Determining Constituents In Eye Patents (Class 600/318)
  • Publication number: 20040147820
    Abstract: The determination of blood glucose in an individual is carried out by projecting illuminating light into an eye of the individual to illuminate the retina with the light having wavelengths that are absorbed by rhodopsin and with the intensity of the light varying in a prescribed temporal manner. The light reflected from the retina is detected to provide a signal corresponding to the intensity of the detected light, and the detected light signal is analyzed to determine the changes in form from that of the illuminating light. For a biased sinusoidal illumination, these changes can be expressed in terms of harmonic content of the detected light. The changes in form of the detected light are related to the ability of rhodopsin to absorb light and regenerate, which in turn is related to the concentration of blood glucose, allowing a determination of the relative concentration of blood glucose.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 15, 2003
    Publication date: July 29, 2004
    Applicant: Fovioptics, Inc.
    Inventors: Wilson Routt, Mark J. Rice
  • Publication number: 20040127778
    Abstract: Methods and systems of the present invention identify the presence of and/or the concentration of a selected analyte in a subject by: (a) illuminating a selected region of the eye of a subject with an optical excitation beam, wherein the excitation beam wavelength is selected to generate a resonant Raman spectrum of the selected analyte with a signal strength that is at least 100 times greater than Raman spectrums generated by non-resonant wavelengths and/or relative to signals of normal constituents present in the selected region of the eye; (b) detecting a resonant Raman spectrum corresponding to the selected illuminated region of the eye; and (c) identifying the presence, absence and/or the concentration of the selected analyte in the subject based on said detecting step. The apparatus may also be configured to be able to obtain biometric data of the eye to identify (confirm the identity of) the subject.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 25, 2003
    Publication date: July 1, 2004
    Inventors: James L. Lambert, Mark S. Borchert
  • Patent number: 6757555
    Abstract: An ophthalmologic apparatus has a first light source for the measurement of a blood flow velocity by the Doppler shift method, and a second light source which differs in wavelength from the first light source and used for tracking of a blood vessel to be measured. This apparatus can simultaneously obtain a blood oxygen concentration from the difference in reflectance between two light sources from the measurement position on the blood vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yoshimi Kohayakawa
  • Patent number: 6721583
    Abstract: The invention provides methods for the use of Raman spectroscopy to non-invasively detect molecular characteristics of the constituents of the aqueous humor, vitreous humor, lens or retina. The method can be employed for the detection of molecular changes underlying ocular pathologies. In one embodiment of the invention, the method involves the steps of introducing light into the eye of the subject using a laser; collecting Raman spectra emitted from the eye; dispersing the collected Raman spectra onto a detector; and analyzing detected Raman spectral data to identify a molecular change related to an ocular pathology. The non-invasive method provided by the invention makes use of techniques and equipment that enable detection of Raman spectra with light intensities that fall within acceptable safety standards.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 13, 2004
    Assignee: The United States of America
    Inventors: Anthony J. Durkin, Marwood N. Ediger, Vivian M. Chenault
  • Patent number: 6699198
    Abstract: An ocular blood-flow meter includes an optical system for applying measuring light to a blood vessel of a subject eye, and for receiving light scattered by the blood vessel of the subject eye. A mechanism is provided for changing a direction in which the measuring light is applied and a direction in which the scattered light is received so as to enable a plurality of measurements in different directions. A controller performs the plurality of measurements in the different directions by using the optical system and the mechanism so as to obtain information concerning a blood flow. An output device provides a received-light signal obtained by the optical system or the information concerning the blood flow. An input device enables an operator to select a re-measurement operation in a desired direction from the different directions and to instruct the selected re-measurement operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2004
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yasuyuki Numajiri
  • Patent number: 6681127
    Abstract: An ophthalmic lens comprising a receptor moiety can be used to determine the amount of an analyte in an ocular fluid. The receptor moiety can bind either a specific analyte or a detectably labeled competitor moiety. The amount of detectably labeled competitor moiety which is displaced from the receptor moiety by the analyte is measured and provides a means of determining analyte concentration in an ocular fluid, such as tears, aqueous humor, or interstitial fluid. The concentration of the analyte in the ocular fluid, in turn, indicates the concentration of the analyte in a fluid or tissue sample of the body, such as blood or intracellular fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 20, 2004
    Assignee: Novartis AG
    Inventor: Wayne Front March
  • Publication number: 20030225321
