Azobisisobutyronitrile (aibn) Patents (Class 526/219.6)
  • Patent number: 7632598
    Abstract: A fuel cell comprises a cell unit in which a plurality of single cells are laminated, each of which has a membrane type electrode unit including a fuel electrode to which an aqueous methanol solution is supplied as a fuel, an air electrode to which an oxidizing gas is supplied, and an electrolyte membrane interposed between the fuel electrode and the air electrode, and a fuel absorbing member disposed around the cell unit, the fuel absorbing member being composed of a polymer represented by the following formula (I) where R1 denotes a cationic aromatic functional group, R2 denotes an anion, and n is an integer of 2 or more.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2009
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventor: Tomoaki Arimura
  • Patent number: 7589159
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for producing a resin powder containing a radical polymer having a volume-average primary-particle diameter of 1 nm to 300 nm and containing no impurities such as surfactants by a simple procedure without via multistage reactions. The process for producing a resin powder (J) comprising a radical polymer obtained by polymerizing a bifunctional radical-polymerizable monomer (A) with a ter- or higher functional radical-polymerizable monomer (B) in the presence of 15 mol % to 170 mol % polymerization initiator (C), based on the sum of monomers (A) and (B).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2009
    Assignee: Techno Network Shikoku Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Tsuneyuki Sato
  • Patent number: 7514515
    Abstract: A process for preparing a pressure-sensitive polyacrylate adhesive, characterized in that a polyacrylate composition including the atomic sequence C—S—C is admixed with at least one metal compound of type (L)yM where M=metal atom or metal ion L=counterion or ligand y=0 to 6.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: tesa AG
    Inventors: Marc Husemann, Stephan Zollner
  • Publication number: 20090069520
    Abstract: Provided is a method for polymerizing a polymer precursor, comprising: contacting a polymer precursor with a lithium carborane catalyst and an initiator under polymerizing conditions. A reaction solvent may be used, but is not necessary. Also provided is a method of preparing lithium carborane polymers, comprising: contacting a lithium carborane polymer precursor having a terminal alkenyl or alkynyl group with an initiator and an optional reaction solvent under polymerizing conditions. Functionalized carborane anions are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 4, 2006
    Publication date: March 12, 2009
    Inventors: Josef Michel, Kamesh Vyakaranam, Stefanie Korbe
  • Publication number: 20090039018
    Abstract: Compositions comprising a cross-linked isocyanurate homopolymer or other cross-linked triazine homopolymers in the form of a microbead that is porous or non-porous; methods of making; and methods of using the compositions are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 8, 2008
    Publication date: February 12, 2009
    Inventors: Howard C. Jordi, Mark A. Jordi
  • Patent number: 7473754
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a novel polymerizable organic composition comprising one or more radically polymerizable monomers with at least one radically polymerizable monomer having at least two (meth)acryloyl groups that have backbone linkages selected from thiourethane linkages, dithiourethane linkages, combinations of thiourethane linkages and dithiourethane linkages. The present invention is also directed to polymerizates prepared from the polymerizable organic composition, shaped articles prepared from the polymerizable compositions, and photochromic articles that may be prepared from the polymerizable organic composition of the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2009
    Assignee: PPG Industries Ohio, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael O. Okoroafor, Robert A. Smith, Marvin J. Graham, Robert D. Herold
  • Patent number: 7417096
    Abstract: A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surface modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a collidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as fuctionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2008
    Assignee: University of Southern Mississippi
    Inventors: Charles L. McCormick, III, Andrew B. Lowe, Brent S. Sumerlin
  • Patent number: 7378476
    Abstract: An olefin polymerization process comprises gas-phase polymerization of at least one olefin monomer in a reactor using a Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalyst system in the presence of at least one suitable radical-generating compound in an amount sufficient for polymer modification and subsequent stabilization of such compound and generated radicals before post-reactor heat processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2008
    Assignee: Ineos USA LLC
