With Seismic Shock Generating Patents (Class 175/1)
  • Patent number: 9581704
    Abstract: The present invention pertains to a system and method for accelerating a mass using a pressure produced by a detonation, where the mass is accelerated over a movement range using a detonation of a pressure wave generator that produces a pressure within a coupling component that is applied to a piston having a surface area that produces a resultant force, where the acceleration of the mass determines the resulting force. The resulting force may be directed vertically and perpendicular to a target media to conduct an acoustic wave into the target media. The system may be configured to direct the resulting force horizontally and parallel to a target media to conduct a plane shear wave into the target media. Two systems may be configured to direct two resulting forces horizontally and parallel to a target media to conduct a spherical shear wave into a target media, where the two resulting forces are directed in opposite directions and separated by some distance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2017
    Assignee: SoundBlast Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Larry W Fullerton, James L Teel, Herman M Thompson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 9038746
    Abstract: A method for determining position of a wellbore in the Earth's subsurface includes actuating a plurality of seismic energy sources each disposed at a known geodetic position. Seismic energy from the sources is detected at a selected location along the wellbore. The geodetic position at the selected location is determined from the detected seismic energy. A corresponding method includes actuating a seismic energy source at a selected position within the wellbore. The seismic energy is detected at a plurality of known geodetic positions. The geodetic position of the source is determined from the detected seismic energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2015
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Benny Poedjono
  • Patent number: 8746365
    Abstract: Shock waves produced during electro-hydraulic drilling can be reflected into a rock body where the reflected shock waves are converted from compression waves to tension waves, which are more efficient at breaking down the rock body. A system configured for electro-hydraulic drilling where shock waves produced during drilling are reflected into the rock body includes two electrodes and a shock wave reflector disposed at an electro-hydraulic drill head. The two electrodes are configured to (1) facilitate formation of a spark along a spark path spanning the two electrodes and (2) facilitate a pulse of electricity being passed through the spark to form a primary shock wave emanating from the spark path. The shock wave reflector is configured to reflect a portion of the primary shock wave such that the reflected shock wave is concentrated to a focal region within the rock body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventor: Alexander F. Gutsol
  • Patent number: 8616302
    Abstract: The present invention provides for pulsed powered drilling apparatuses and methods. A drilling apparatus is provided comprising a bit having one or more sets of electrodes through which a pulsed voltage is passed through a mineral substrate to create a crushing or drilling action. The electrocrushing drilling process may have, but does not require, rotation of the bit. The electrocrushing drilling process is capable of excavating the hole out beyond the edges of the bit with or without the need of mechanical teeth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: SDG, LLC
    Inventor: William M. Moeny
  • Patent number: 8567496
    Abstract: A system and method for managing a well site having a subterranean formation. The method comprises determining a first spectral attenuation of a first seismic wave measured from a first location, determining a second spectral attenuation of a second seismic wave measured from a second location, determining a reservoir attenuation anisotropy from a comparison of the first spectral attenuation to the second spectral attenuation, and determining at least one fracture parameter of the subterranean formation from a comparison of the first seismic wave to the second seismic wave.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Stewart Thomas Taylor, Joel Le Calvez
  • Publication number: 20130081874
    Abstract: Shock waves produced during electro-hydraulic drilling can be reflected into a rock body where the reflected shock waves are converted from compression waves to tension waves, which are more efficient at breaking down the rock body. A system configured for electro-hydraulic drilling where shock waves produced during drilling are reflected into the rock body includes two electrodes and a shock wave reflector disposed at an electro-hydraulic drill head. The two electrodes are configured to (1) facilitate formation of a spark along a spark path spanning the two electrodes and (2) facilitate a pulse of electricity being passed through the spark to form a primary shock wave emanating from the spark path. The shock wave reflector is configured to reflect a portion of the primary shock wave such that the reflected shock wave is concentrated to a focal region within the rock body.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 3, 2011
    Publication date: April 4, 2013
    Applicant: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventor: Alexander F. Gutsol
  • Patent number: 8400872
    Abstract: An acoustic energy source for imparting acoustic energy into the Earth's subsurface includes an electrically driven transducer coupled to a source of swept frequency alternating current. A tunable Helmholtz resonator is disposed proximate the transducer. In one example, the resonator has a tuning device configured to maintain a resonant frequency substantially equal to an instantaneous frequency of the alternating current. The tuning device includes an actuator coupled to a sleeve, wherein the sleeve is disposed over selected numbers of openings in a wall of a tube on the resonator. The transducer and the resonator are disposed in a wellbore drilled through rock formations. The wellbore has a plurality of layers of fluid therein, each layer thereof having a different density and/or viscosity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2013
    Assignee: Acoustic Zoom, Inc.
