Lead Oxide Patents (Class 429/228)
  • Patent number: 4388210
    Abstract: A high surface area lead oxide composite is prepared by providing a mixture of starting matter containing lead oxide and a hydrogen bonding solvent and by then subjecting the mixture to a gaseous stream inclusive of ozone. The resulting reaction product is a solid composite of lead oxide and lead dioxide, found to exhibit greatly increased surface area and electrical conductivity over the starting material for efficient use of the solid composite as active material in electrochemical cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1983
    Assignee: St. Joe Minerals Corporation
    Inventor: G. Anthony Parker
  • Patent number: 4387142
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a granular material consisting of microporous, substantially hollow granules of lead powder, which is a powdered mixture of lead and lead oxide; a method for the production of this granular material; and the use thereof as an active substance in an electrode plate in a lead accumulator. The present invention provides a granular material lead powder that fulfills the requirements of resistance, size and quality, and which, when being used as an active substance in the lead accumulator, does not deteriorate in its capacity or lifetime. The qualities are achieved by means of the microporous, substantially hollow granules containing 0.5-2.0% by weight of a binder, with a particle diameter of 40-500 m and with the bulk density of 2.4-3.4 g/cm.sup.3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1983
    Inventors: Alfons S. M. Lindholm, Rolf C. G. Magnusson
  • Patent number: 4359508
    Abstract: Improvements in a dry charged lead-acid storage battery and in a method for producing such a battery are disclosed. The improvements in the battery involve negative plates having an initial polarization, when on charge, not greater than zero; preferably, the positive plates have an initial polarization, when on charge, of at least 100 millivolts, and most desirably, from 150 to 180 millivolts. The improvements in the method involve, for example, reducing the initial polarization of the negative plates by partial discharge thereof after formation or by air or chemical oxidation. The battery of the invention is protected from catastrophic positive grid corrosion upon activation and consequent premature failure in service without the necessity for conventional (high voltage) boost-charging at the time of installation into a conventional float charging system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1982
    Assignee: Eltra Corporation
    Inventors: Richard M. Meighan, Harry R. Cash, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4345987
    Abstract: A coated electrode having excellent electric conductivity and resistance against corrosion is obtained by electrodepositing lead dioxide on the surface of an alloy which consists of lead and silver.Prior to electrodepositing lead dioxide, the alloy is anodically oxidized beforehand in a solution of sulfate such that the surface of the alloy is oxidized. This enables the lead dioxide to be electrodeposited even in an acidic electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1982
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science & Technology
    Inventors: Akira Fukasawa, Minoru Ueda
  • Patent number: 4346022
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for preparing battery paste for battery plate grids which includes the steps of feeding measured quantities of lead powder, water and dilute sulfuric acid to a power driven mixer, measuring the power input to the power mixer drive and adding water to the mixture until the power input is at a predetermined value. The apparatus includes a stationary mixer, an agitator in the mixer, a power drive for the agitator and power measuring means for measuring the power input to the power drive for moving the agitator through the paste mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1979
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1982
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Edward O. Wolcott, Frank W. Wentzel, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4329408
    Abstract: A lead oxide for use in making an active material for pasted lead-acid battery plates comprises a doped lead oxide, the dopant preferably being copper in an amount of about 0.01 to about 0.07 percent based upon the total weight of the lead oxide. The use of such a doped oxide imparts to the resulting battery improvement in various of the electrical performance characteristics such as, for example, internal resistance, capacity, cycle life and the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1980
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1982
    Assignee: Gould Inc.
    Inventors: George W. Mao, Purushothama Rao, Frederick L. Marsh, Francis M. Dunlevey
  • Patent number: 4326017
    Abstract: A positive electrode for use in a lead-sulfuric acid electrolyte battery comprised of a grid supporting a layer of PbO.sub.2, said grid being comprised of an electrically conducting substrate having an adherent, contacting, at least substantially pinhole-free coating of semiconducting metal oxide, the sulfuric acid electrolyte having no significant deleterious effect on the coating and forming a non-corroding oxide with the substrate at sites of pinholes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1981
    Date of Patent: April 20, 1982
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Fritz G. Will
  • Patent number: 4324848
    Abstract: A positive electrode for use in a lead-sulfuric acid electrolyte battery comprised of a grid supporting a layer of PbO.sub.2, said grid being comprised of an electrically conducting substrate having an adherent protective at least substantially pinhole-free shield of electrically conducting material, said shield being composed of a coating of semiconducting metal oxide, or a composite of at least a substantially pinhole-free external coating of semiconducting metal oxide and at least a substantially pinhole-free coating of metal intermediate to the substrate and semiconducting oxide coating, said sulfuric acid electrolyte having a substantially deleterious effect on said substrate but having no significant deleterious effect on the shield.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1981
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1982
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Fritz G. Will
  • Patent number: 4323470
    Abstract: A lead-acid storage battery paste containing an inorganic glass fiber extender or bulking agent up to 6.5% by weight of leady oxide. The extended negative active mass helps to reduce its lead content by about 14 weight % without affecting the lead-acid battery performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1982
    Assignee: Globe-Union Inc.