    Inventors: Norman W. Carlson, Chi-Hung Lin, Jerome A. Streeky, Carl Towner, Barry F. Wood
  • Patent number: 7375175
    Abstract: A dispersion of polymer particles, the particle containing, on average, one or more living radicals each, the radicals not being chemically protected. Further disclosed is a free radical polymerization process resulting in a dispersion containing polymer particles having on average one or more living radicals. The process involves carefully regulating the polymerization conditions to produce small size particles under monomer-starved conditions containing, on average, more than one living radical in every particle. These living polymer radicals can be further reacted to form polymers with a controlled architecture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2008
    Assignee: National Starch and Chemical Investment Holding Corporation
    Inventors: Yadunandan Dar, Smita Shah
  • Patent number: 7351781
    Abstract: A controlled free radical polymerization process, which includes the steps of: adding a monofunctional iniferter compound to an oxygen-free solvent; heating the solution to a temperature sufficient to allow the iniferter compound to form two carbon centered radical residues; adding a first monomer composition comprising one or more monomers to the solution containing the radical containing residues; polymerizing the first monomer composition to form a quasi-living polymer; and optionally polymerizing a second monomer composition comprising one or more monomers, which are different than the first monomer composition. The resulting non-random copolymer having the general formula: ?-[-Ap-Bs-]t-? where A and B are different compositions of ethylenically unsaturated monomers; p is an integer from 1 to 1,000; s is an integer from 0 to 1,000; t is an integer from 1 to 100; and ? is a residue from the iniferter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2008
    Assignee: PPG Industries Ohio, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniela White, James B. O'Dwyer
  • Patent number: 7345120
    Abstract: An acrylic polymer having pendant alkoxysilane comprising the free radical reaction product of a polysiloxane, an N-alkylphosphonate N-oxylalkyl ester initiator; and ethylenically unsaturated monomers. The acrylic polymer can be further crosslinked with reactive polysiloxanes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2008
    Inventors: Wai-Kwong Ho, Liza A. Capino, Matthew V. Croyle, James M. Reuter, Richard F. Tomko
  • Patent number: 7314904
    Abstract: Disclosed is a composition of a functionalized polyalphaolefin comprising the reaction product of admixing (a) an alpha-olefin monomer having at least 10 carbon atoms; (b) an unsaturated functionalizing compound; and (c) a polymerization initializer, under reaction conditions sufficient to polymerize the alpha-olefin monomer and unsaturated functionalizing compound. Free radical initiators, especially peroxides are disclosed to be useful in preparing the functionalized polyalphaolefin. The functionalized polyalphaolefins are disclosed to be useful in preparing inks, toners, coatings, candle waxes, lubricating oils, and personal care products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2008
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Richard J. Nadolsky, David D. Truong
  • Patent number: 7235609
    Abstract: A thermoplastic olefin (TPO) composition comprises (1) a major amount by weight of (a) a substantially linear homopolymer or copolymer of a C2–C10 ?-olefin in major proportion to (b) a long chain branched a linear homopolymer or copolymer of a C2–C10 ?-olefin, (2) a minor amount by weight of a cross linkable elastomer, and (3) at least one thermally decomposing free radical generating agent present in an amount sufficient to promote an increase in melt strength of the composition over that of the melt strength of the linear homopolymer or copolymer of a C2–C10 ?-olefin alone and insufficient to substantially degrade the ?-olefinic polymers. The TPO composition is prepared by melt blending the components at a temperature sufficient to melt said homopolymers or copolymers of a C2–C10 ?-olefin and thermally decompose said agent. Articles are thermoformed from the thermoplastic olefin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2007
    Inventors: Amitkumar Dharia, Jerry Wayne Rodrigue
  • Patent number: 7205362
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for controlled radical polymerization using an organosulfur reversible chain transfer agent which consists in preparing polymers having a molar weight of greater than 100 000 g/mol, with a polydispersity index of less than 1.2 for molar weights of less than 200 000 g/mol and of less than 1.4 for molar weights of greater than 200 000 g/mol, with a degree of conversion of monomer of greater than 75% and a polymerization time of less than 8 h, characterized by the control of the flux of initiator radicals in the polymerization medium. The control of the flux of initiator radicals can be achieved by the use of two appropriate polymerization temperatures T1 and T2 or by use of an initiator having a decomposition rate constant which is greater than that of azobisisobutyronitrile at the same temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2007
