Using Plural Fluidized Bed Furnaces Patents (Class 75/450)
  • Patent number: 9327986
    Abstract: The invention refers to a recycling process of a so-called gaseous flow (106) of CO2 essentially containing molecules of CO2, said process comprising the following steps: heating of said gaseous flow of CO2 at a pyrolysis temperature of the material containing carbon (104); pyrolysis of a load of a carbon-containing material (104) containing elements of carbon by said gaseous flow, said pyrolysis reducing the molecules of CO2 by said elements of carbon to produce a first gaseous flow (110) essentially containing molecules of carbon monoxide (CO) at high temperature; oxidation of said molecules of carbon monoxide (CO) by elements of oxygen (O), said oxidation producing a second gaseous flow (114) essentially containing molecules of CO2; reduction of said molecules of CO2 of said second gaseous flow (114), said reduction supplying a third gaseous flow (120) essentially containing molecules of carbon monoxide (CO). It also refers to a system to perform such a process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2016
    Assignee: SEE—Soluções, Energia e Meio Ambiente Ltda.
    Inventor: Raymond François Guyomarc'h
  • Patent number: 8561556
    Abstract: An installation for combustion (1) of carbon-containing solids includes an oxide reducing reactor (2), a first cyclone (5), a recuperator (6), an oxidation reactor (3), a second cyclone (4), wherein flows an oxide which is reduced then oxidized in each of the two reactors (2 and 3). In the installation, the fuel is ground before being introduced into the reduction reactor (3). The reduced size of the solid fuel particles enables more complete and faster combustion and enables almost 100% production of fly ashes which are separated from the circulating oxides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2013
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Corine Beal
  • Patent number: 8016910
    Abstract: A method for producing liquid pig iron or liquid steel intermediate products from fine-particled material containing iron oxide. The fine-particled material is prereduced in at least one prereduction stage and reduced in a final reduction stage to sponge iron. The sponge iron is melted in a melt-down gasification zone, with carbon carriers and oxygen-containing gas supplied. A CO- and H2-containing reduction gas is generated and introduced into the final reduction stage, is converted there, is drawn off and introduced into at least one prereduction stage, converted there and drawn off. A first quantity fraction of the fine-particled material containing iron oxide is introduced into a melt-down gasification zone via at least one prereduction stage and one final reduction stage, and a further quantity fraction of the fine-particled material containing iron oxide is introduced into the melt-down gasification zone directly or together with the carbon carriers and the oxygen-containing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2011
    Assignee: Siemens Vai Metals Technologies GmbH
    Inventor: Bogdan Vuletic
  • Patent number: 7803268
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and a plant for producing low 15 temperature coke, in which granular coal and possibly further solids are heated to a temperature of 700 to 1050° C. in a fluidized-bed reactor (2) by means of an oxygen-containing gas. To improve the utilization of energy it is proposed to introduce a first gas or gas mixture from below through at least one gas supply tube (3) into a mixing chamber region (8) of the reactor (2), the gas supply tube (3) being at least partly surrounded by a stationary annular fluidized bed (6) which is fluidized by supplying fluidizing gas. The gas velocities of the first gas or gas mixture and of the fluidizing gas for the annular fluidized bed (6) are adjusted such that the Particle-Froude-Numbers in the gas supply tube (3) are between 1 and 100, in the annular fluidized bed (6) between 0.02 and 2 and in the 25 mixing chamber (8) between 0.3 and 30.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignee: Outotec Oyj
    Inventors: Andreas Orth, Martin Hirsch, Peter Weber
  • Patent number: 7713329
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus and method for manufacturing molten iron. The method for manufacturing molten iron includes producing a mixture containing iron by drying and mixing iron-containing ore and additives, passing the mixture containing iron through one or more successively-connected fluidized beds so that the mixture is reduced and calcined to thereby perform conversion into a reduced material, forming a coal packed bed, which is a heat source in which the reduced material has been melted, charging the reduced material to the coal packed bed and supplying oxygen to the coal-packed bed to manufacture iron, and supplying reduced gas exhausted from the coal-packed bed to the fluidized bed, wherein in the conversion of the mixture to a reduced material, oxygen is directly supplied and combusted in an area where reduced gas flows to the fluidized bed. The apparatus for manufacturing molten iron of the invention uses this method for manufacturing molten iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2010
    Assignees: POSCO, Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH & Co.