    Inventors: Basanta K. Mahato, Edwin C. Laird
  • Patent number: 4297420
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrode for a lead accumulator. It includes an electronically conductive core coated with an active material which contains grains of lead monoxide, lead sulphate and a binding agent which is suitable for forming a three-dimensional thread-like network, characterized in that said electrode further includes a material which is insoluble in sulphuric acid and permeable to conductivity ions, the material being chosen from the group which includes polyacrylic acid and hydroxyethylmethacrylate and being used in a proportion by weight of 0.25 to 2% with respect to said lead monoxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1981
    Assignee: Compagnie Generale d'Electricite
    Inventors: Bernard Chenaux, Alain Leroux
  • Patent number: 4295940
    Abstract: A manganese or chromium doped positive plate for a lead acid battery, and a method of manufacturing the same is disclosed. Also disclosed is a lead acid battery containing manganese or chromium in the electrolyte. The doped positive plate has increased cycle life, hardness, and resistance to shedding of the active material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1981
    Assignee: Eltra Corporation
    Inventor: Brajendra P. Varma
  • Patent number: 4289835
    Abstract: A lead-acid battery having a positive electrode with an electrically conducting current collector bus plate, a honeycomb matrix structure extending from at least one side of the bus plate forming multiple positive active material compartments and an acid ion porous retainer means adjacent the open ends of the material compartments, the compartments containing positive active material having lead oxide reactive material and an electronic conductive additive within an acid ion porous structure. The electronic conductive additive increases the electronic flow from the reaction site in the positive active material to the current collector bus plate. This invention provides an improved positive active material with an electronic conductive additive. The positive active material, positive electrodes and lead-acid batteries of this invention provide high energy densities and high cycle lives suitable for use in electric vehicles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1981
    Assignee: Institute of Gas Technology
    Inventors: Tien S. Lee, Anthony F. Sammells, Robert J. Remick
  • Patent number: 4271244
    Abstract: A battery having a lithium anode, an electrolyte solution in which the solvent is an aprotic composition, and cathode in which the positive active material is formed from particles of a lead oxide having the formula PbO.sub.x, where x has values from 1.5 to 1.87. The PbO.sub.x positive active material produces a battery with a high specific energy and a single discharge level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1981
    Assignee: Saft-Societe des Accumulateurs Fixes et de Traction
    Inventors: Jean-Paul Gabano, Michel Broussely
  • Patent number: 4252872
    Abstract: An improvement in the production of tube electrodes for lead storage batteries comprising mixing a small amount (0.1 to 3 weight percent) of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with lead powder, the mixture is heated and shear stresses are applied thereto sufficient to convert substantially all of the PTFE in the mixture to fibrous form and to form a non-powdery dough. The dough is then granulated and the doughy granules about 100.mu. to 500.mu. in major dimension are used for filling tube elctrodes of a lead-acid storage battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1981
    Assignee: ESB Incorporated
    Inventor: Ove Nilsson
  • Patent number: 4230779
    Abstract: A manganese or chromium doped positive plate for a lead acid battery, and a method of manufacturing the same is disclosed. Also disclosed is a lead acid battery containing manganese or chromium in the electrolyte. The doped positive plate has increased cycle life, hardness, and resistance to shedding of the active material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1980
    Assignee: Eltra Corporation
    Inventor: Brajendra P. Varma
  • Patent number: 4215189
    Abstract: A lead dioxide electrode structure for an electrochemical battery is formed using a mixture of lead dioxide particles, carbon black particles, and a latex. The materials are mixed to form a compact and homogeneous electrode mixture. The mixture is then coated upon a conductive layer which is binded to a shim. This structure is useful as a cathode in an electrochemical primary battery of the reserve type.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1980
    Assignee: ESB Inc.