    Assignee: bioMérieux
    Inventors: Amaud Favier, Marie-Therese Charreyre
  • Patent number: 7160971
    Abstract: The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2007
    Assignee: Iowa State University Research Foundation
    Inventors: Surya K. Mallapragada, Brian C. Anderson, Paul D. Bloom, Valerie V. Sheares Ashby
  • Patent number: 7138468
    Abstract: A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thio-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the stops of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2006
    Assignee: University of Southern Mississippi
    Inventors: Charles L. McCormick, III, Andrew B. Lowe, Brent S. Sumerlin
  • Patent number: 7132485
    Abstract: The invention relates to a suspension polymerization process for the preparation of styrene-containing (co)polymers, wherein the process comprises the steps of continuously or semi-continuously dosing an initiator to the reaction mixture, said initiator having a specified half-life at the temperature of the reaction mixture to which it is dosed. The invention further relates to styrene based (co)polymer obtainable by said process, and to the use of said styrene (co)polymer in a shaping process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2006
    Assignee: Akzo Nobel N.V.
    Inventors: Hendrikus Gerardus Boevenbrink, Frans Johannes Hoogesteger
  • Patent number: 7125938
    Abstract: A polymerization process comprising initiating a first polymerization of monomers using an initiator functionalized with an ATRP initiating site, wherein the first polymerization is selected from the group of cationic polymerization, anionic polymerization, conventional free radical polymerization, metathesis, ring opening polymerization, cationic ring opening polymerization, and coordination polymerization to form a macroinitiator comprising an ATRP initiating site and further initiating an ATRP polymerization of radically polymerizable monomers using the macroinitiator comprising an ATRP initiating site. Novel block copolymers may be formed by the disclosed method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2006
    Assignee: Carnegie Mellon University
    Inventors: Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Scott G. Gaynor, Simion Coca
  • Patent number: 7119155
    Abstract: Copolymerization of Ni(II) phenol imine complexes containing olefinic substituents on aryl groups with styrene in the presence of a radical initiator results in polymerized late transition metal catalysts which can be used for olefin polymerization or oligomerization. These catalysts have high catalyst activity for olefin polymerization or oligomerization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 10, 2006
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc.
    Inventors: Stanley Wai-Yan Chow, Guo-Xin Jin, Zerong Lin, Robert J. Wittenbrink, Dao Zhang
  • Patent number: 7098280
    Abstract: The present invention discloses an emulsion polymerization process that comprises: (1) preparing an aqueous polymerization medium which is comprised of (a) at least one monomer, (b) a polymerization control agent, and an emulsifier, wherein the emulsifier is prepared in-situ within the aqueous polymerization medium; and (2) initiating polymerization of said monomer within the aqueous polymerization medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
    Inventors: Dane Kenton Parker, Frank James Feher, Viswanath Mahadevan
  • Patent number: 7077964
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for preparing novel, monodisperse ion exchangers having chelating functional groups, and their use for adsorbing metal compounds, in particular, heavy metal compounds and noble metal compounds, and also for extracting alkaline-earth metals from saline solutions from alkali metal chloride electrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2006
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Reinhold Klipper, Werner Strüver, Ulrich Schnegg, Bruno Hees, Bernhard Lehmann, Holger Lütjens
  • Patent number: 7071265
    Abstract: A method of producing a non-crosslinked polymer particle having in a side chain thereof a succinimidoxycarbonyl group represented by the following structural formula (1): the method comprising the step of using an initiator to polymerize a polymerizable monomer (A) containing a succinimidoxycarbonyl group represented by the above structural formula (1) and a polymerizable monomer (B) containing one polymerizable moiety in the monomer in a non-aqueous solvent in the presence of a macromolecular dispersion stabilizer. In this process the non-aqueous solvent is a solvent in which the polymerizable monomer (A) and the polymerizable monomer (B) are soluble and the non-crosslinked polymer particle is insoluble.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 4, 2006
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chisato Urano, Yoshihiro Inaba, Masato Mikami, Takako Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 7041762