    Abstract: There are many inventions described and illustrated herein. In one aspect, the present invention is a system and technique for non-invasively measuring, monitoring, inspecting, characterizing, determining and/or evaluating the blood glucose level in the aqueous humor of the eye of a patient (for example, a diabetic). In one embodiment, the present invention employs a plurality of wavelengths of light (for example, more than three) to measure, monitor, characterize, determine and/or evaluate the blood glucose level or concentration of a patient. The plurality of wavelengths of light may be directed into the aqueous humor of the eye and the reflected light (i.e., the light reflected by the eye) is detected and analyzed to provide information which is representative of the blood glucose level or concentration of the patient.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 27, 2003
    Publication date: December 4, 2003
    Inventors: Gerard L. Cote, Justin S. Baba
  • Patent number: 6626537
    Abstract: A method of monitoring a subject for medical conditions includes causing light to impinge on at least one eye of the subject, directing reflected light from such light beam to photosensors, converting the received reflected light to corresponding electrical signals which are delivered to a processor. Processing the signals by effecting a comparison between stored information regarding the medical condition and the data provided by the monitoring to determine if an undesired medical condition exists and, if so, communicating such result. The cycle is repeated at predetermined intervals which may be short or prolonged. The method may be employed for a wide variety of medical conditions and preferably is employed with frequent cyclic monitoring for conditions such as miosis, carbon monoxide poisoning, and blood flow related conditions. A related apparatus is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2003
    Assignee: West Virginia University
    Inventors: James Odom, James Smith, Robert Craven, Ahmed El-Sherbeeny
  • Patent number: 6556853
    Abstract: A spectral bio-imaging method for enhancing pathologic, physiologic, metabolic and health related spectral signatures of an eye tissue, the method comprising the steps of (a) providing an optical device for eye inspection being optically connected to a spectral imager; (b) illuminating the eye tissue with light via the iris, viewing the eye tissue through the optical device and spectral imager and obtaining a spectrum of light for each pixel of the eye tissue; and (c) attributing each of the pixels a color or intensity according to its spectral signature, thereby providing an image enhancing the spectral signatures of the eye tissue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2003
    Assignee: Applied Spectral Imaging Ltd.
    Inventors: Dario Cabib, Michael Adel, Robert A. Buckwald, Eli Horn
  • Publication number: 20030050544
    Abstract: The determination of blood glucose in an individual is carried out by projecting illuminating light into an eye of the individual to illuminate the retina with the light having wavelengths that are absorbed by rhodopsin and with the intensity of the light varying in a prescribed temporal manner. The light reflected from the retina is detected to provide a signal corresponding to the intensity of the detected light, and the detected light signal is analyzed to determine the changes in form from that of the illuminating light. For a biased sinusoidal illumination, these changes can be expressed in terms of harmonic content of the detected light. The changes in form of the detected light are related to the ability of rhodopsin to absorb light and regenerate, which in turn is related to the concentration of blood glucose, allowing a determination of the relative concentration of blood glucose.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 22, 2001
    Publication date: March 13, 2003
    Inventors: Wilson Routt, Mark J. Rice
  • Patent number: 6477394
    Abstract: Illuminating light of selected wavelengths in the visible or infrared range is projected through the pupil of the eye onto the fundus, and the light reflected back and out through the pupil is detected and analyzed, preferably using the area of the optic disk for analyzing the retinal vessels overlying the optic disk. Specific wavelengths of illuminating light may be chosen for each blood component to be analyzed depending on the spectral characteristics of the substance being analyzed. The reflected image from the retina may be used to measure non-photoreactive blood components such as hemoglobin, and photoreactive components such as bilirubin. For the measurement of photoreactive components, images may be taken before and after, or during, illumination of the eye with light at wavelengths which will affect the photoreactive analyte, enabling measurements of the concentration of the analyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2002
    Assignee: Fovioptics, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark J. Rice, Robert H. Sweat, Jr., James M. Rioux, William T. Williams, Wilson Routt
  • Publication number: 20020151774
    Abstract: A non-invasive spectral measurement of a native, diagnostic or treatment component in blood or tissue, illuminates the back of the eye and collects return light that has passed through and been reflected from choroidal or retinal tissue. Spectral analysis detects a retinal tissue state, or detects the level of a blood or serum constituent, which may be a native constituent or a dye, marker or pharmacological agent. Time-resolved or spectral decay monitoring may be used to assess organ functioning, e.g., by administering a serum-carried indicator of uptake, clearance or binding rate for specific organs. Circulating cells or material diagnostic of different conditions may also be detected by spectral analysis, either directly, or by tagging with a suitable label.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 28, 2002
    Publication date: October 17, 2002
    Applicant: UMASS/WORCESTER