    Inventors: Bernard C. Bergum, Alf M. Bredland, John W. Paulson
  • Patent number: 4204034
    Abstract: A rechargeable electrochemical cell (10 in FIG. 1) has a negative electrode (11) with an active surface (11') of copper; a positive electrode (12) with an active surface (12') of lead dioxide, spaced therefrom; in an aqueous acid electrolyte (13) of fluoboric, fluosilicic, sulfamic, or perchloric acid, in which both divalent copper and divalent lead ions are soluble during discharging, and from which smooth and adherent deposits may be obtained during charging; and a container (14) with an electrically nonconductive inner surface (14') that is chemically resistant to the electrolyte (13).A similar cell (30 in FIG. 5) comprises also bipolar electrodes (32,31) similar in shape to the negative electrode (31) and the positive electrode (32), positioned between them and substantially parallel to them. As in FIG. 2, the container may comprise a fluid-tight enclosure (24,25) with an optional pressure relief valve (28).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 20, 1980
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventor: Glenn R. Schaer
  • Patent number: 4195123
    Abstract: In an electrochemical cell having a non-aqueous electrolyte which comprises a solute and at least one solvent, a lithium negative electrode, and a positive active material of said cell which is slightly soluble in said solvent, the surface of the negative electrode is alloyed with at least one metal chosen from the group consisting of lead, tin, antimony and silver, to prevent selective localized deposition onto the lithium electrode of metal reduced from the positive active material during storage. The improvement is particularly applicable to cells in which the positive active material is lead oxide and said solvent is dioxolane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 25, 1980
    Assignee: Saft-Societe des Accumulateurs Fixes et de Traction
    Inventor: Yves Jumel
  • Patent number: 4194060
    Abstract: An electric accumulator or storage cell whose positive and negative plates are composed of a multiplicity of thin lead plates or lead foils which are spaced apart from thin separators in a receptacle adapted to receive an electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid), the receptacle having dimensions closely conforming to those of the stacked plates. The thin lead plates or foils which form both the positive and negative electrodes are formed at juxtaposed regions with exactly coextensive electrically nonconducting and electrolyte impermeable masks of a material adhering strongly to the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1978
    Date of Patent: March 18, 1980
    Inventors: Gunter Scholl, Joachim Pauls
  • Patent number: 4188268
    Abstract: A lead battery comprising as an active material a formation product of a novel lead monoxide or a heat treatment product thereof is disclosed. This novel lead monoxide has a true density of 8.3 to 9.2 g/cc, an average particle size not larger than 0.2.mu., an infrared absorption peak at a wave number of 1400 to 1410 cm.sup.-1 and a chromic anhydride reactivity of at least 94%.This lead battery is excellent over lead batterys comprising active materials formed from known starting substances with respect to the active material utilization ratio and it has a very long life and stable capacities. In this lead battery, the active material utilization ratio can be maintained at a very high level over a long period.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 12, 1980
    Assignee: Mizusawa Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yujiro Sugahara, Yoshibumi Noshi, Hiroyuki Naito, Akira Takahashi, Masanori Ito, Hisashi Tuchida
  • Patent number: 4158723
    Abstract: A high specific energy electric cell having a lithium negative active material, an electrolyte solution of which the solvent is an aprotic liquid, and the positive active material is a derivative of divalent lead oxide, PbO. The lead oxide derivation is a compound of said PbO and an oxide selected from the group comprising the oxides of bismuth, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, antimony, Sb.sub.2 O.sub.3, and tin, SnO.sub.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1978
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1979
    Assignee: Saft-Societe des Accumulateurs Fixes et de Traction
    Inventors: Jean-Paul Gabano, Michel Broussely
  • Patent number: 4151331
    Abstract: A grid for a lead-acid battery is disclosed having a network of integrally interconnected strands of lead in which a portion of the strands are offset and project from one face of the grid while a second portion of the strands project and are offset to the other opposed face of the grid, to form upstanding projections and alternating depressions. The grids are useful as current collector substrates in Faure plates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1979
    Assignee: The Gates Rubber Company
    Inventors: Leonard F. Hug, Toshio Uba, Charles Frazier, John F. Varga
  • Patent number: 4140589
    Abstract: A unique storage cell is provided in which the active mass on the positive electrode is a mixture of crystalline and polycrystalline lead superoxide (PbO.sub.2). These cells are characterized, inter alia, by their remarkably lower internal resistance, higher activity, better charging and discharging characteristics, lower sulphatization, higher storage capacity and greater ability to draw larger amounts of electric current in a considerably shorter period of time as compared with conventional lead-acid storage cells. Storage devices (e.g., a battery) made from such cells also exhibit superior performance characteristics as compared with storage devices made from the conventional lead-acid cells. Batteries made from such cells will be referred to as "lead-crystal" batteries.Also, several methods are described for making the polycrystalline and crystalline lead superoxide (active Mass).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 20, 1979
    Assignee: Solargen Electronics, Ltd.