    Inventors: Jacques Y. Gulgné, Nicholas G. Pace, Gary J. Dinn, Richard Wright
  • Patent number: 8157011
    Abstract: A system and method for performing a fracture operation on a well site having a subterranean formation with a reservoir therein. The method involves measuring at least one seismic wave before and after stimulating the subterranean formation, comparing the seismic waves measured before the stimulation of the subterranean formation to the seismic waves measured after stimulation of the subterranean formation, and determining at least one fracture parameter of the subterranean formation from the compared seismic waves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2012
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Stewart Thomas Taylor, Joel Le Calvez
  • Publication number: 20110132662
    Abstract: A method of steering a drilling operation of a well using acoustic measurements. The method includes obtaining, using a central processing unit (CPU), a clean-wet matrix line for the well, where the clean-wet matrix line includes a number of normal compressional values, obtaining, using the CPU, the acoustic measurements from at least one logging while drilling tool at a current depth of the drilling operation, where the acoustic measurements include a compressional to shear velocity ratio and a delta-T compressional measurement, and determining, using the CPU, a current phase of the drilling operation by comparing the acoustic measurements to the clean-wet matrix line. The method further includes, in response to determining that the current phase is not a target phase, generating an updated well trajectory for steering the drilling operation toward the target phase and adjusting the drilling operation using the updated well trajectory.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 8, 2009
    Publication date: June 9, 2011
    Applicant: SCHLUMBERGER TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
    Inventor: MARK KENNETH DENNIS
  • Patent number: 7748446
    Abstract: A Seismic source comprising an actuator having a rotary part (104) and a reciprocative part (105), conversion means (109) in the form of corrugated surfaces to convert a rotation of the rotary part (104) into a reciprocal movement of the reciprocative part (105), and a vibrator body (106) that is connected to the reciprocative part (105) of the actuator by means of a spring (107).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2010
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Bruno Best, Jörg Ernst Eckerlin
  • Patent number: 7426439
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method and apparatus for seismic data acquisition. One embodiment of the method includes accessing data acquired by at least two particle motion sensors. The data includes a seismic signal and a noise signal and the at least two particle motion sensors being separated by a length determined based on a noise coherence length. The method may also include processing the accessed data to remove a portion of the noise signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2008
    Assignee: WesternGeco L.L.C.