    Inventors: Myoung-Kyun Shin, Jun-Hyuk Lee
  • Patent number: 7608128
    Abstract: A direct reduction process for a metalliferous material includes supplying a solid carbonaceous material and an oxygen-containing gas into a fluidized bed in a first vessel and generating heat by reactions between the oxygen-containing gas and the solid carbonaceous material and any other oxidizable solids and gases in the fluidized bed and discharging a hot off-gas stream containing entrained solids. The process also includes supplying the metalliferous material to a fluidized bed in a second vessel and supplying the hot off-gas stream containing entrained solids from the first vessel to the fluidized bed in the second vessel and partially reducing the metalliferous feed material in the solid state in the fluidized bed and discharging a product stream of partially reduced metalliferous material and an off-gas stream containing entrained solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2009
    Assignee: Outotec Oyj
    Inventors: Andreas Orth, Heinz Eichberger, Donald Keith Philp, Jeantine Van Gemund, legal representative, Rod Dry
  • Patent number: 7597739
    Abstract: In a process for reducing iron-ore-containing particulate material in at least a two-stage process, reducing gas is conducted through at least two reaction zones consecutively arranged in series and formed by a moving particulate material and the particulate material passes through the reaction zones in reverse order to the reducing gas, with the particulate material being heated in the reaction zone arranged first for the particulate material and being reduced in the further reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH & Co.
    Inventors: Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Johann Reidetschlager, Johannes Schenk, Siegfried Zeller, Konstantin Milionis, Hanspeter Ofner
  • Patent number: 7588625
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus and method for manufacturing molten irons. The method for manufacturing molten irons includes providing a mixture containing iron by drying and mixing iron ores and additives, passing the mixture containing iron through one or more successively-connected fluidized beds to convert the mixture into a reducing material that is reduced and calcined, forming a coal packed bed, which is a heat source in which the reducing material has been melted, charging the reducing material to the coal packed bed and supplying oxygen to the coal packed bed to manufacture molten irons, and supplying reducing gas exhausted from the coal packed bed to the fluidized bed. In the providing a mixture containing iron, exhaust gas exhausted from the fluidized bed is branched to dry at least one of the iron ores and the additives. The apparatus for manufacturing molten irons uses this method for manufacturing molten irons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2009
    Assignees: Posco, Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH & Co.
    Inventors: Kung-Won Nam, Min-Young Cho, Young-Chae Jung, Young-Jae Jang, Franz Hauzenberger
  • Patent number: 7533620
    Abstract: An installation for combustion (1) of carbon-containing solids includes an oxide reducing reactor (2), a first cyclone (5), a recuperator (6), an oxidation reactor (3), a second cyclone (4), wherein flows an oxide which is reduced then oxidized in each of the two reactors (2 and 3). In the installation, the fuel is ground before being introduced into the reduction reactor (3). The reduced size of the solid fuel particles enables more complete and faster combustion and enables almost 100% production of fly ashes which are separated from the circulating oxides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2009
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Corinne Beal
  • Patent number: 7033417
    Abstract: The invention relates to the reduction of fine ores, whereby in a multi-stage gas suspension preheater the fine ores are preheated, calcined and then reduced in at least one lowest heat exchanger stage with the addition of a reducing agent in a delivered hot gas stream. The principal part of the reducing heat treatment of the fine ores is carried out in a reactor loop constructed in the lowest heat exchanger stage of the gas suspension preheater. The reactor loop has an uptake conduit section and a curved section adjoining the uptake conduit section and with which the reactor loop opens into at least one precipitating cyclone which is disposed downstream and for this purpose a hot reducing gas is introduced into the rising hot gas stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2006
    Assignee: Polysius AG
    Inventors: Norbert Patzelt, Jürgen Klonus, Dietrich Menzel
  • Publication number: 20040237718
    Abstract: In a process for reducing iron-ore-containing particulate material in at least a two-stage process, reducing gas is conducted through at least two reaction zones consecutively arranged in series and formed by a moving particulate material and the particulate material passes through the reaction zones in reverse order to the reducing gas, with the particulate material being heated in the reaction zone arranged first for the particulate material and being reduced in the further reaction zone.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2004
    Publication date: December 2, 2004
    Applicant: VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau GmbH & Co.
