Produced By The Action Of An Isomerase (e.g., Fructose By The Action Of Xylose Isomerase On Glucose, Etc.) Patents (Class 435/94)
  • Patent number: 5268280
    Abstract: This invention is in the field of glucose isomerization enzymes. More specifically, the invention is directed to a novel xylose isomerase, a process for the preparation of this enzyme, the use of this enzyme in glucose isomerization processes, and glucose isomerization processes.The enzyme is preferrably derived from Thermotoga maritima or Thermotoga neapolitana. The enzyme has a temperature optimum above 90.degree. C., pH optimum in the range of from 6 to 7 and a residual activity at 90.degree. C. of more than 40% after 30 minutes and/or residual activity at 98.degree. C. of more than 20% after 30 minutes. The enzyme can also be in immobilized form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1993
    Assignees: Novo Nordisk A/S, The Johns Hopkins University
    Inventors: Robert L. Starnes, Robert M. Kelly, Stephen H. Brown
  • Patent number: 5254468
    Abstract: A bilayered immobilized enzyme pellet and a process to manufacture this pellet are provided for use in a process involving the simultaneous isomerization of xylose to xylulose and fermentation of xylulose to ethanol. The bilayered pellet is able to maintain the environment where the isomerization reaction occurs within its optimum pH of 7.0 to 8.0 while the fermentation reaction occurs within its optimum pH range of 4.0 to 5.0. This process allows both xylose and glucose sugars to be effectively used as a feedstock for ethanol production by isomerizing the xylose to xylulose and then making the xylulose immediately available for the fermentation process. Because the xylose has been converted to its ketose isomer, xylulose, yeasts which can ferment glucose and xylulose can be used in this process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1993
    Assignee: The University of Toledo
    Inventors: Ronald L. Fournier, Sasidhar Varanasi, James P. Byers
  • Patent number: 5240717
    Abstract: A mannose isomerase having excellent properties for industrial use, such as high thermal stability and resistance to high substrate concentrations, can be produced by culturing a strain of Pseudomonas (sp. AM-9582), and extracting it from the cells of AM-9582. Mannose can be effectively produced from fructose of high concentrations using the enzyme.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1993
    Assignee: Amano Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshiyuki Takasaki, Takaichi Ohya
  • Patent number: 5225219
    Abstract: Amylodextrin compositions are produced from starch hydrolysates having a dextrose equivalent (DE) less than 10 or from milled substrates such as cereals, oilseeds, and vegetable fibers. The compositions give aqueous gels with unexpectedly increased strengths and improved fat-sparing characteristics, including more desirable flavor and texture qualities. The amylodextrin compositions are segregated from hydrolyzed aqueous cereal flour or starch hydrolysate solutions, for example, by precipitation with the proper amount of a water-miscible organic solvent, such as ethanol, acetone, or 2-propanol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1993
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventor: George E. Inglett
  • Patent number: 5177005
    Abstract: This invention provides a method for the maintenance of continuous activity of an immobilized enzyme reaction by initially underloading an adsorbent with a desired enzyme, monitoring the activity of the enzyme and periodically adding fresh enzyme to maintain a constant, continuous level of activity until the maximum carrying capacity of the support is reached. The method is preferably carried out when continuously isomerizing glucose to fructose with glucose isomerase adsorbed to a weakly basic anion exchange resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1993
    Assignee: Stabra AG
    Inventors: Norman E. Lloyd, Richard L. Antrim
  • Patent number: 5141859
    Abstract: This invention allows high-purity maltose to be manufactured both simply and economically by sequentially going through the steps of liquefaction of starch, saccharification of the resulting liquefied substance by combining with general-purpose enzymes and further saccharification with an enzyme which hydrolyzes oligosaccharides of trisaccharide or more, and also allows the economical and favorable manufacturing of maltitol, the reduced product of the above maltose, by going through an additional reduction step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1992
    Assignee: Towa Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiro Niimi, Yukari Hariu, Koichi Kataura, Yoshibumi Ishii, Kazuaki Kato
  • Patent number: 5124262