    Inventors: Rudolf R. Hradcovsky, Otto R. Kozak
  • Patent number: 4139683
    Abstract: The positive electrode consisting of the chalcogenide of an at least bi-valent metal is connected to the positive current take-off solely through an electrically conductive connector having an exceptionally small contact area with the higher valent metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1979
    Assignee: Varta Batterie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hans Sauer, Hans-Martin Lippold, Dieter Spahrbier
  • Patent number: 4136235
    Abstract: Storage batteries having negative and positive electrodes in which oxidized lead and/or lead oxide paste for the positive electrodes is applied to a metal base selected from the group consisting of tungsten-rhenium alloys, tantalum and titanium-tantalum alloys and lead and/or oxidized lead paste for the negative electrodes is applied to a metal base selected from the group consisting of tantalum, titanium-tantalum alloys and an alloy of tungsten-rhenium provided with a thin coating of cadmium, silver or lead which avoid the defects of the known electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1977
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1979
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Technologies S.A.
    Inventors: Vittorio de Nora, Antonio Nidola, Placido M. Spaziante
  • Patent number: 4110519
    Abstract: An improvement in the production of plate type electrodes for use in lead storage batteries from a dry lead powder mixture is disclosed. The lead powder is mixed with a small amount (0.1 to 3 weight percent) of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) powder, the mixture is heated and treated to convert substantially all of the PTFE into fibrous form. The mixture is applied to an electrode grid under conditions whereby a coherent, unitary structure is formed. A hot liquid (e.g., water) may be added to the mixture to form a paste.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1978
    Assignee: Aktiebolaget Tudor
    Inventor: Ove Nilsson
  • Patent number: 4110241
    Abstract: To obtain the active material of lead batteries one of the initial components, that is, acid-resistant fibres are settled in an electric field on a horizontal continuously moving band, the fibres being oriented square to the band and subsequently the band is covered with lead powder which fills the gaps between the fibres, the thickness of the layer corresponding to the length of the synthetic fibres. Introduced into the obtained mixture is sulphuric acid and water. The method according to the invention has made it possible to improve the strength characteristics of electrodes thereby extending the life of batteries by 25- 30 percent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1978
    Inventors: Vladimir G. Pirkulov, Mikhail A. Askarov, Avtandil V. Dzhashi
  • Patent number: 4091193
    Abstract: The evolution of hydrogen in rechargeable silver-zinc batteries is reduced by the incorporation into the zinc electrode of a minor proportion of a lead oxide, e.g. either lead oxide (PbO) or lead dioxide (PbO.sub.2). The invention further relates in general to electrodes for batteries, said electrodes consisting mainly of zinc oxide and having a small amount of lead oxide or lead dioxide distributed therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1978
    Assignee: Polymer Research Corp. of America
    Inventors: Carl Horowitz, Michael Dichter
  • Patent number: 4079174
    Abstract: Accumulators having solution electrodes containing manganese dioxide and lead dioxide as active material on the cathode side and containing acid electrolytes. The electrolyte has a content of onium salts soluble in aqueous medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 14, 1978
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Fritz Beck, Gerd Wunsch, Wolfram Treptow
  • Patent number: 4076909
    Abstract: An accumulator battery, which may be called an alkaline lead battery, uses as negative material the typical electrode anode materials of the alkaline battery, e.g., iron, cadmium, etc., and as positive material lead dioxide or other difficultly soluble lead (IV) compounds which are formed thanks to the addition of anions like sulphate etc., to the alkaline electrolyte. During discharge the positive electrode material is reduced to lead (II) compounds containing the anion added to the electrolyte. The electrolyte has alkaline reaction during the whole cycle of charge and discharge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1978
    Assignee: AB Olle Lindstrom
    Inventor: Olle B. Lindstrom
  • Patent number: 4061843
    Abstract: There is disclosed an improved tubular battery plate comprising a porous envelope enclosing a current collector comprising an array of members extending perpendicularly from an end member which affords a current take off lug with active material disposed between the perpendicular current collector members and the inside face of the porous envelope the ratio of the length of the tubes in cms to the free cross sectional area in sq. cms being in the range 100.1 to 295.1 and the degree of stratification of the active material in the tubes being less than 5%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1975