    Inventors: Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Johann Reidetschlager, Johannes Schenk, Siegfried Zeller, Konstantin Milionis, Hanspeter Ofner
  • Patent number: 6736876
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reduction reactor (100) for supplying a reduced iron to a melter-gasifier (1) of a smelting reduction system includes an exhaust gas supply unit (3) for supplying an exhaust gas to a reduction gas supply tube (4) interconnecting the melter-gasifier (1) and fluidized bed reduction furnaces (20, 30, 40) when the pressure of the reduction gas in each fluidized bed reduction furnace radically decreases with the occurrence of pressure peak in the melter-gasifier (1). The fluidized bed reduction reactors further include iron ore flow blockage prevention units for directly bypassing some of the reduction gas from each iron ore discharge tube (33, 43) disposed between the neighboring furnaces to the scrubber (50) when the inner pressure of the melter-gasifier (1) radically increases with the occurrence of pressure peak, and a backup gas supply unit supplying a backup nitrogen gas to the bottom of each fluidized bed reduction furnace when a nozzle of a distribution plate (24, 34, 44) is clogged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2004
    Assignee: Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology
    Inventors: Myoung-Kyun Shin, Jun-Hyuk Lee, Sun-Kwang Jeong, Nag-Joon Choi, Hang-Goo Kim, Heung-Won Kang
  • Publication number: 20030159541
    Abstract: In a process for the gas reduction of particulate oxide-containing ores, in particular iron-oxide-containing material, in the fluidized-bed process at a pressure of <5 bars, wherein the ore by aid of a reducing gas produced from coal is heated, optionally also pre-reduced, in a fluidized-bed reactor (1) designed as a pre-heating stage (5), subsequently is reduced to sponge iron in at least one fluidized-bed reactor (2, 3) designed as a reduction stage (7, 8), the reducing gas via a reducing-gas feed duct (12) or reducing-gas duct (13) being conducted from the reduction stage (7, 8) to the pre-heating stage (5) in the opposite direction of the material to be reduced and conducted from stage to stage, and being drawn off as an export gas after purification, heat is supplied to the reducing gas fed to the reduction stage (7, 8) and/or pre-heating stage (5), namely by combustion, together with oxygen and/or air, of a portion of the reducing gas provided for the gas reduction in the reduction stage (7, 8) and/o
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2003
    Publication date: August 28, 2003
    Inventors: Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Franz Hauzenberger, Johannes Schenk, Sanghoon Joo
  • Patent number: 6585798
    Abstract: A smelting reduction apparatus which separates exhaust gas, which is exhausted from a melter-gasifier or a fluidized bed reactor, into dusts and reducing gas to supply them to each fluidized bed reactor respectively is disclosed, in which the smelting reduction apparatus includes a three-stage type fluidized bed reactor, a melter-gasifier for manufacturing molten pig iron by finally reducing the fine iron ores of which reaction is finished in a final fluidized bed reactor, and a dust separating device, which performs separation of exhausted gas from the melter-gasifier into dusts and reducing gas, so as to supply the separated reducing gas to a lower part of the final fluidized bed reactor, dusts having a larger particle sizes in the separated dusts to the melter-gasifier again, and fine dusts having a smaller particle sizes in the separated dusts to an upper part of a gas distributor of the final fluidized bed reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2003
    Assignees: Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology
    Inventors: Nag-Joon Choi, Sun-Kwang Jeong, Hang-Goo Kim, Heung-Won Kang, Hauzenberger Franz
  • Patent number: 6491738
    Abstract: A two-stage fluidized bed reducing apparatus and a reducing method for fine iron ore of a wide particle size distribution with an increased degree of utilization of the reducing gas. Fine iron particles dropping through the holes of a gas distributor can be recycled into the fluidized bed furnace, thereby preventing an impediment of the reducing gas flow due to abnormal defluidizing or channeling. A first fluidized bed furnace dries, pre-heats and pre-reduces the fine iron ore, and a second fluidized bed furnace finally reduces the pre-reduced iron ore. Downstream of the respective fluidized beds are installed intermediate hoppers and gas/solid sealing valves. Thus, the fine iron ore particles which drop through the holes of gas distributors during the abnormal operation are recycled to the furnaces. Accordingly, the gas flow is not impeded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2002
    Assignees: Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Il Ock Lee, Hang Goo Kim, Uoo Chang Jung, Nag Joon Choi
  • Publication number: 20020166412
    Abstract: A smelting reduction apparatus which separates exhaust gas, which is exhausted from a melter-gasifier or a fluidized bed reactor, into dusts and reducing gas to supply them to each fluidized bed reactor respectively is disclosed, in which the smelting reduction apparatus includes a three-stage type fluidized bed reactor, a melter-gasifier for manufacturing molten pig iron by finally reducing the fine iron ores of which reaction is finished in a final fluidized bed reactor, and a dust separating device, which performs separation of exhausted gas from the melter-gasifier into dusts and reducing gas, so as to supply the separated reducing gas to a lower part of the final fluidized bed reactor, dusts having a larger particle sizes in the separated dusts to the melter-gasifier again, and fine dusts having a smaller particle sizes in the separated dusts to an upper part of a gas distributor of the final fluidized bed reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 21, 2001
    Publication date: November 14, 2002
    Inventors: Nag-Joon Choi, Sun-Kwang Jeong, Hang-Goo Kim, Heung-Won Kang, Hauzenberger Franz
  • Publication number: 20020117024