    Abstract: A mannose isomerase having excellent properties for industrial use, such as high thermal stability and resistance to high substrate concentrations, can be produced by culturing a strain of Pseudomonas (sp. AM-9582), and extracting it from the cells of AM-9582. Mannose can be effectively produced from fructose of high concentrations using the enzyme.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1992
    Assignee: Amano Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshiyuki Takasaki, Takaichi Ohya
  • Patent number: 5096820
    Abstract: Process for manufacturing xylitol and xylitol-rich products, characterized in that it consists of:enzymatically isomerizing at M.sub.1 D-xylulose syrup into syrup containing D-xylose and D-xylulose then, without extracting the xylose,catalytically hydrogenating this syrup at M.sub.2, resulting thus in a xylitol-rich syrup, said xylitol-rich syrup being either dehydrated, or subjected to chromatographic processing or to a treatment of extraction by crystallization at M.sub.3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1992
    Assignee: Roquette Freres
    Inventors: Jean-Bernard Leleu, Pierrick Duflot, Jean-Jacques Caboche
  • Patent number: 5094947
    Abstract: A process for producing fructose-1,6-diphosphate comprising the steps of: (a) enzymatically converting adenosine 5'-diphosphate to adenosine 5'-triphosphate using an acetate kinase-containing microorganism or an extract of the microorganism and phosphate donor; and (b) enzymatically converting a substrate capable of being converted to glucose or fructose to fructose-1,6-diphosphate using the adenosine 5'-triphosphate resulting from step (a) and the acetate kinase-containing microorganism or the extract of the microorganism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1992
    Assignee: Unitika, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Nakajima, Masaaki Onda, Ryoichi Turutani, Hayato Ishihara
  • Patent number: 5077205
    Abstract: A method for preparing cellobiose from sucrose in a high yield at low cost without difficulty by using three enzymes of sucrose phosphorylase, glucose isomerase and cellobiose phosphorylase in the presence of orthophosphate. The additional method of the invention comprises 4 steps: to treat sucrose with sucrose phosphorylase in the presence of orthophosphate to produce fructose and glucose-1-phosphate; to treat the fructose obtained in the preceding step with glucose isomerase to produce glucose; to treat the glucose obtained in the preceding step and the glucose-1-phosphate obtained in the first step with cellobiose phosphorylase to produce cellobiose and orthophosphate; and to recover at least a part of cellobiose from the reaction mixture in the preceding step and to recycle at least a part of the remaining reaction mixture containing orthophosphate to the first step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1991
    Assignees: Keiji Umeda, Nippon Petrochemicals Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hajime Taniguchi, Takashi Sasaki, Motomitsu Kitaoka
  • Patent number: 5071750
    Abstract: A process for obtaining N-acetylneuraminic acid from N-acetylglucosamine is disclosed. The process is carried out in a reactor which contains both N-acylglucosamine-2-epimerase (E.C. 5.1.3.8) which isomerizes GlcNAc into ManNAc, and N-acetylneuraminic acid pyruvate lyase (E.C. 4.1.3.3) which catalyzes the reaction of the resulting ManNAc with pyruvic acid to give Neu5Ac. GlcNAc and Pyr are fed into the reactor and Neu5Ac is obtained in the outflow. The process is preferably carried out continuously and in particular in an enzyme membrane reactor at pH 7.5 and 25.degree. C., especially using residence times of 0.2 to 10 h, and with an excess of GlcNAc in comparison with Pyr which is subsequently added if necessary. Epimerase and lyase are preferably present in the reactor in a ratio of activities which is equivalent to the reciprocal value of the quotient of the conversion rates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1991
    Assignees: Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Ciba-Geigy Corporation
    Inventors: Udo Kragl, Christian Wandrey, Oreste Ghisalba, Daniel Gygax
  • Patent number: 5032509
    Abstract: A method of preparing a mixture of galactooligosaccharides having the following formula:Gal-(Gal)n-Glcwhere Gal represents a galactose residue, Glc represents a glucose residue, and n represents an integer between 1 and 4, and monosaccharides by having microorganisms containing .beta.-galactosidase or .beta.-galactosidase act on lactose, the method comprising:having glucose isomerase coexist in a liquid to be reacted or adding glucose isomerase after completion of the reaction, whereby a portion of glucose prepared by the .beta.-galactosidase processing is converted into fructose. Then, sweetener is prepared by separating monosaccharides from the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1991