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a polyvalent imprinted polymer useful in medicine and biotechnology and to a process for the preparation thereof. More particularly it relates to the said polymer of formula (1) herein below wherein R is H, CH3, C2H5, C6H5, R1is H, CH3, C2H5, C6H5; R2 is H, CH3, C2H5, C6H5, X is based on 4-Amino Butyric Acid (4-ABa), 6-Amino Caproic Acid (6-ACA), 8-Amino Octanoic Acid (8-AOA), 10-Amino Decanoic Acid (10-ADA), 11-Amino Undecanoic Acid (11-ADA), n is from 3 to 50, L is OH, NH2, OCH3, NH—CH—(CH3)2, Cl, OCH2, CH?CH2, O—CH?CH2; and Y is N-Acetyl Glucosamine (NAG), mannose, galactose, sialic acid, fructose, ribulose, erythrolose, xylulose, psicose, sorbose tagaose, glucopyranose, fructofuranose, deoxyribose, galactosamine, sucrose, lactose, isomaltose, maltose, cellobiose, cellulose and amylose; Z is based on chain terminating agent such as Mercapto Ethanol, Mercapto, Mercapto Propanol, Mercaptoethylamine HCl.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2006
    Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Mohan Gopalkrishna Kulkarni, Jayant Jagannath Khandare
  • Patent number: 7022792
    Abstract: This invention relates to the polymerization of vinylically-unsaturated monomers in the presence of a chain transfer catalysts where the polymerization process is initiated with hydrogen gas or a hydrogen atom donor rather than conventional free radical initiators. This invention further relates to an improved process for the polymerization of vinylically-unsaturated monomers in the presence of a chain transfer catalysts where the polymerization process is initiated with hydrogen gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 4, 2006
    Assignee: E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Alexei A. Gridnev, Steven Dale Ittel
  • Patent number: 6992156
    Abstract: The present invention discloses an emulsion polymerization process that comprises: (1) preparing an aqueous polymerization medium which is comprised of (a) at least one monomer, (b) a polymerization control agent, and an emulsifier, wherein the emulsifier is prepared in-situ within the aqueous polymerization medium; and (2) initiating polymerization of said monomer within the aqueous polymerization medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2006
    Assignee: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
    Inventors: Dane Kenton Parker, Frank James Feher, Viswanath Mahadevan
  • Patent number: 6974853
    Abstract: An initiator system for radical polymerization, which comprises a combination of compounds of the formulae:
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2005
    Assignee: tesa AG
    Inventors: Marc Husemann, Stephan Zöllner
  • Patent number: 6951903
    Abstract: A thermoplastic molding composition that features a combination of extremely good toughness, good processability, adjustable surface gloss, good inherent color and reduced opacity is disclosed. The composition contains A) a graft rubber that is the product of free-radical emulsion polymerization using a peroxodisulfate initiator, B) a graft rubber that is the product of free-radical emulsion polymerization using an azo compound initiator and C) a graft polymer that is the product of solution, bulk or suspension polymerization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2005
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Herbert Eichenauer
  • Patent number: 6881804
    Abstract: A porous, molecularly imprinted polymer and a process for its preparation are described. The porous, molecularly imprinted polymer is characterised in that it is obtainable by providing a porous silica; attaching a molecular template to the surface of the porous silica; filling the pores of the porous silica with a polymer, removing the silica and the molecular template, thereby leaving a porous, molecularly imprinted polymer. The process is characterised by the above defined process steps. Also described are a porous polymer vesicle and its preparation with the same features as defined for the porous, molecularly imprinted polymer and its preparation, except for the lack of the molecular template and thus the lack of the molecular imprint in the porous polymer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: MIP Technologies AB
    Inventors: Börje Sellergren, Gunter Büchel
  • Patent number: 6881806
    Abstract: The invention is related to a geminally disubstituted olefin-carbon monoxide-ethylene polymer. The invention is also related to a method for preparing geminally disubstituted olefin-carbon monoxide-ethylene polymers by reacting a geminally disubstituted olefin feed, a carbon monoxide feed and an ethylene feed under free radical polymerization conditions. The invention is further related to a geminally disubstituted olefin-carbon monoxide-ethylene-X polymer, where monomer X is a free radical polymerizable monomer. The invention is also directed to a method for preparing geminally disubstituted olefin-carbon monoxide-ethylene-X polymers by reacting a geminally disubstituted olefin feed, a carbon monoxide feed, an ethylene feed and a feed containing monomer X under free radical polymerization conditions. The polymers of the invention are useful as polyvinyl chloride plasticizers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Abhimanyu O. Patil, Nicholas V. Smith, Jose G. Santiesteban, Allen D. Godwin, Steven P. Rucker, Stephen Zushma