    Abstract: In a process for the direct reduction of particulate iron-oxide-containing material by fluidization, a synthesis as is introduced as a reducing gas into several fluidized bed zones consecutively arranged in series for the reducing gas and the reducing as is conducted from one fluidized bed zone to another fluidized bed zone in counterflow to the particulate iron-oxide containing material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 15, 2002
    Publication date: August 29, 2002
    Applicant: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Siegfried Zeller, Konstantin Millionis, Johann Reidetschlager, Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Johann Zirngast, Johannes Schenk, Roy Hubert Whipp
  • Patent number: 6336954
    Abstract: A process for the direct reduction of particulate iron-oxide-containing material by fluidization. A synthesis gas is introduced as a reducing gas into several fluidized bed zones consecutively arranged in series for the reducing gas. The reducing gas is conducted from one fluidized bed zone to another fluidized bed zone in counterflow to the particulate iron-oxide containing material. In order to reduce operating costs and, in particular, the energy demand, the temperature of the iron-oxide-containing material is adjusted in the first fluidized bed zone to be either below 400° C. (and, preferably, below 350° C.), or above 580° C. (and preferably about 650° C.), or to a temperature ranging from 400° C. to 580° C. If the temperature of the iron-oxide-containing material in the first fluidized bed zone is adjusted to be below 400° C., the temperature range in the following fluidized bed zone between 400° C. and 580° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2002
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Siegfried Zeller, Konstantin Milionis, Johann Reidetschläger, Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Johann Zirngast, Johannes Schenk, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6235081
    Abstract: A method for producing a sponge metal from metal ore or iron ore which comprises reacting said metal ore or iron ore in a reduction zone with a CO— and H2-containing, reducing feed gas source which has been compressed, and after said reaction, withdrawing the remaining feed gas as an export gas from the reduction zone, wherein the CO— and H2-containing feed gas is introduced into the reduction zone form at least to gas sources, whereby upon a breakdown of one of the feed gas sources, at least a portion of the export gas recovered from the reduction zone is compressed, subjected to CO2 elimination recycled to the reduction zone together with the reducing feed gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2001
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventor: Johannes Wurm
  • Patent number: 6214083
    Abstract: In a method of producing liquid pig iron or liquid steel pre-products from iron-oxide-containing material, fine-particulate iron-oxide-containing material is reduced to fine-particulate sponge iron by the fluidized bed method by passing a reducing gas through at least one fluidized bed reduction stage (7, 8), and lumpy ore is reduced to lumpy sponge iron in a fixed bed reduction stage (28). The sponge iron is charged into a melting-gasifying zone (11) and is molten there under a supply of carbon carriers and oxygen-containing gas, in which a CO— and H2-containing reducing gas is generated for reducing the iron-oxide-containing material. To avoid treating the fine-particulate sponge iron separately from the lumpy sponge iron, the fine-particulate sponge is charged directly to the melting-gasifying zone (11) in an untreated condition and in fine-particulate form, and there, is melted together with the lumpy sponge iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventor: Horst Wiesinger
  • Patent number: 6149708
    Abstract: A process for producing sponge iron by directly reducing particulate, iron-oxide-containing material, wherein reducing gas that is formed from carbon carriers and an oxygen-containing gas in a melt-down gasifying zone is introduced into a reduction zone that contains the iron-oxide-containing material, characterized by the combination of the following characteristic features: (i) to the reduction zone, a reducing gas is fed which contains between iron-oxide-containing material 20 g and 100 g per Nm.sup.3 of a dust having a carbon content of between 30 mass % and 70 mass %; and (ii) the iron-oxide-containing material is exposed to the reducing gas for a time period that exceeds the period for a complete reduction. The process of the invention renders it possible to produce a sponge iron of elevated carbon content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Werner Leopold Kepplinger, Felix Wallner, Udo Gennari
  • Patent number: 6143053
    Abstract: In a process for producing sponge iron by direct reduction of iron-oxide-containing material, synthesis gas is mixed with top gas forming in the direct reduction of the iron-oxide-containing material and is utilized as a CO- and H.sub.2 -containing reducing gas for direct reduction and for heating the iron-oxide-containing material to a reduction temperature. To be able to save energy in an economically efficient manner when producing steel, especially in the refining process, direct reduction is carried out as follows: (1) in addition to the reducing gas, a carbon-containing gas, such as natural gas, or a gas having higher hydrocarbons is utilized for reduction; (2) the iron-oxide-containing material for a predetermined period of time exceeding the period necessary for complete reduction is exposed to the reducing gas and to the additionally supplied carbon-containing gas, and (3) a CO/CO.sub.2 ratio ranging between 2 and 5, preferably a ratio in excess of 2.5, is adjusted in the reducing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Johann Reidetschlager, Siegfried Zeller, Felix Wallner, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6063155
    Abstract: A process for conversion of iron oxide to iron carbide, including the steps of: providing a fluidized bed reactor having a metallizing zone and a carburizing zone; feeding iron oxide to the reactor; feeding a reducing gas to the reactor so as to provide reduced iron in the metallizing zone; and feeding a carburizing gas to the carburizing zone so as to provide a final iron carbide product in the carburizing zone having between about 2.2% wt. and about 6.5 wt. % carbon and at least about 80% wt. iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: Orinoco Iron, C.A.