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha
    Inventors: Keisuke Matsumoto, Yoichi Kobayashi, Tatsuhiko Kan
  • Patent number: 4960696
    Abstract: A process for converting AMP into ATP which comprises (a) using an enzyme which converts AMP into ADP and has been produced from microorganisms having an optimum growth temperature of 50.degree. C. to 85.degree. C. and an enzyme which converts ADP into ATP and has been produced from microorganisms having an optimum growth temperature of 50.degree. C. to 85.degree. C. is disclosed. In addition, there is disclosed a process for producing a physiologically active substance by a multienzyme process which comprises forming ATP from AMP by the step (a), (b) synthesizing a physiologically active substance with the resulting ATP, converting AMP resulting from the reaction in step (b) into ATP by the reaction in step (a), and repeatedly utilizing the converted ATP for synthesis of the physiologically active substance in step (b). By using the process it is possible to stably and efficiently carry out conversion of AMP into ATP over a long period of time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 2, 1990
    Assignees: Kazutomo Imahori, Rikagaku Kenkyusho, Unitika Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazutomo Imahori, Hitoshi Kondo, Hiroshi Nakajima, Tatsuo Iwasaki
  • Patent number: 4950596
    Abstract: The subject invention concerns a process for stabilizing intact or ruptured microbial cells having glucose isomerase associated therewith. Specifically exemplified is a process for stabilizing glucose isomerase producing cells of a microorganism belonging to the genus Ampullariella. In the invention process the whole or ruptured microbial cells are contacted with a partially carboxyalkylated- or partially phosphonoalkylated-cationic polyelectrolyte, for example, a partially carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine to flocculate and stabilize the cells. The flocculated cells are further stabilized by encapsulation with a partially carboxyalkylated- or partially phosphonoalkylated-cationic polyelectrolyte. The encapsulation can be done prior to or after the flocculated cells are crosslinked. The net effect is manifested by a dramatic increase in the half-life of the glucose isomerase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1990
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Roberta C. Cheng, Norman G. Moll, Robert A. Houtchens, Karen M. McCoy
  • Patent number: 4929556
    Abstract: Polysulfonium salts that can react with nucleophilic groups and covalently cross-link are used to immobilize enzymes or enzyme-containing cellular material. Some of the polysulfonium salts can both flocculate and covalently cross-link. Replacement of the cross-linker, glutaraldehyde, with the polysulfonium salt results in greater retention of enzyme activity during immobilization. Immobilization is carried out by forming a mixture of an enzyme or enzyme-containing cellular material and the polysulfonium salt and subjecting the mixture to conditions such that sulfonium ions react with nucleophilic groups contained by the enzyme or cellular material to form a covalently cross-linked and water insoluble product. The enzyme or cellular material may be flocculated with a flocculating agent prior to cross-linking with the polysulfonium salt. The polysulfonium salt can be a polymer containing sulfonium groups.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 29, 1990
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Roberta C. Cheng, Ritchie A. Wessling, Donald L. Schmidt
  • Patent number: 4927757
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 22, 1990
    Assignee: Idaho Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Herbert J. Hatcher, John J. Gallian, Stephen A. Leeper
  • Patent number: 4894331
    Abstract: Constructions and methods for mutagenesis of nucleic acids involve chemical mutagenesis of a cassette comprising a structural gene linked to a non-functional restorable fragment of a marker gene. Mutants are detected by screening for the presence of the reconstituted marker among the ligation products of the cassette to a vector containing the non-functional restorable remainder of the marker gene. Xylose isomerase mutants, characterized by a change from glu (GAG) to lys (AAG) at amino acid position 262 in the xylA protein of E. coli were obtained by partial marker cassette mutagenesis. These mutants enzymes exhibited twice the rate of isomerization of glucose to fructose exhibited by the wild type.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1990
    Assignee: Amgen Inc.
