a network of voids defining the pores, and oxidizing the metallic walls within the pores to form a coating of electrochemically active material (e.g., lead dioxide) on the walls within the pores.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1987
    Assignee: PolyCrystal Technologies Corp.
    Inventors: Frederick P. Kober, Oscar V. Montefusco
  • Patent number: 4705564
    Abstract: A flow-through electrochemical cell for sequentially oxidizing and reducing an aryl compound. The cell includes a cell body forming a compartment to hold an aqueous electrolyte solution, a porous anodic electrode, and a porous cathodic electrode. The anodic electrode includes a first porous layer of a hydrophobic material, a second porous layer with an oxidation catalyst dispersed therein, and a current collector in electrical contact with the second layer. The cathodic electrode comprises a block of a porous, electrically-conductive material impregnated with lead particles. The cell is particularly useful for the preparation of aryl hydroquinones at very high current efficiencies, high current densities, and low voltages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Stephen A. Noding
  • Patent number: 4687598
    Abstract: A battery electrode material comprising a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Ravi Varma
  • Patent number: 4656706
    Abstract: The formation efficiency of pasted positive plates of a lead-acid battery is greatly enhanced by providing in situ a layer of lead dioxide (PbO.sub.2) on the pasted plate surfaces prior to formation. The PbO.sub.2 layer is preferably formed by treating the surfaces of the plates with an ozone-enriched gas to convert a portion of the poorly conductive positive active precursor material (nPbO.PbSO.sub.4) to electrically conductive PbO.sub.2. In subsequent electrochemical formation of the plates, the total formation charge can be reduced significantly while obtaining more complete conversion of the paste to positive active material. The method also provides an effective substitute for conventional curing of pasted positive plates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1987
    Assignee: Globe-Union, Inc.
    Inventors: Basanta K. Mahato, William C. Delaney
  • Patent number: 4652355
    Abstract: A flow-through electrochemical cell for sequentially oxidizing and reducing an aryl compound. The cell includes a cell body forming a compartment to hold an aqueous electrolyte solution, a porous anodic electrode, and a porous cathodic electrode. The anodic electrode includes a first porous layer of a hydrophobic material, a second porous layer with an oxidation catalyst dispersed therein, and a current collector in electrical contact with the second layer. The cathodic electrode comprises a block of a porous, electrically-conductive material impregnated with lead particles. The cell is particularly useful for the preparation of aryl hydroquinones at very high current efficiencies, high current densities, and low voltages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1987
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Stephen A. Noding
  • Patent number: 4637966
    Abstract: A sealed gas recombining lead-acid cell with absorbed electrolyte is produced by assembling unformed plates and high porosity glass mat separator whose surface area is from 0.2-1.7 m.sup.2 /g, adding a limited quantity of acid into the cell, and then either prior to or after sealing of the cell electrochemically forming the plates of the cell in situ. High rate performance of the cell is significantly improved over the cells using conventional high surface area glass separators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1987
    Assignee: Gates Energy Products, Inc.
    Inventors: Toshio Uba, Robert F. Nelson
  • Patent number: 4594301
    Abstract: An active material for the positive electrode of a lead-accumulator and a lead-accumulator utilizing the active material are provided, the active material consisting of lead oxide as the principal component and at least one component selected from the group consisting of bismuth, bismuth compounds, thallium and thallium compounds as an additive which is effective to improve the energy utilization and the lifetime of the accumulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1986
    Assignee: Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuhide Miyazaki, Morimasa Sumida
  • Patent number: 4572793
    Abstract: The object of the invention is a method for the production of positive active material for lead storage batteries. This active material consists of PbO and PbO.sub.x --where x is a number between 1 and 2--and some powder being composed of not more than 30 to 35% lead in optional ratio and some water. The basis of the invention is mixing glycerine and polytetrafluorethylene, as addition, to the active material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1986
    Assignee: Villamosipari Kutato Intezet
    Inventors: Gabor Sooki-Toth, Pal Horvath, Palne Jedlovszky, Jozsef Keszler, Laszlo Sors
  • Patent number: 4547443
    Abstract: The unitary electrode (10) comprises a porous sheet (12) of fiberglass the strands (14) of which contain a coating (16) of conductive tin oxide. The lower portion of the sheet contains a layer (18) of resin and the upper layer (20) contains lead dioxide forming a positive active electrode on an electrolyte-impervious layer. The strands (14) form a continuous conduction path through both layers (16, 18). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating the surface of the plate facing the negative electrode with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (130) of lead or graphite filled resin adhered to the plate with a layer (31) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten resin from kettle (60) onto a sheet of glass wool (56) overlying a sheet of lead foil and then applying positive active paste from hopper (64) into the upper layer (68).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1985
    Assignees: Atlantic-Richfield Company, California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: John J. Rowlette, Thomas J. Clough, Jack Y. Josefowicz, John W. Sibert
  • Patent number: 4510219