    Inventors: Emilio Quero Masso, David Carrasquero
  • Patent number: 5997608
    Abstract: In a process for the production of molten pig iron or molten steel pre-products and sponge iron from charging materials consisting of iron ore and, if desired, fluxes, direct reduction of the charging materials to sponge iron is carried out in a fixed-bed reduction zone, the sponge iron is melted in a meltdown gasifying zone under supply of carbon carriers as well as an oxygen-containing gas and a CO- and H.sub.2 -containing reducing gas is produced which is fed to the reduction zone, is reacted there and is drawn off as an export gas, and the drawn-off export gas is subjected to CO.sub.2 elimination and for the production of sponge iron is along with part of the reducing gas formed in the meltdown gasifying zone as an at least largely CO.sub.2 free reducing gas conveyed to a further reduction zone for the direct reduction of iron ore.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1999
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Jorg Diehl, Gerald Rosenfellner, Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Konstantin Milionis, Dieter Siuka, Horst Wiesinger
  • Patent number: 5919281
    Abstract: The 2-stage fluidized bed furnace for pre-reducing a fine iron ore comprises a first stage fluidized bed furnace for receiving the fine iron ore from a storage hopper, discharging medium/small particle size iron ore to the upper part thereof, and reducing a coarse particle size iron ore while forming a bubbling fluidized bed; a second stage fluidized bed furnace for receiving the medium/small particle size iron ore discharged from the upper part of the first stage and reducing it while forming a turbulent fluidized bed; and a first hot cyclone for collecting the small particle size iron ore contained in the discharged gas from the second stage fluidized bed furnace, the first stage furnace being formed in an upper-narrowed, lower-expanded shape and comprising a narrow, upper portion, a transitional, slanted portion and a wide, lower portion, the second stage furnace being in an upper-expanded, lower-narrowed shape and comprising a wide, upper portion, a transitional, slanted portion and a narrow, lower portio
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignees: Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Dae Gyu Park, Suk In Park, Il Ock Lee
  • Patent number: 5912400
    Abstract: A method for reforming reducing gas in a fluidized bed process for reduction of ore in a series of ore reducing reactors, including the steps of: passing ore through a plurality of reducing reactors including a final reactor and at least one upstream reactor; flowing a reducing gas through the final reactor so as to reduce ore in the final reactor whereby a flow of partially spent reducing gas including methane and metallized iron dust exits the final reactor; mixing an oxygen source with the partially spent reducing gas so as to combust a portion of the methane with the oxygen source in the presence of the metallized iron dust and provide a reformed reducing gas; and flowing the reformed reducing gas to the upstream reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1999
    Assignee: Brifer International Ltd.
    Inventors: Oscar G. Dam, Wolfgang A. Albarran
  • Patent number: 5873926
    Abstract: In a process for reducing particulate oxide-containing material using the whirl bed method, the oxide-containing material, by means of reducing gas flowing from bottom to top, is maintained in the whirl layer, thus being reduced. In order to avoid or considerably reduce operational interruptions of the reduction process caused by sticking or fouling, the clear tube speed (superficial velocity) of the reducing gas, exclusively above the whirl layer, is continuously lowered along the total free height of a space above the whirl layer while the formation of further whirl formations is avoided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1999
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrienlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Siegfried Zeller, Karl-Heinz Zimmerbauer, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5871560
    Abstract: A direct reduction process is disclosed for iron oxide-containing materials. Synthesis gas is mixed with top gas produced during direct reduction of the iron oxide-containing materials and is used as reduction gas for directly reducing and heating the iron oxide-containing materials up to reduction temperature. In order to set the H.sub.2 S content at a predetermined value by a relatively simple technique and with a relatively simple equipment, at least part of the sulphur contained in the iron oxide-containing materials as H.sub.2 S produced during heating or direct reduction is added to the reduction gas together with the top gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1999
    Assignees: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Brifer International Ltd.
    Inventors: Roland Fluch, Karl Czermak, Gunter Peer, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5858058
    Abstract: A direct reduction process is disclosed for iron-oxide-containing materials. Synthesis gas is mixed with top gas produced during direct reduction of the iron-oxide-containing materials and is used as reduction gas for directly reducing iron-oxide-containing materials. In order to avoid or reduce metal dusting caused by an increased CO content of the reduction gas with a simple technique and equipment, the CO/CO.sub.2 ratio of the reduction gas is set at a predetermined value from 1 to 3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1999
    Assignees: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Brifer International Ltd.