    Inventors: Barry J. Ratzkin, Carlos A. Fisher
  • Patent number: 4889806
    Abstract: A large DNA cloning system is disclosed which is based on yeast artificial chromosomes. Cloning vectors are disclosed which allow the cloning of large segments of greater than 50 kb of exogenous DNA. The cloning vector comprises DNA sequences of an autonomous replication sequence, a centromere, a selectable yeast marker, two sequences that seed telomere function in vivo, and a cloning site within an interruptible yeast gene for insertion of the exogenous DNA segments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1987
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1989
    Assignee: Washington University
    Inventors: Maynard V. Olson, David T. Burke
  • Patent number: 4874695
    Abstract: Rapid identification of different species of microorganism selected from fungi and yeast like algae is accomplished by culturing the microorganism for several hours under normal conditions on a non-inhibitory mycological medium which stimulates the microorganism to make characteristic enzymes by which the microorganism can be identified, distributing the culture (in suspension) onto several supports containing different substrates which are capable of reacting with the enzymes so produced by the different species of microorganisms; and rapidly incubating the admixture to produce a distinctly colored or colorable reaction product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1989
    Assignee: American Home Products Corp.
    Inventor: David H. Pincus
  • Patent number: 4859474
    Abstract: A process for producing fructose sweetened cereal products by enzymatically converting a portion of the cellulose fraction in a cereal comprising cereal; fiber to fructose using cellulase and glucose isomerase is claimed. The process may be carried out at moisture contents exceeding 25% (w/w) and moisture contents between about 40% to 80% are preferred.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Nabisco/Cetus Food Biotechnology Research Partnership
    Inventors: Saul L. Neidleman, John A. Maselli
  • Patent number: 4857339
    Abstract: Breakfast cereals are sweetened by treating cereal grains or at least one cereal grain fraction such as bran, with enzymes comprising glucoamylase and glucose isomerase to produce fructose while retaining cereal particle discreteness or integrity. Enzymatic treatment with alpha-amylase may be initiated prior to, during, or after cooking. The enzymatically treated, cooked cereal grains are formed into breakfast cereal shapes and the enzymes are inactivated to provide a shelf-stable cereal product. The cereal products exhibit a sweet, pleasing complex-honey-like taste and aroma. Producing fructose provides a greater level of sweetness for a given amount of starch conversion into low molecular weight reducing sugars such as mono- and di-saccharides. In achieving a given level of sweetness, more starch or high molecular weight dextrins may be retained for their matrix forming ability or for improved machineability of the enzymatically treated cereal grains into breakfast cereal shapes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1989
    Assignee: Nabisco/Cetus Food Biotechnology Research Partnership
    Inventors: John A. Maselli, Saul L. Neidleman, Richard L. Antrim, Richard A. Johnson
  • Patent number: 4857461
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a continuous process for the enzymatic preparation of isomaltulose. A periplasmatic sucrose-mutase is produced by fermentation of microorganisms which form sucrose-mutase. The cell-free crude enzyme extract is prepared by digestion of the cells and by cross-flow microfiltration. In a single-stage, simultaneous purification and immobilization of the sucrose-mutase from the cell-free crude extract conditioned by diafiltration is obtained by selective bonding to an anionizable carrier matrix. Direct conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose is produced by the sucrose-mutase bonded to the anionizable carrier matrix, preferably in cartridge or cartouche form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1989
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Peter Egerer, Wulf Crueger, Gunter Schmidt-Kastner
  • Patent number: 4774183