    Inventors: Ahmet Kemal Ozdemir, Oeyvind Teigen, Lars Borgen, Vidar A. Husom
  • Publication number: 20080217057
    Abstract: In one aspect of the present invention a method has steps for taking downhole measurements. A network integrated into a downhole tool string in a well bore may be in communication with a downhole sensor, the downhole sensor having a downhole clock that may be in communication over the network with and synchronized with a top-hole clock source. A signal source may be within a transmitting distance of the downhole sensor and may be activated. The downhole sensor records signals from the signal source at a recorded time when the network is disconnected from the top-hole clock source. When the network is reconnected, the downhole clock and the top-hole clock source are re-synchronized. The clock drift that occurred during the disconnection may be calculated. The recorded time may be adjusted to reflect what it would have been if the downhole clock had been synchronized with the top-hole clock source.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 6, 2007
    Publication date: September 11, 2008
    Inventors: David R. Hall, Christopher Durrand
  • Patent number: 7234537
    Abstract: A sonic drilling apparatus having a work piston within a cylinder chamber to provide a vibratory force through the alternate application of fluid under pressure into the bore above and below the piston in a manner that the piston will be forced to reciprocate within the bore. The cylinder chamber includes an inlet gallery to allow fluid under pressure to pass into the bore above a first face of the work piston and an exhaust gallery to allow fluid to escape from the bore below the second face of the work piston. A relief bypass is provided to prevent excessive build up of pressure in the bore during the reciprocating movement of the work piston.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2007
    Assignee: Bantry Limited
    Inventor: Garrick Ross Johnson
  • Patent number: 7178626
    Abstract: A method of conducting seismic evaluation of a subterranean formation wherein a rigid, elongate member having a first end and a second end is positioned such that the first end of the elongate member is at a point on the earth's surface, imparting an impulsive force to the elongate member to urge the member into the earth, the positioning of the rigid member and the impulsive force being sufficient to generate and propagate primary seismic waves into the subterranean formation and positioning one or more seismic wave detectors on the surface of the earth to detect and receive reflected seismic waves from the subterranean formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2007
    Inventors: Lee Matherne, Radivoj Drecun
  • Patent number: 7059426
    Abstract: An underground drilling method and apparatus generates intense pressure pulses at a location at the surface. The pressure pulses propagate down through a drill string to a drill bit. The pulses may be generated by creating water hammer in flowing drilling mud. Intensity of the acoustic pulses is increased in the bit nozzles. Vigorous pulsing of the fluid exiting the bit nozzles results in better cleaning of the hole bottom and faster drilling. The pulses may be used to drive the operation of various down hole tools. One type of tool has multiple pistons arranged in series. High pressure pulses move the pistons to generate strong mechanical vibration in the drill string. Vibration of the drill string may also reduce the friction between the drill string and the hole, resulting in lower torque requirements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2006
    Assignee: Lewal Drilling Ltd.
    Inventor: Bruno Walter
  • Patent number: 6985815
    Abstract: A method of seismic data processing is described in which a particular wavelet is selected from a plurality of wavelets as being most characteristic of a received seismic signal. A subtracted signal can be determined by subtracting a weighted signal of the particular wavelet from the received signal. From the subtracted signal, an additional particular wavelet can be chosen. The process of subtracting a signal and determining an additional particular one of the plurality of wavelets can be repeated until a criterion is met. The method can be repeated at several depths. The resultant spectral analysis can be used to determine, for example, an absorption coefficient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2006
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: John P. Castagna, Robert W. Siegfried, II, Shengjie Sun
  • Patent number: 6976392
    Abstract: A system and method for acquiring seismic data are disclosed. The system comprises a controller for causing the generation of a seismic signal, where the controller has a first clock used for time-stamping a record of the generated seismic signal. A seismic receiver is deployed in a wellbore so as to detect the generated seismic signal. An atomic clock is disposed in or with the seismic receiver for time-stamping a record of the detected seismic signal. The atomic clock is synchronized with the first clock prior to being placed downhole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2005
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Rocco DiFoggio, Peter W. Reittinger
  • Patent number: 6910542
    Abstract: An underground drilling method and apparatus generates intense pressure pulses at a location at the surface. The pressure pulses propagate down through a drill string to a drill bit. The pulses may be generated by creating water hammer in flowing drilling mud. Intensity of the acoustic pulses is increased in the bit nozzles. Vigorous pulsing of the fluid exiting the bit nozzles results in better cleaning of the hole bottom and faster drilling. The pulses may be used to drive the operation of various down hole tools. One type of tool has multiple pistons arranged in series. High pressure pulses move the pistons to generate strong mechanical vibration in the drill string. Vibration of the drill string may also reduce the friction between the drill string and the hole, resulting in lower torque requirements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2005
    Assignee: Lewal Drilling Ltd.