    Inventors: Gerald Kern, Werner Leopold Kepplinger, Johannes Schenk, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5855643
    Abstract: In a process for the direct reduction of iron-oxide containing material, synthesis gas is mixed with top gas formed in the direct reduction of the iron-oxide containing material and is used as a reducing gas for direct reduction. In order to avoid metal dusting despite an elevated CO-content of the reducing gas, or to reduce metal dusting, in a procedurally simple and cost-saving manner while minimizing the energy demand, an H.sub.2 O content of between 1 and 2%, preferably amounting to about 1.5%, is achieved in the reducing gas by subjecting a partial volume of the top gas to CO.sub.2 scrubbing prior to being used as a reducing gas, wherein the top gas subjected to CO.sub.2 scrubbing is mixed with the synthesis gas, is brought to a predetermined temperature by direct water irrigation while being saturated with H.sub.2 O, after direct water irrigation is heated to a temperature above the saturation temperature by admixing CO.sub.2 -unscrubbed top gas, and subsequently is used as a reducing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1999
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Gerhard Cip, Konstantin Milionis, Sadat Morteza Guscheh, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5837031
    Abstract: An apparatus and method of producing iron carbide of predetermined quality is disclosed. The method of producing iron carbide (Fe.sub.3 C) comprises reducing and carburizing an iron-containing raw material containing iron oxides (e.g., hematite) or iron hydroxides as main components, wherein the raw material is partially reduced to a reduction ratio of 50 to 65% by a gas containing mainly hydrogen in a first stage of the reaction process, then the partially reduced raw material is further reduced and carburized with a gas containing mainly hydrogen and methane in a second stage of the reaction process to provide iron carbide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1998
    Assignees: Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Mitsubishi Corporation
    Inventors: Torakatsu Miyashita, Yoshio Uchiyama, Eiji Inoue, Junya Nakatani, Teruyuki Nakazawa, Satoru Iijima
  • Patent number: 5833734
    Abstract: With a process for the direct reduction of particulate iron-containing material by fluidization, reformed gas, at least partially freed from CO.sub.2, is supplied to a fluidized-bed reduction zone as a reducing gas and is carried off from the same as a top gas and at least a portion of the top gas together with reformed gas is utilized for direction reduction. To economize on parts of the plant that are impinged on by reducing gas and in order to achieve savings in terms of heating costs, CH.sub.4 and N.sub.2 are, in addition to CO.sub.2, at least partially removed by adsorption, from 50 to 100% of the reformed as and 0 to 100% of the top gas, and the tail gas removed from the reformed gas and/or the top gas by adsorption is utilized as a heating gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignees: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Brifer International Ltd.
    Inventors: Gerhard Cip, Gottfried Rossmann, Konstantin Milionis, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5785733
    Abstract: A reduction apparatus and a method for efficient reduction of fine iron ores of wide grain range comprising serially arranged a drying/preheating furnace, a first reducing furnace for prereduction and a second reduction furnace for final reduction, each working with bubbling fluidized bed and being connected each to a cyclone for capturing iron ore dust contained in the exhaust gases, having each a tapered shape smoothly expanded outwards and thus considerably decreasing elutriation of fine particles, increasing the reduction efficiency and enhancing the utilization of the reducing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1998
    Assignees: Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Il Ock Lee, Yong Ha Kim, Bong Jin Jung, Hang Goo Kim, Franz Hauzenberger
  • Patent number: 5690717
    Abstract: A process for producing iron carbide in a fluid bed reactor in which the pressure may be maintained in excess of the pressure at which the mole fraction of hydrogen in the process gas begins to decrease. The hydrogen concentration is increased above the equilibrium concentration for hydrogen at the temperature and pressure in the reactor. Further improvements are gained by preheating a iron ore reactor feed in which the iron oxide is primarily in the form of hematite under a reducing atmosphere, and using at least two fluid bed reactors in series.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1997
    Assignee: Iron Carbide Holdings, Ltd.
    Inventors: James E. Stevens, Arden W. Swanson
  • Patent number: 5676734
    Abstract: In a process for treating fine ore, the fine ore is dried by aid of a hot drying gas flowing around the ore particles of the fine ore, the drying gas, after having flown around the ore particles, is purified while releasing entrained dust ore particles and the dust ore particles are collected and admixed to the dried fine ore. In order to avoid process disturbances in the further processing of fine ore due to excessive portions of dust ore particles present within the fine ore,drying is effected in the whirl-bed, i.e., fluidized-bed method under simultaneous wind-screening of the fine ore, whereinthe drying gas is passed through the fine ore under formation of a whirl bed andthe speed of the drying gas is fixed at a rate at which entraining of dust ore particles having dimensions below a predetermined dimension is effected, andthat the dust ore particles entrained by the drying gas are separated, collected and admixed to the dried fine ore in dosed amounts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignees: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Brifer International Ltd.