  • Patent number: 6881805
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a dispersion of polymer particles in a dispersing medium. The polymer particles each contain an average of more than two living radicals that are not chemically protected. The present invention is also directed to a free radical precipitation process involving combining at least one monomer in at least one solvent; dispersing said monomer solvent mixture in a dispersing medium that is non-miscible with the first solvent, using a surfactant, stabilizer or mixture thereof; initiating polymerization with at least one free-radical generating agent and conversion, to produce polymer particles containing radicals trapped by precipitation by virtue of being above the lower critical solution temperature of the system; and removing the precipitating agent either during or after free-radical generation to form a dispersion polymer in the dispersing medium having living, trapped radicals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: National Starch and Chemical Investment Holding Corporation
    Inventors: Yadunandan L. Dar, Chaodong Xiao, Peter J. Schlom
  • Patent number: 6875832
    Abstract: A controlled free radical polymerization process, which includes the steps of: adding a monofunctional iniferter compound to an oxygen-free solvent; heating the solution to a temperature sufficient to allow the iniferter compound to form two carbon centered radical residues; adding a first monomer composition comprising one or more monomers to the solution containing the radical containing residues; polymerizing the first monomer composition to form a quasi-living polymer; and optionally polymerizing a second monomer composition comprising one or more monomers, which are different than the first monomer composition. The resulting non-random copolymer having the general formula: ?-[—Ap—Bs—]t-? where A and B are different compositions of ethylenically unsaturated monomers; p is an integer from 1 to 1,000; s is an integer from 0 to 1,000; t is an integer from 1 to 100; and ? is a residue from the iniferter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2005
    Assignee: PPG Industries Ohio, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniela White, James B. O'Dwyer
  • Patent number: 6872779
    Abstract: The invention provides a flocculant which in sludge dewatering gives flocs having an excellent balance among flocculating strength, filtration rate and moisture content, and a method of sludge dewatering with the flocculant. Namely, the flocculant is a polymeric flocculent which contains a copolymer having alkoxyalkyl units or a poly(alkylene oxide) unit and further having water-soluble monomer units; and the method of sludge dewatering includes adding the polymeric flocculant to a sludge after or without adding an inorganic flocculent or an organic cationic compound thereto and then dewatering the sludge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2005
    Assignee: Toagosei Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshio Mori, Minoru Azuchi
  • Patent number: 6852812
    Abstract: A process is presented for the preparation of a latex by the emulsion polymerization at a temperature of between 30 and 90 C. of at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer in the presence of at least one surfactant and of a seed of polymer particles with a diameter of between 200 and 450 nm. The seed particles represent from 5-25% by weight of the total weight of the monomer and seed. The polymerization is initiated by a mixed water-soluble/fat-soluble system. Also included are lattices obtained from this process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2005
    Assignee: Atofina
    Inventors: Isabelle Betremieux, Karine Loyen, Nathalie Meeschaert, Pierre Nogues, Martine Schneider
  • Patent number: 6844406
    Abstract: The present invention provides novel low molecular weight, high functionality number, polymers. The polymers may be made, for example, by heating (preferably, to a temperature of between about 130° C. and 180° C.) one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers in the presence of a substantially aprotic solvent system; and maintaining the temperature for a time sufficient to polymerize the monomers to a preferred monomer to polymer conversion percentage of at least about 95 percent by weight. In a presently preferred embodiment, the polymer has a weight average molecular weight between about 900 and 7,000 Dalton and a functionality number of at least 100. The process is also preferably substantially free of chain transfer agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2005
    Assignee: Valspar Sourcing, Inc.