    Abstract: The plate (10) comprises a matrix or binder resin phase (12) in which is dispersed particulate, conductive tin oxide such as tin oxide coated glass fibers (14). A monopolar plate (11) is prepared by coating a layer (18) of electrolytically active material onto a surface of the plate (10). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating a surface of the plate (10) with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (22) of lead adhered to the plate with a layer (21) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten dispersion from mixer (36) onto a sheet (30) of lead foil or by passing an assembly of a sheet (41) of resin, a sheet (43) of fiberglass and a sheet (45) of lead between the nip of heated rollers (48, 50).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 9, 1985
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventor: John J. Rowlette
  • Patent number: 4507855
    Abstract: A positive electrode for a lead acid electric storage cell is made by chemically preparing beta lead dioxide. The beta lead dioxide is then applied to a support structure with a binder, or poured into a permeable, tubular container located about a current collecting rod. The negative electrode can be made by compacting fine lead metal about a carrier, and the fine lead metal might comprise lead wool or particulate lead metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1985
    Assignee: United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
    Inventors: Patrick T. Moseley, Nevill J. Bridger
  • Patent number: 4507372
    Abstract: The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 26, 1985
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventor: John R. Rowlette
  • Patent number: 4485156
    Abstract: A pasted type lead-acid battery comprising positive plates plated with a paste material containing anisotropic graphite, the graphite having such characteristics that the spacing d.sub.(002) of (002) plane is given by d.sub.(002) .apprxeq.3.35 .ANG.; the size Lc.sub.(002) of crystal in (002) plane is given by Lc.sub.(002) >100 .ANG.; and the size La.sub.(110) of crystal in (110) plane is given by La.sub.(110) >100 .ANG., and that it has the diffraction line of (112) plane, is disclosed. The pasted type lead-acid battery of the invention is excellent in initial performance and good in cycling life performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1984
    Assignee: Japan Storage Battery Company Limited
    Inventor: Akio Tokunaga
  • Patent number: 4467020
    Abstract: An improved rechargeable lead-hydrogen electrochemical cell is provided which comprises a cell stack secured to a retainer and disposed within a pressure vessel containing hydrogen gas. The stack includes a positive electrode comprising lead oxide, a pair of gas-porous negative electrodes containing a catalyst, a pair of separators and a pair of gas screens. The stack components are saturated with sulfuric acid electrolyte. Each of the negative electrodes has a separator disposed on one side thereof and a gas screen disposed on the opposite side thereof. The pressure vessel contains a gas inlet, and electrical leads connect to, respectively, the positive and negative electrodes and exit the pressure vessel. In the charged form, the cell reactants exist as lead oxide and hydrogen gas. When the cell is discharged, the lead oxide is reduced to lead sulfate and the hydrogen gas is oxidized at a catalytic surface to hydrogen ion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1983
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1984
    Assignee: Yardngy Corporation
    Inventor: Vincent J. Puglisi
  • Patent number: 4444857
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell having a lithium based negative active material, an electrolyte in the form of a vitreous cation conductive compound having a formula: aP.sub.2 S.sub.5, bLi.sub.2 S, cLiX, where X stands for chlorine, bromine or iodine, and a, b, and c are numbers chosen in such a manner that b/(a+b) lies in the range 0.61 to 0.70 and c/(a+b+c) is less than or equal to the maximum solubility in the vitreous phase of LiX in the compound aP.sub.2 S.sub.5, bLi.sub.2 S, and a positive active material in the form of a compressed powder with particles of the electrolyte dispersed throughout said positive active material. The positive active material is chosen from the group constituted by: (CH.sub.x ; Cu.sub.d O(PO.sub.4).sub.2 ; V.sub.6 O.sub.13 ; V.sub.2 S.sub.5 ; MoS.sub.3 ; CuS; S; CuO; Cu.sub.3 B.sub.2 O.sub.6 ; FeS.sub.2 ; Pb.sub.3 O.sub.4 ; Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; PbO; BiO(CrO.sub.4).sub.2 ; AgBi(CrO.sub.4).sub.2 ; I.sub.2 ; MoO.sub.3 ; WO.sub.3 ; TiS.sub.2 ; NiPS.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1984
    Assignee: Societe Anonyme dite: GIPELEC
    Inventors: Jean-Pierre Duchange, Jean-Paul Gabano
  • Patent number: 4427750
    Abstract: A wet-type self energizing power pack is disclosed which uses an electrolyte essentially made of oil, sulfuric acid and a minor amount of acetic acid. The device includes positive and negative plates which are separated by means of separators. The positive plates mainly consist of an alveolated structure filled with a compound of carbon, lead oxide, glycerine are provided with a diagonal row of holes while the negative plates are made of lead-tin alloy and are provided with two rows of holes, one appearing at the top and the other one appearing at the bottom of the plate. A method of preparing the electrolyte is disclosed as well as the method of charging the battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 24, 1984
    Inventors: Jacques Bilodeau, Gaston Marier
  • Patent number: 4411969
    Abstract: A lead-acid battery construction includes gridless reactively limited positive and negative electrode means combined with separator material and an electrolyte. Reactive limitation of the negative electrode means may be realized by providing the negative electrode means with inner portions comprising non-reactive (i.e. solid) lead and outer portions of reactive (i.e. porous) lead. Reactive limitation of the positive electrode means may be provided by the said negative electrode means. The positive electrode means comprises PbO.sub.2 which occurs in outer reacting portions and inner non-reacting portions. The battery having such reactively limited electrode means may only be discharged to the extent that the inner reactive lead portions of the negative electrode means become completely transformed into PbSO.sub.4, whereupon all electrochemical reaction in the battery will cease. That portion of the PbO.sub.2 of the positive electrode means which has not been transformed into PbSO.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1983
    Assignee: Koehler Manufacturing Company
    Inventor: Erik G. Sundberg