    Inventors: Ernst Oberndorfer, Gero Tessmer, Rudolf Weidinger, Roy Hubert Whipp, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5674308
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing direct reduced iron from iron oxide fines. The iron oxide raw material are passed through a pre-heater having a spouted port then to a primary spouted bed circulating fluidizing bed reactor and then to a bubbling fluidizing bed reactor. The reaction of the strong reducing gas mixture, through this series of beds allows intimate contact between the fines and small particles with the reducing gas to facilitate the direct reduction of the iron oxide fines to metallized iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 7, 1997
    Assignee: Midrex International B.V. Rotterdam, Zurich Branch
    Inventors: David C. Meissner, Kimio Sugiyama, Isao Kobiyashi, Kenji Ohiraki, Shintaro Ano
  • Patent number: 5667556
    Abstract: This invention describes a method of reprocessing zinc- and iron oxide-containing residual material. Zinc- and iron oxide-containing dust and/or sludge is granulated with water, granules and carbonaceous material are fed to a circulating fluidized bed system, the gas-solids suspension circulated in the circulating fluidized bed system is fed to a second fluidized bed reactor, the solids discharged from the second fluidized bed reactor are recycled to the reactor of the circulating fluidized bed system, 50 to 75% by volume of the oxygen required to gasify the carbonaceous material are fed as fluidizing gas to the reactor of the circulating fluidized bed system and 25 to 50% by volume of said required oxygen are fed as a fluidizing gas and secondary gas to the second fluidized bed reactor, iron oxide-containing material is discharged from the reactor of the circulating fluidized bed system and zinc-containing material is discharged with the exhaust gas from the circulating fluidized bed system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1997
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Andreas Orth, Peter Weber, Uwe Harter, Ernst Wallis
  • Patent number: 5603748
    Abstract: In order to effect a reduction and a carburization to form Fe.sub.3 C to the highest possible degree in a relatively short time in an economical process, a treatment in two stages is effected in fluidized beds. The first stage is effected in a circulating fluidized bed system, in which the amount of solids circulated per hour is at least five times the weight of solids contained in the fluidized bed reactor and a major part of the iron content of the charge is pre-reduced. The remaining reduction and the partial or complete conversion to Fe.sub.3 C are effected in the second stage in a conventional fluidized bed. Water is condensed from the exhaust gas from the circulating fluidized bed system and that gas is strengthened by an addition of reducing gases and is reheated to the temperature which is required for the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1997
    Assignee: Lurgi Metallurgie GmbH
    Inventors: Martin Hirsch, Reza Husain, Alpaydin Saatci, Wolfgang Bresser
  • Patent number: 5560762
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the heat treatment of fine-grained iron ore and for the conversion of the heat-treated iron ore to metallic iron, whereina) the fine iron ore is reacted with at least one binder to produce particles having a particle size of >0.1 to 5 mm,b) the particles according to process stage (a) are dried,c) the particles dried according to process stage (b) are heat-treated at a temperature of 700.degree. to 1100.degree. C., andd) the heat-treated particles are reacted to form metallic iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 1, 1996
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft AG
    Inventors: Wolfgang Bresser, Martin Hirsch, Alpaydin Saatci
  • Patent number: 5527379
    Abstract: In order to effect a reduction and a carburization to form Fe.sub.3 C to the highest possible degree in a relatively short time in an economical process, a treatment in two stages is effected in fluidized beds. The first stage is effected in a circulating fluidized bed system, in which the amount of solids circulated per hour is at least five times the weight of solids contained in the fluidized bed reactor and a major part of the iron content of the charge is pre-reduced. The remaining reduction and the partial or complete conversion to Fe.sub.3 C are effected in the second stage in a conventional fluidized bed. Water is condensed from the exhaust gas from the circulating fluidized bed system and that gas is strengthened by an addition of reducing gases and is reheated to the temperature which is required for the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 18, 1996
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Martin Hirsch, Reza Husain, Alpaydin Saatci, Wolfgang Bresser
  • Patent number: 5439504
    Abstract: In a process for the direct reduction of particulate iron-oxide-containing material by the fluidized bed method, reformed gas is mixed with top gas forming in the direct reduction of the iron-oxide-containing material and is fed to a fluidized-bed reduction zone as a reducing gas. To lower the energy demand and utilizing the potential of the reducing gas, both the top gas and the reformed gas are subjected to CO.sub.2 scrubbing and the reducing gas formed by mixing top gas with reformed gas is adjusted to an H.sub.2 content ranging between 45 and 75%, preferably between 50 and 65%, and to a CO content ranging between 10 and 20%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1995
    Assignees: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Brifer International Ltd.