    Abstract: A low cost process for producing concentrated fructose is described which involves selective, preferential biological utilization of glucose in mixtures of glucose and fructose, in order to thereby yield concentrated fructose. Broadly speaking, the method involves contacting a mixture containing respective amounts of glucose and fructose with a microorganism which preferentially utilizes glucose as compared with fructose, incubating the mixture until the relative concentration of fructose is substantially in excess of that of glucose, and recovering concentrated fructose. In preferred forms, the microorganism is Pullularia pullulans, and the starting material may be a mixture of gluctose and fructose, sucrose, a carbohydrate such as inulin or starch; in the latter instances, the P. pullulans, by virtue of excretion of invertase, acts to degrade the starting material to give the desired glucose-fructose mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Assignee: Kansas State University Research Foundation
    Inventor: Liang-tseng Fan
  • Patent number: 4760024
    Abstract: An enzyme producing microorganism or an enzyme produced thereby is immobilized by contacting the microorganism or enzyme with polyethylenimine and adding chitosan and glutaraldehyde to form a reaction product. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction product is extruded onto the revolving plate of a spheronizing device to form spherical enzyme aggregates having enhanced physical and biocatalytic properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1988
    Assignee: Miles Inc.
    Inventor: Oreste J. Lantero, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4757008
    Abstract: Enzyme-containing microbial cells are contacted with a macro-porous non-ionic resin under reduced pressure below atmospheric to cause the cells to become incorporated into pores of the resin. The resin is then contacted with a multi-functional, amine reactive material to immobilize the cells within the pores. Prior to contacting with the resin, cells may be disrupted to produce a system containing cell fragments, intact cells and solubilized enzyme. A preferred enzyme is glucose isomerase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1988
    Assignee: Miles Inc.
    Inventor: Lawrence F. Reverman
  • Patent number: 4732851
    Abstract: A composition comprising immobilized cells obtained by applying a dispersion of cells and curable prepolymer material selected from the group consisting of polyazetidine prepolymers, carboxymethyl cellulose, polyurethane hydrogel prepolymers and polymethylene isocyanates. as a coating to a solid inert carrier and curing the prepolymer on the carrier at a temperature below the temperature at which enzyme activity of the cells is significantly reduced. The composition may be used to produce various materials such as L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, 6-Aminopenicillanic acid, high fructose corn syrup, prednisolone or phenylalanine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1988
    Assignee: Purification Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Louis L. Wood, Gary J. Calton
  • Patent number: 4698302
    Abstract: A process is provided for the preparation of magnetic particles to which a wide variety of molecules may be coupled. The magnetic particles can be dispersed in aqueous media without rapid settling and conveniently reclaimed from media with a magnetic field. Preferred particles do not become magnetic after application of a magnetic field and can be redispersed and reused. The magnetic particles are useful in biological systems involving separations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1987
    Assignee: Advanced Magnetics, Inc.
    Inventors: Roy A. Whitehead, Mark S. Chagnon, Ernest V. Groman, Lee Josephson
  • Patent number: 4687742
    Abstract: Xylose isomerase, from strains of the Streptomyces murinus cluster, a method for production of such xylose isomerase, immobilized xylose isomerase and a method for isomerization of glucose to fructose therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1987
    Assignee: Novo Industri A/S
    Inventors: Georg Skoet, Hanne Guertler
  • Patent number: 4683203
    Abstract: Immobilized enzymes covalently bound to an inorganic carrier by an amino group through a bifunctional spacer have improved properties when the carrier is formed of amorphous, approximately spherical silica particles obtained from synthetic calcium silicate. The silica particles have an average particle size of from 15 to 80 .mu.m, an apparent particle volume of from 1.3 to 3 cm.sup.3 /g, and a specific surface area of from 250 to 800 m.sup.2 /g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1987
    Assignee: Redco N.V.