    Inventors: John H. Mazza, Jeffrey Niederst, Thomas R. Mallen
  • Patent number: 6841636
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a dispersion of polymer particles, the particle containing, on average, more than 1 living radicals each, the radicals not being chemically protected. The invention is also directed to a free radical polymerization process resulting in a dispersion containing polymer particles having on average one or more living radicals. The process involves carefully regulating the polymerization conditions to produce small size particles under monomer-starved conditions containing, on average, more than one living radical in every particle. These living polymer radicals can be further reacted to form polymers with a controlled architecture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2005
    Assignee: National Starch and Chemical Investment Holding Corporation
    Inventors: Yadunandan Dar, Smita Shah
  • Patent number: 6835792
    Abstract: Enclosed are high refractive index and low birefringence organic/inorganic hybrid materials useful for optical applications. They are prepared from solventless metal aliphatic acryl alkoxides. The metal acryl alkoxides are synthesized from exchanging acryl alcohol with metal alkoxides, and are hydrolyzed into metal oxide nanoparticles and are well dispersed in the acrylate matrix. Then they are polymerized into organic/inorganic hybrid materials containing metal oxide in polyacrylate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2004
    Assignee: Pole-Chic Corporation
    Inventors: Wei-Fang Su, Hsiao-Kuan Yuan
  • Patent number: 6828400
    Abstract: Anaerobic and heat curing polymerizable impregnation compositions for sealing pourous articles are disclosed. The compositions contain glycerol, oxygenated glycerol or (meth)acrylate glycerol to improve the washability of the compositions in aqueous solutions. The compositions may contain other compounds to effect the curing characteristics of the sealants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2004
    Assignee: Henkel Corporation
    Inventors: Frederick F. Newberth, III, Peter J. Chupas
  • Patent number: 6825308
    Abstract: The present invention relates to copolymers for applications in medicine and biotechnology and preparation thereof. Copolymers comprises polyvalent N-Acetyl Glucosamine(NAG) in polyvalent form and bind more efficiently to lysozyme than NAG itself. The copolymers exhibit effective inhibition even at very low ligand concentrations. The copolymers could be used for prevention and treatment of bacterial and viral infections. Moreover, these copolymers form are stimuli sensitive polymers and can be used for the recovery of biomolecules. The methodology can be extended to other ligands such as sialic acid and used for preventing influenza and/or rotavirus infections. It also provides a method for the synthesis of copolymers wherein polymers comprising sequences of specific ligands are required.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2004
    Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Mohan Gopalkrishna Kulkarni, Jayant Jagannath Khandare
  • Patent number: 6818684
    Abstract: The present invention is directed, in part, to improved polymer compositions and processes for preparing same. Specifically, in one embodiment, there is provided a process for preparing a polymer, wherein the process comprises: providing a reaction mixture comprising a portion of at least one polar monomer and at least one multivalent cation; adding the remaining portion of the polar monomer to the reaction mixture; and polymerizing the monomer to form the polymer. In certain embodiments, the reaction mixture in the providing step comprises at least two molar equivalents or greater of the total amount of polar monomer with respect to one molar equivalent of multivalent cation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2004
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Company
    Inventor: Robert Victor Slone
  • Patent number: 6818376
    Abstract: The present invention provides a cross-linker monomer of formula 1, a photoresist polymer derived from a monomer comprising the same, and a photoresist composition comprising the photoresist polymer. The cross-linking unit of the photoresist polymer can be hydrolyzed (or degraded or broken) by an acid generated from a photoacid generator on the exposed region. It is believed that this acid degradation of the cross-linking unit increases the contrast ratio between the exposed region and the unexposed region. The photoresist composition of the present invention has improved pattern profile, enhanced adhesiveness, excellent resolution, sensitivity, durability and reproducibility. where A, B, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and k are as defined herein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2004
    Assignee: Hynix Semiconductor Inc.