    Inventors: Babs R. Soller, Bilal Saleh, Edward Chaum, Markus E. Testorf, Michael Fiddy
  • Patent number: 6442409
    Abstract: A system for testing for the existence of a biomedical condition of an animal test subject having first and second devices for projecting radiant energy. The first device for projecting radiant energy projects a beam of radiant energy into and through the tissue of a portion of the animal test subject. The second device for projecting radiant energy is implanted in the body of the animal test subject and projects a second beam of radiant energy out of the body in response to the projected radiation of the first radiant energy source. The second device for projecting radiant energy can be a mirror that reflects the first beam of radiant energy or it can be a source of radiant energy, such as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, that emits a specific wavelength of light when activated by the first device for projecting radiant energy. A detector positioned outside the body and relative to the second device for projecting radiant energy detects the second beam of radiant energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2002
    Inventor: Gholam A. Peyman
  • Publication number: 20020072658
    Abstract: Illuminating light of selected wavelengths in the visible or infrared range is projected through the pupil of the eye onto the fundus, and the light reflected back and out through the pupil is detected and analyzed, preferably using the area of the optic disk for analyzing the retinal vessels overlying the optic disk. Specific wavelengths of illuminating light may be chosen for each blood component to be analyzed depending on the spectral characteristics of the substance being analyzed. The reflected image from the retina may be used to measure non-photoreactive blood components such as hemoglobin, and photoreactive components such as bilirubin. For the measurement of photoreactive components, images may be taken before and after, or during, illumination of the eye with light at wavelengths which will affect the photoreactive analyte, enabling measurements of the concentration of the analyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 12, 2001
    Publication date: June 13, 2002
    Applicant: Fovioptics, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark J. Rice, Robert H. Sweat, James M. Rioux, William T. Williams, Wilson Routt
  • Publication number: 20020049389
    Abstract: Utilization of a contact device placed on the eye in order to detect physical and chemical parameters of the body as well as the non-invasive delivery of compounds according to these physical and chemical parameters, with signals being transmitted continuously as electromagnetic waves, radio waves, infrared and the like. One of the parameters to be detected includes non-invasive blood analysis utilizing chemical changes and chemical products that are found in the conjunctiva and in the tear film. A transensor mounted in the contact device laying on the cornea or the surface of the eye is capable of evaluating and measuring physical and chemical parameters in the eye including non-invasive blood analysis. The system utilizes eye lid motion and/or closure of the eye lid to activate a microminiature radio frequency sensitive transensor mounted in the contact device. The signal can be communicated by wires or radio telemetered to an externally placed receiver.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 23, 2001
    Publication date: April 25, 2002
    Inventor: Marcio Marc Abreu
  • Publication number: 20010034478
    Abstract: A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 9, 2001
    Publication date: October 25, 2001
    Inventors: James L. Lambert, Mark S. Borchert
  • Patent number: 6305804
    Abstract: Illuminating light of selected wavelengths in the visible or infrared range is projected through the pupil of the eye onto the fundus, and the light reflected back and out through the pupil is detected and analyzed, preferably using the area of the optic disk for analyzing the retinal vessels overlying the optic disk. Specific wavelengths of illuminating light may be chosen for each blood component to be analyzed depending on the spectral characteristics of the substance being analyzed. The reflected image from the retina may be used to measure non-photoreactive blood components such as hemoglobin, and photoreactive components such as bilirubin. For the measurement of photoreactive components, images may be taken before and after, or during, illumination of the eye with light at wavelengths which will affect the photoreactive analyte, enabling measurements of the concentration of the analyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2001
    Assignee: Fovioptics, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark J. Rice, Robert H. Sweat, Jr., James M. Rioux, William T. Williams, Wilson Routt
  • Publication number: 20010031914
    Abstract: The concentration of glucose in the anterior chamber of an eye is non-invasively measured by guiding a beam through a polarizer (4), a quarter wave plate (6), a polarization modulator (20), and an analyzer (7). After initializing the polarizer and the analyzer to extinguish the beam, it is guided parallel to the iris (56) of the eye (50) and introduced into the anterior chamber (57), wherein it is refracted, impinges on and is reflected from the iris, and exits the anterior chamber approximately collinear with the portion (55A) of the beam incident on the anterior chamber. The beam then is guided onto a detector (10), and a sufficient signal is applied to the polarization modulator to extinguish the beam. The signal represents the glucose concentration in the patient's blood.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 8, 2001
    Publication date: October 18, 2001
    Applicant: TECMED, INCORPORATED (a New Mexico corporation)
    Inventors: Garth W. Gobeli, Alan J. Leszinske
  • Patent number: 6302850