    Inventors: Octavian Anton, Robert Crichton, Jean-Pierre Lenders
  • Patent number: 4675292
    Abstract: Extracellular enzymes are stabilized with a carboxyalkylated or phosphonoalkylated polymer having a molecular weight of at least 500 Daltons. Exemplified is the stabilization of the enzyme glucose isomerase used in a process to convert D-glucose to D-fructose. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the feedstream containing the substrate is contacted initially with the stabilizer and then with the enzyme. In this system the stabilizer and enzyme are maintained in separate reactors. This separation, advantageously, results in a higher half-life for the enzyme.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1987
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Robert A. Houtchens, Roberta C. Cheng, Karen M. McCoy, Carol C. Epstein, Norman G. Moll
  • Patent number: 4665025
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the preparation of a solution containing glucose and fructose (isoglucose) by the conversion of a glucose-containing solution on a catalyst having glucose isomerase activity and produced on the basis of a SiO.sub.2 carrier. The productivity of the catalyst may be significantly increased by the addition of SiO.sub.2 to the glucose solution, and the catalyst according to the present invention is not damaged by temporary process shutdowns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1987
    Assignee: Kali-Chemie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Guenter Weidenbach, Dirk Bonse, Boris Meyer
  • Patent number: 4650755
    Abstract: Microbial cells are immobilized with a curable polyaziridine or polyfunctional aziridine prepolymer to obtain an insoluble, crosslinked polymer containing the cells. The microbial cells immobilized may be cells having L-aspartase or L-phenylalanine transaminase activity for the production of L-aspartic acid or L-phenylalanine. The polymer containing the cells may be formed as a coating on a solid inert carrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1987
    Assignee: Purification Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Louis L. Wood, Gary J. Calton
  • Patent number: 4605619
    Abstract: Process for preparing fructose by treating starch with alpha-amylase, contacting the resulting liquefied starch with glucoamylase to hydrolyzed said starch to glucose, and isomerizing at least part of the resulting glucose to fructose by contacting said glucose with glucose isomerase. The three enzymes are obtained from organisms of the Basidiomycetes class of fungi.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1986
    Assignee: Nabisco Brands, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert O. Horwath, Robert M. Irbe
  • Patent number: 4604354
    Abstract: An immobilized glucose isomerase having increased productivity and stability is prepared by mixing a smectite filler and 50-100 mesh granular activated carbon with flocculated cells of an organism of the genus Actinoplanes and forming the resulting mixture into discrete particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 5, 1986
    Assignee: Busch Industrial Products Corporation
    Inventors: Edward Katz, Jon J. Benedicktus, Edward L. Knarr, Barrett L. Scallet
  • Patent number: 4601981
    Abstract: Enzymatically active protein-enzyme complex membranes are prepared by treating a swollen protein membrane with an aqueous solution of a compatible active enzyme. These membranes are used to effect enzymatic reactions such as hydrolyzing starch, sucrose, urea or cellulose, lysis of cells or isomerizing D-glucose.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1980
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1986
    Assignee: Research Corporation
    Inventors: Wolf R. Vieth, Shaw S. Wang, Seymour G. Gilbert
  • Patent number: 4596776
    Abstract: An improved process is provided for conversion of crude starch-containing materials such as broken-polished rice and corn grits to starch hydrolyzates and high fructose syrups. The process employs short steeping and milling steps before enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of the starch. The process causes a minimum solubilization of protein giving readily purified products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1986
    Assignee: CPC International Inc.