    Inventors: Karl Czermak, Konstantin Milionis, Johannes L. Schenk, Siegfried Zeller
  • Patent number: 5433767
    Abstract: In a first fluidized bed vessel containing an expanded fluidized bed, iron oxide-containing materials are reduced under weakly reducing conditions with solid carbonaceous reducing agents to or to less than the FeO state. In a second fluidized bed vessel containing an expanding fluidized bed the gas-solids suspension discharged from the first fluidized bed vessel is treated with a highly reducing fluidizing gas whereby the material is reduced in part to iron metal. From the gas-solid suspension discharged from the second fluidized bed vessel the carbonized carbonaceous material is separated and is recycled to the first fluidized bed vessel. The exhaust gas from which the carbonized carbonaceous material has been removed is purified and CO.sub.2 is removed therefrom and the exhaust gas is subsequently fed as a fluidizing gas to the second fluidized bed vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1995
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Wolfgang Bresser, Martin Hirsch, Bernd Kosters, Fritz Rose
  • Patent number: 5431711
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing direct reduced iron from iron oxide fines. The iron oxide raw material is conducted through a series of circulating fluidizable beds in which the fluidizing gas is a strong reducing gas mixture, which allows intimate contact between the fines and the reducing gas to facilitate the direct reduction of the iron oxide fines to metallized iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1995
    Assignee: Midrex International B.V. Rotterdam, Zurich Branch
    Inventor: David C. Meissner
  • Patent number: 5382277
    Abstract: A process is described in which iron oxide-containing materials are reduced by a treatment with a gas underpressure in series-connected fluidized bed reactors, wherein hydrocarbons are cracked to produce the fresh reducing gas, reducing gas is fed to the first fluidized bed reactor as a fluidizing gas, the gaseous effluent from the first fluidized bed reactor is dedusted and is then fed as a fluidizing gas to at least one further fluidized bed reactor is dedusted and is subsequently treated in a scrubber-cooler to remove substantially all H.sub.2 O and residual dust, purified gas is recycled as recycle gas to the first fluidized bed reactor and the iron oxide-containing materials are preheated and are subsequently fed to the last fluidized bed reactor. The hydrocarbons are cracked by an approximately stoichiometric steam stoichiometric steam reforming. The freshly produced reducing gas is fed to one or more fluidized bed reactors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1995
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Fritz Rose
  • Patent number: 5370727
    Abstract: A fluidized bed direct process is discharged for reducing raw iron ore fines and directly producing a steel product. The disclosed process includes a process for feeding raw iron ore fines into a multi-stage reactor assembly; a process for reducing fines in fluidized beds developed by a counter-current flow of reducing gas, where the reducing gas is developed in a reformer assembly; and, a process for recycling offgas exiting said reactor assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1994
    Assignee: Fior de Venezuela
    Inventor: Roy H. Whipp
  • Patent number: 5366897
    Abstract: A process for controlling the conversion of reactor feed to iron carbide is disclosed. The reactor feed is subjected to a process gas in a fluidized bed reactor (10), and the off-gas from this reaction is analyzed (56) to determine its composition and the temperature (64) and pressure (66). A stability phase diagram is generated based on the temperature. Different regions of the stability phase diagram are representative of different products being formed by the conversion of the reactor feed. Based on relative concentrations of the individual gases in the off-gas and the total pressure, a point is plotted on the stability phase diagram indicative of the favored reaction product. The process parameters can then be adjusted to insure that iron carbide can be produced from the reactor feed based on the stability phase diagram. In one embodiment, the rate of conversion of the reactor feed into iron carbide is controlled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Assignee: Iron Carbide Holdings, Ltd.
    Inventors: John P. Hager, Frank A. Stephens, Frank M. Stephens, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5185032
    Abstract: A fluidized bed direct process for reducing raw iron ore fines and directly producing an iron product comprises a process for feeding raw iron ore fines into a multi-stage reactor assembly; a process for reducing fines in fluidized beds developed by a counter-current flow of reducing gas, where the reducing gas is developed in a process for directly producing slag and iron in a gasifier/smelter assembly; a process for producing iron by further reducing and removing impurities from a part of the reduced iron ore in a gasifier/smelter assembly; a process for compacting excess reduced iron ore; and, a process for preparing reducing gas from offgas exiting said gasifier/smelter assembly; and, a process for recycling spent reducing gas exiting said reactor assembly. The processed offgas is 100% utilizable as reducing gas by balancing the reduced iron ore between the gasifier/smelter and compacting assemblies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1993
    Assignee: Fior de Venezuela
    Inventor: Roy H. Whipp
  • Patent number: 4995904
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for pretreatment of a lumpy carbon carrier suitable for forming a fluidized bed and a solid bed used in the production of pig iron from iron ore. The ore is pre-reduced in at least one reduction plant and the thus produced iron sponge is subsequently final reduced and fused in a melt-down gasifier with the help of the lumpy carbon carrier and an oxygen-containing gas and is the carbon carrier is fed into the upper part and the oxygen-containing gas is fed into the lower part of the melt-down gasifier. These materials form, together with the iron sponge, a fluidized bed in the melt-down gasifier. Below the fluidized bed, a solid bed is formed consisting of said lumpy carbon carrier. A suitable carbon carrier may be formed by pretreating available coal by one of two methods. Lumpy coal tending to burst upon subjection to a shock-like thermal load is preheated for a minimum of one hour at a temperature of at least 300.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1991
    Assignee: Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventor: Rolf Hauk