    Inventor: Bruno Walter
  • Patent number: 6837105
    Abstract: A system and method for acquiring seismic data are disclosed. The system comprises a controller for causing the generation of a seismic signal, where the controller has a first clock used for time-stamping a record of the generated seismic signal. A seismic receiver is deployed in a wellbore so as to detect the generated seismic signal. An atomic clock is disposed in or with the seismic receiver for time-stamping a record of the detected seismic signal. The atomic clock is synchronized with the first clock prior to being placed downhole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2005
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Rocco DiFoggio, Peter W. Reittinger
  • Patent number: 6782970
    Abstract: A shaftless acoustic source is disclosed having a solenoid, a bullet and driving electronics. The bullet, which is positioned inside the solenoid's coil, can be accelerated by a magnetic force generated when a current pulse is applied to the coil. Acoustic energies are generated upon the impact of the bullet with an object, such as a borehole wall. This impact force can be described by the Hertzian Contact Theory (also referred to herein as Hertzian Theory) as a point of normal force with a time function similar to a half period sine function. A retraction device may be used to retract the bullet back into the solenoid after firing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2004
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Chung Chang
  • Patent number: 6747914
    Abstract: An acoustic system and method for monitoring a hydrocarbon reservoir. Wellbore tube wave energy may be created by natural or ambient sources or tube waves may be excited intentionally. Wellbore tube wave energy is converted to seismic body wave energy at minor borehole obstructions or irregularities. Each obstruction or discontinuity position along the borehole has an associated unique waveform source coda that may be measured for processing the body waves radiated into the earth formation surrounding the well bore. A plurality of sensors detects the radiated seismic energy after the seismic body wave energy has transited intervening earth formations. The system may be employed for permanent monitoring of mineral resources and resource management. Measurements of reservoir characteristics may be acquired at many different times over the productive life of a reservoir.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2004
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventor: Peter S. Aronstam
  • Publication number: 20030116355
    Abstract: The present invention provides an ultrasonic and sonic mechanism of deep drilling (USMOD) that is driven by a vibrating actuator and operates in a similar manner to the gopher with regards to drilling debris removal. The actuator induces vibration in the form of a hammering actuation. The mechanism consists of a penetration bit with a diameter that is the same or larger than the actuator. The embodiment of the invention that is disclosed herein emulates a gopher. This ultrasonic gopher is lowered down into the produced borehole, cores the medium, breaks and holds the core, and finally extracts and deploys the core.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 27, 2002
    Publication date: June 26, 2003
    Inventors: Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Stewart Sherrit, Benjamin Dolgin, Xiaoqi Bao, Stephen Askins
  • Patent number: 6286612
    Abstract: A valving system is disclosed which generally comprises a body including an inlet and an outlet where the inlet is disposed in fluid communication with a fluid flow passage and the outlet is disposed in fluid communication with a pressurized fluid member, the body further defining an internal bore in which is slidably disposed a piston moveable between a first and a second position such that fluid communication between the fluid flow passage and the fluid flow member is established when the piston is disposed in the first position but not in the second position, an apparatus and to move the piston from the first position to the second position so as to interrupt fluid flow from the fluid flow passage to the fluid member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2001
    Inventor: Adrien P. Pascouet
  • Patent number: 6237701
    Abstract: Suction pressure pulses are generated within a borehole by closing a valve that interrupts the flow of a drilling fluid (e.g., drilling mud) circulating through one or more high velocity flow courses within the borehole. In one embodiment in which the suction pressure pulses are applied to improve the efficiency of a drilling bit, the valve interrupts the flow of drilling mud directed through the bit and thus through high velocity flow course(s) disposed downstream of the bit. Arresting flow of the drilling mud through the high velocity flow course(s) generates suction pressure pulses of substantial magnitude over a face of the drill bit. The suction pressure pulses provide a sufficient differential pressure that weakens the rock through which the drill bit is advancing and also increase the force with which the drill bit is being advanced toward the rock at the bottom of the borehole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Assignee: Tempress Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Jack J. Kollé, Mark H. Marvin
  • Patent number: 6164388
    Abstract: This invention provides an excavator 1 for crushing a matter to be excavated, existing in an excavating hole in which a discharge liquid is fed, by electric discharge between a plurality of electrodes generated by high-voltage pulses. The excavator comprises a high-voltage pulse generator 2; a plurality of electrodes 17, 18, at least one of which is given a high voltage from the high-voltage pulse generator 2; discharge liquid circulating system 3, 4, 5a, 5b; and optimum condition setting devices 13, 14, 15, 16. Also, this invention provides an excavation method in which at least one of the parameters for excavation efficiency of i) load voltage required for crushing the matter to be excavated; ii) single pulse energy; and iii) quantity of discharge liquid, is optimized for minimization of power consumption required for excavation by using the excavator of this invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2000
    Assignee: ITAC Ltd.