    Inventors: Henry H. Nonaka, Soichiro Ushiro
  • Patent number: 4594322
    Abstract: A process for obtaining glucose from thinned starch by partially hydrolyzing the latter to give from 50% to 92% glucose followed by separation of the hydrolysis product to afford a glucose-enriched product with recycling of the glucose-depleted stream affords benefits unattainable by conventional commercial processes. Substantial reductions in process time and reversion products and a substantial increase in productivity are among some of the benefits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1986
    Assignee: UOP Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory J. Thompson, Kaung-Far Lin, David W. Penner
  • Patent number: 4593001
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing a glucose isomerizing enzyme which is functional at temperatures over 90.degree., utilizing a strain microorganisms having the identifying characteristics of Arthrobacter sp. ATCC 21748.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1986
    Assignee: Nabisco Brands, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert O. Horwath
  • Patent number: 4582803
    Abstract: The limitation of an immobilized amyloglucosidase in hydrolyzing thinned starch to afford not more than about 93% glucose with isomaltose levels above about 1.5% can be overcome in a process for converting thinned starch to fructose using four closely coupled reactor stages. The first stage is a saccharification reactor using amyloglucosidase which converts thinned starch to a product containing from 50% to 85% glucose. This product is used in a first stage isomerization reactor, the effluent from which is sent to another saccharification reactor using immobilized amyloglucosidase where hydrolysis is continued until no more than about 6% disaccharides and higher oligosaccharides are present. Where this effluent is used as a feedstock for further conversion of glucose to fructose, it is operationally equivalent to a feedstock containing at least 94% glucose but with isomaltose levels under about 1.5%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 15, 1986
    Assignee: UOP Inc.
    Inventors: H. Peter G. Knapik, William H. Mueller
  • Patent number: 4567142
    Abstract: Glucose is enzymatically isomerized to fructose at a temperature of from about 90.degree. C. to about 140.degree. C. by contact with chemically stabilized glucose isomerase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1983
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1986
    Assignee: Nabisco Brands, Inc.
    Inventor: Norman E. Lloyd
  • Patent number: 4563425
    Abstract: A metal ion that inhibits enzyme deactivation is bonded to a carrier and inhibits enzyme deactivation when contacted with a substrate for the enzyme. A carrier-bound metal ion such as ions of iron is particularly suitable for inhibiting deactivation of glucose isomerase when isomerizing glucose to fructose. Glucose isomerase life is remarkably prolonged by contacting carrier-bound iron ions with a glucose substrate solution prior to isomerizing with glucose isomerase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1986
    Assignee: Toray Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Toshio Yoshioka, Kazuo Teramoto, Masaharu Shimamura
  • Patent number: 4551430
    Abstract: A mutant Streptomyces thermoviolaceus, NRRL 15615, elaborates a thermostable glucose isomerase in high yield, constitutively. The GI produced shows a negligible loss in activity when heated at 90.degree. C. in high fructose corn syrup for 5 minutes relative to the same treatment at 80.degree. C. The mutant microorganism produces about 1500 units of glucose isomerase per gram of dry weight cells in the absence of xylose.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1985
    Assignee: UOP Inc.
    Inventor: Edmund W. Hafner
  • Patent number: 4544558
    Abstract: A process for producing carbohydrates from vegetal juice comprises extracting a vegetal juice from raw vegetal material, filtering the vegetal juice to remove material suspended therein, subjecting the resultant vegetal juice to an enzymatic reaction which consists of four stages in the following sequence. The vegetal juice in a first stage is admixed with a mixture of 3.2.1.4-.beta.-1,4-glucan glucanhydrolase and 3.2.1.15-poly-.alpha.-1,4-galacturonic glucanhydrolase, then the vegetal juice is admixed with 3.2.1.20-.alpha.-D-glucoside glucohydrolase. In the second stage the vegetal juice is admixed with 3.2.1.20-.alpha.-D-glucoside glucohydrolase; in the third state the vegetal juice is contacted with 3.2.1.21-.beta.-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, 5.3.1.4-L-arabinose-ketol-isomerase and 5.3.1.5-D-xylose-ketol-isomerase; and in the fourth stage the vegetal juice is admixed with 3.2.1.1-.alpha.-1,4-glucan-4-glucanhydrolase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 1, 1985
    Inventor: Armando P. Pellegrini
  • Patent number: 4533633
    Abstract: When isomerizing part of the glucose content of a glucose-containing solution to fructose, the productivity of glucose isomerase immobilized on an SiO.sub.2 carrier is increased considerably by pre-contacting the glucose-containing solution with particles of SiO.sub.2 or aluminum silicate. An apparatus is used having a reaction vessel containing the immobilized glucose isomerase and a pre-column containing the particles of SiO.sub.2 or aluminum silicate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1985
    Assignee: Kali-Chemie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gunter Weidenbach, Dirk Bonse, Boris Meyer
  • Patent number: 4532208
    Abstract: A mutant Streptomyces coelicolor, NRRL 15398, produces glucose isomerase constitutively at a level at least as great as the parent does inductively in common growth media. The isomerase can be effectively used to isomerize glucose to fructose in a continuous process using immobilized enzyme.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1985
    Assignee: UOP Inc.