    Abstract: A fundus blood flow metering method includes a series of steps of carrying out alignment of the positional relation with an eye to be examined, carrying out aiming of a blood vessel to be measured, and measuring a velocity of blood flow while tracking the blood vessel so as to track and capture eye movement. After the sequential operation, the direction of incidence of a measuring beam is switched to another direction and the series of steps are again carried out for the same blood vessel, starting from the alignment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2001
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Mamoru Tsukada
  • Patent number: 6246893
    Abstract: The concentration of glucose in the anterior chamber of an eye is non-invasively measured by guiding a beam through a polarizer (4), a quarter wave plate (6), a polarization modulator (20), and an analyzer (7). After initializing the polarizer and the analyzer to extinguish the beam, it is guided parallel to the iris (56) of the eye (50) and introduced into the anterior chamber (57), wherein it is refracted, impinges on and is reflected from the iris, and exits the anterior chamber approximately collinear with the portion (55A) of the beam incident on the anterior chamber. The beam then is guided onto a detector (10), and a sufficient signal is applied to the polarization modulator to extinguish the beam. The signal represents the glucose concentration in the patient's blood.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2001
    Assignee: TecMed Incorporated
    Inventor: Garth W. Gobeli
  • Patent number: 6149589
    Abstract: In the spectroreflectometry oxygenation measuring method and device, a light source produces a light beam having a spectral bandwidth including the wavelengths from 450 nm to 850 nm. A first optical system propagates the light beam from the light source to a two-dimensional area of the fundus of a patient's eye, the light beam being reflected at least in part by the fundus of the patient's eye to produce a reflected light beam. A detector unit detects the spectral content of the reflected light beam and produces a signal indicative of the spectral content of this reflected light beam. A second optical system propagates the reflected light beam from the fundus of the patient's eye to the detector unit. This second optical system comprises an optical scanning sub-system for scanning a plurality of points of the two-dimensional area of the fundus of the patient's eye.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: Universite de Montreal
    Inventors: Vasile Diaconu, Jocelyn Faubert
  • Patent number: 5919132
    Abstract: In the spectroreflectometry oxygenation measuring method and device, a light source produces a light beam having a spectral bandwidth including the wavelengths from 450 nm to 850 nm. A first optical system propagates the light beam from the light source to the fundus of a patient's eye, the light beam being reflected at least in part by the fundus of the patient's eye to produce a reflected light beam. A detector unit detects the spectral content of the reflected light beam and produces a signal indicative of this spectral content. A second optical system propagates an axial central portion of the reflected light beam along a predetermined propagation path from the fundus of the patient's eye to the detector unit. To that effect, the second optical system comprises a mirror defining an angle of 45.degree.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: Universite de Montreal
    Inventors: Jocelyn Faubert, Vasile Diaconu
  • Patent number: 5884630
    Abstract: Dry eyes are more objectively and exactly diagnosed on the basis a rate of decrease in corneal surface temperature due to the heat vaporization in tear evaporation as determined by measuring corneal surface temperatures in time course from one blinking to next blinking of eyes of patients by an infrared radiation thermometry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1999
    Assignee: Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hiroshi Fujishima
  • Patent number: 5882301
    Abstract: Relative directions of excitation and photoreceiving optical systems are so set that an angle formed by optical axes thereof in the air is 14.degree., and an eyeball is fixed in such a direction that its ocular axis divides the angle formed by the optical axes into two equal parts. On a light incidence side of a one-dimensional solid-state image pickup device of the photoreceiving optical system, a slit is arranged for inputting measuring light components generated from portions of the eyeball having different depth positions on an excitation light beam in photoelectric conversion elements of different positions of the image pickup device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1999
    Inventor: Akitoshi Yoshida
  • Patent number: 5776060
    Abstract: The method and apparatus for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within a retinal vessel illuminates the retinal vessel with light having a combination of wavelengths selected to reduce the error in the measured blood oxygen saturation. The oxygen saturation measuring method and apparatus illuminates a retinal vessel with light having the selected combination of wavelengths. For example, the oxygen saturation measuring method and apparatus can illuminate the retinal vessel with light having a first wavelength between 460 nm and 503 nm, a second wavelength between 600 nm, and 770 nm and a third wavelength between 770 nm and 1000 nm. The oxygen saturation measuring method and apparatus then measures the transmittance of the blood within the retinal vessel in response to the illumination at each of the selected wavelengths.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1998
    Assignee: University of Alabama in Huntsville
    Inventors: Matthew H. Smith, Russell A. Chipman, Thomas E. Minnich