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1977
    Assignee: Chloride Group Limited
    Inventor: Stanley Charles Foulkes
  • Patent number: 4049892
    Abstract: A non-aqueous lead oxide cell having a negative electrode, such as lithium, a non-aqueous electrolyte and a positive lead oxide electrode, said lead oxide electrode comprising a substantially uniform mixture of lead dioxide particles and lead monoxide and/or lead particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1977
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventor: Marvin Lee Kronenberg
  • Patent number: 4048403
    Abstract: A non-aqueous lead oxide cell having a negative electrode, such as lithium, a non-aqueous electrolyte, a positive electrode comprising lead dioxide housed in a positive terminal conductive container, and wherein a layer of lead and/or lead monoxide is interposed substantially between the positive lead dioxide electrode and the inner surface of the positive terminal conductive container so as to achieve a substantially unipotential discharge for the cell over its useful life.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1977
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventor: Marvin Lee Kronenberg
  • Patent number: 4048402
    Abstract: A non-aqueous lead oxide cell having a negative electrode, such as lithium, a non-aqueous electrolyte and a positive lead oxide electrode, said lead oxide electrode comprising lead dioxide particles each having an outer layer of lead monoxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1977
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventor: Marvin Lee Kronenberg
  • Patent number: 4042754
    Abstract: A battery in which, to improve its discharging performance, the liquid electrolyte is maintained at a specific gravity that is optimum for electrical conductivity, and a magnetic flux is imposed upon the battery plates, and other such conditions which also favor electrical conductivity, saturation, storage and desaturation are maintained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 16, 1977
    Inventor: Domenic Borello
  • Patent number: 4039730
    Abstract: Tubular battery electrodes are filled with a mix of lead oxide, sulfuric acid and water to which electrolyte-resistant fibers have been added. These fibers strengthen the mass and reduce its tendency to escape through the pores of the tube envelope fabric.Also the product resulting from this method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 2, 1977
    Assignee: Varta Batterie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jurgen Brinkmann, Josef Sucher
  • Patent number: 4038170
    Abstract: An anode comprising a substrate having a deposit of lead dioxide containing bismuth and process for preparing the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1977
    Inventors: Raymond C. Rhees, Bruce B. Halker
  • Patent number: 4037031
    Abstract: A bipolar, lead acid battery incorporating titanium and/or zirconium electrode supports and having a fibre filling to maintain a pressure on the active mass located on the supports.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1977
    Assignee: Imperial Metal Industries (Kynoch) Limited
    Inventor: William Robin Jacob
  • Patent number: 4008144
    Abstract: An electrode having a lead dioxide coat electrodeposited on a porous ceramic substrate is manufactured by soaking a porous ceramic substrate in an aqueous lead (II) salt solution and thereby allowing lead oxide to be deposited in the porous surface layer and on the surface of the substrate thereafter soaking said porous ceramic substrate in a persulfate solution to cause oxidation of the lead oxide so deposited therein and thereon and effecting electrolysis in an aqueous lead (II) salt solution by using said lead dioxide-coated substrate as the anode and the aqueous solution as the electrolyte and thereby causing lead dioxide to the additionally electrodeposited on said lead dioxide coat.The electrode manufactured as described above excels in corrosion-resisting property and therefore proves quite advantageous as an electrode for use in the electrolysis of aqueous solutions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 1975
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1977
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science & Technology
    Inventors: Eiichi Torikai, Yoji Kawami
  • Patent number: 4001037
    Abstract: Lead batteries which contain lead salt solutions and/or their corresponding acids and have a titanium base plate on the positive electrode and a graphite base plate on the negative electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1974
    Date of Patent: January 4, 1977
    Assignee: Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Fritz Beck