    Inventors: Geun Su Lee, Jae Chang Jung, Ki Ho Baik
  • Patent number: 6811960
    Abstract: The present invention provides photoresist monomers, photoresist polymers derived from the same, processes for producing such photoresist polymers, photoresist compositions comprising such polymers, and processes for producing a photoresist pattern using such photoresist compositions. In particular, photoresist monomers of the present invention comprise a moiety of Formula 4: where R1, R2, R3 and R4 are those defined herein. Photoresist polymers of the present invention have a relatively high etching resistance, and therefore are useful in a thin resist process and a bilayer photoresist process. Moreover, photoresist polymers of the present invention have a high contrast ratio between an exposed region and a non-exposed region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2004
    Assignee: Hyundai Electronics Industries Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Geun Su Lee, Jae Chang Jung, Min Ho Jung, Ki Ho Baik
  • Patent number: 6806025
    Abstract: Photoresist monomers of following Formula 1, photoresist polymers thereof, and photoresist compositions containing the same. The photoresist composition has excellent etching resistance, heat resistance and adhesiveness to a wafer, and is developable in aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution. In addition, the photoresist composition has low light absorbance at 157 nm wavelength, and thus is suitable for a photolithography process using ultraviolet light sources such as VUV (157 nm) in fabricating a minute circuit for a high integration semiconductor device. wherein, X1, X2, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6, Y7, Y8, l and m are as defined in the specification of the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2004
    Assignee: Hynix Semiconductor Inc.
    Inventors: Geun Su Lee, Jae Chang Jung, Ki Soo Shin
  • Patent number: 6803172
    Abstract: An organic anti-reflective material, in particular one which prevents back reflection from the surface of or lower layers in the semiconductor device and eliminates the standing waves and reflective notching due to the optical properties of lower layers on the wafer, and due to the changes in the thickness of the photosensitive film applied thereon. The organic anti-reflective polymer is useful for forming ultrafine patterns of 64M, 256M, 1G, and 4G DRAM semiconductor devices. A composition containing such an organic anti-reflective polymer, and an anti-reflective coating formed therefrom and a preparation method thereof are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2004
    Assignee: Hynix Semiconductor Inc.