    Inventors: Edmund W. Hafner, Denise M. Jackson
  • Patent number: 4501814
    Abstract: A process for producing highly concentrated syrups by enzyme treatment of impure starch flour containing beta-glucans. High protein meal and cereal germ oils are recoverable as by-products. The impure starch source is ground into flour and slurried with water. Beta-glucanase enzyme is then added and allowed to react. The reacted slurry is treated with alpha-amylase enzyme and is again allowed to react. The solids and cereal germ oils are separated from the aqueous solution and processed into useful by-products. The aqueous solution is then saccharified into a high dextrose solution by the addition of glucoamylase enzyme. The saccharified mixture is filtered, purified and its pH is adjusted to 8.5 with active MgO before isomerization into a high fructose sweetener by conventional means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1985
    Assignee: The Amalgamated Sugar Company
    Inventors: Karlheinz W. R. Schoenrock, Thomas H. Henscheid, Hugh G. Rounds
  • Patent number: 4492755
    Abstract: Process for preparing L-fructose from L-mannose by contacting L-mannose with L-mannose isomerase produced by a mutant microorganism selected from the group consisting of the genera Escherichia, Lactobacillus, and Klebsiella cultivated in the absence of an inducing sugar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1985
    Assignee: Nabisco Brands, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert O. Horwath, William J. Colonna
  • Patent number: 4463093
    Abstract: Process for preparing L-fructose from L-glucose by contacting L-glucose with xylose isomerase produced by a microorganism of the genus Candida.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 31, 1984
    Assignee: Nabisco Brands, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert O. Horwath, William J. Colonna
  • Patent number: 4459354
    Abstract: Acidophilic and acidoduric streptomycetes strains have been found to produce carbohydrases. These Streptomyces effectively elaborate glucose isomerase under acid conditions typically unfavorable for growth of conventional glucose isomerase producing Streptomyces. Sterilization of the culture and production media may be avoided by selectively propagating newly discovered Streptomyces acidodurans under acidic conditions which will effectively eliminate contaminating micro-organisms. The Streptomyces acidodurans herein also have the ability to undergo cultivation and elaborate glucose isomerase over a relatively broad pH range. Constitutive streptomycetes strains have also been isolated. Glucose isomerases derived from these Streptomyces strains are particularly effective for isomerizing glucose syrups to fructose-containing syrups.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1984
    Assignee: A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company
    Inventors: Song H. Bok, LeRoy E. Jackson, Cynthia J. Schroedel, Martin Seidman
  • Patent number: 4458017
    Abstract: Process for preparing fructose by treating starch with alpha-amylase, contacting the resulting liquefied starch with glucoamylase to hydrolyze said starch to glucose, and isomerizing at least part of the resulting glucose to fructose by contacting said glucose with glucose isomerase. The three enzymes are obtained from an organism of the Basidiomycetes class of fungi.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1984
    Assignee: Nabisco Brands, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert O. Horwath, Robert M. Irbe