    Inventors: Min-ho Jung, Joong-il Choi
  • Patent number: 6794110
    Abstract: A polymer blend is provided for use in a lithographic photoresist composition, particularly a chemical amplification photoresist. In a preferred embodiment, the polymer blend is substantially transparent to deep ultraviolet radiation, i.e., radiation of a wavelength less than 250 nm, including wavelengths of 157 nm, 193 nm and 248 nm, and has improved sensitivity and resolution. Processes for preparing and using the polymer blend are also provided, as are lithographic photoresist compositions that contain the polymer blend.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2004
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Gregory Breyta, Hiroshi Ito, Hoa D. Truong
  • Patent number: 6794467
    Abstract: The invention discloses a process for the preparation of polymeric absorbents useful for gelling organic liquids. The process comprises mixing one or more monomers with a cross-linking agent, a free radical initiator, an optional solvent, optionally in the presence of a transition metal source and subjecting the mixture so obtained to a conventional polymerisation method. The polymer is removed, crushed to obtain polymer powder, washed with solvent and dried by conventional methods to remove unreacted monomers, followed by swelling in alcohols to obtain the desired product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2004
    Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Inventors: Ashish Kishor Lele, Shyni Varghese, Manohar Virupax Badiger, Raghunath Anant Mashelkar
  • Patent number: 6765078
    Abstract: A process for preparing polyacrylates, characterized in that the monomer mixture for preparing the polyacrylates is composed of at least 70% by weight of at least one acrylic monomer of the general formula where R1 is H or CH3 and R2 is H or an alkyl chain having 1-20 carbon atoms, the monomers are polymerized in the presence of at least one free-radical initiator by free-radical polymerization with at least one thioester as polymerization regulator, the average molecular weight of the polyacrylates is in the range from 250,000 g/mol to 1,000,000 g/mol, and the molecular weight distribution of the polyacrylates, Mw/Mn, is <4.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2004
    Assignee: tesa AG
    Inventors: Marc Husemann, Stephan Zöllner, Martin Losch
  • Patent number: 6762263
    Abstract: Processes for the controlled radical polymerization of acrylic and related polymers to produce improved low VOC coating materials, or powder coating compositions, the novel polymers so produced, the catalyst systems employed, processes for application of the improved coatings, coatings so produced and objects coated on at least one surface with the novel coatings are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2004
    Assignee: ATOFINA Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter A. Callais, Puvin Pichai, Michael G. Moskal, Olivier Guerret
  • Patent number: 6759483
    Abstract: A novel one-pot cost efficient process for the preparation of homo-, co- and terpolymers of p-hydroxystyrene or substituted p-hydroxystyrene and alkyl acrylates. The process involves polymerization of esters of p-hydroxystyrene (or its substituted analogs), alkyl acrylate monomers and/or one or more of ethylenically unsaturated monomers in an alcohol solvent in the presence of a free radical initiator. The reaction mixture containing the so formed polymer is subjected to transesterification conditions using a catalytic amount of catalyst to result in co- and/or terpolymers of p-hydroxystyrene without cleavage of the alkyl ester in the acrylate repeat unit, and then removing the catalyst from the system. Preferred embodiments include homopolymers of p-hydroxystyrene, copolymer of p-hydroxystyrene and tert-butyl acrylate and terpolymer of p-hydroxystyrene, tert-butyl acrylate and styrene. These polymers have a wide variety of applications including as photoresists in microelectronics industry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2004
    Assignee: Chemfirst Electronic Materials L.P.
    Inventors: Michael T. Sheehan, James R. Sounik
  • Patent number: 6759491
    Abstract: The use of concurrent reverse and normal initiation processes in an ATRP enables the use of highly active catalysts under “reverse ATRP” conditions and leads to the synthesis of well-defined polymers with low molecular weight distributions while employing much lower levels of the transition metal in the system. This dual activation/initiating system allows use of active catalysts that are added to the reaction in an oxidatively stable form. The benefits of this dual initiating system can be attained in bulk, solution and multi-phase ATRP processes, including emulsions, miniemulsions and polymerization from surfaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2004
    Assignee: Carnegie Mellon University
    Inventors: Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Jérôme Gromada, Mei Li
  • Patent number: 6747111
    Abstract: A free radical polymerization process suitable for synthesizingpolymers is disclosed. The process utilizes novel sulfur based chain transfer agents and is widely compatible over a range of monomers and reaction conditions. Novel polymers having low pollydispersity and predictable specific polymer architecture and molecular weight are produced by the process. The polymers produced by the process are suitable for use as binders in automotive OEM and refinish coatings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2004
    Assignees: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
    Inventors: John Chiefari, Roshan Tyrrel Mayadunne, Graeme Moad, Ezio Rizzardo, San Hoa Thang