    Inventors: Adam Albert Martunovich, Vajov Vyacheslav Fedorovich
  • Patent number: 5950736
    Abstract: A drilling apparatus includes a drill string, a drilling head located at a first end of the drill string, a drilling fluid pump located at a second end of the drill string, wherein the drilling fluid pump pumps a drilling fluid along the length of the drill string to the drilling head, and a traveling wave generator coupled to the drill string at a location downstream of the drilling fluid pump, wherein the traveling wave generator generates a series of ramped pressure pulses that are applied to the drilling fluid. The ramped pressure pulses are compressed by a reduction of the cross-sectional area of the drill string, and further by time compression caused by varying propagation rates of different portions of the pressure pulses pressure pulse if substantially formed at a surface of a drilling substrate. A shock wave associated with the compressed pressure pulse is generated substantially at the location of a surface of a drilling substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1999
    Assignee: APTI Inc.
    Inventor: Yeshayahu S. Goldstein
  • Patent number: 5896938
    Abstract: An electrohydraulic drilling system for drilling holes in material such as rock utilizing a drill stem connected to a flexible cable. The electrical spark or plasma that creates the electrohydraulic pressure wave is powered by an electrical pulse propagated down the cable from a pulse generator to the drill stem. An advance mechanism on a jackleg support is utilized to move the drill into the rock during the drilling process. The drill stem and cable combination enable holes to be drilled in the roof of tunnels where the floor to roof height is less than the depth of the hole to be drilled. The electrohydraulic process provides higher drilling efficiencies than conventional systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1999
    Assignee: Tetra Corporation
    Inventors: William M. Moeny, David M. Barrett
  • Patent number: 5615172
    Abstract: A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 25, 1997
    Inventor: Oleg M. Kotlyar
  • Patent number: 5534668
    Abstract: In a bore holes, a plurality of resilient members and plates are piled up alternately to form a laminate, and a deadweight is dropped onto the laminate. The resilient members are deformed due to the impact force of the dropped deadweight to cause bore hole water among the plates to be forced out in the outward direction, and elastic waves to occur in the bore hole wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1996
    Assignee: Oyo Corporation
    Inventor: Kimio Ogura
  • Patent number: 5416281
    Abstract: In a bore holes, a plurality of resilient members and plates are piled up alternately to form a laminate, and a deadweight is dropped onto the laminate. The resilient members are deformed due to the impact force of the dropped deadweight to cause bore hole water among the plates to be forced out in the outward direction, and elastic waves to occur in the bore hole wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1995
    Assignee: Oyo Corporation
    Inventor: Kimio Ogura
  • Patent number: 5382760
    Abstract: The seismic source (5) according to the invention is associated with a drill string (1) linking a drill bit to a surface installation close to the bit. It comprises a closed chamber (6) fastened inside a drill cellar (4) of the drill string. The section thereof is smaller than the inner section of the drill string, so as to allow free circulation of the drilling fluid. A reactive mass (8) may move within this chamber (6) and along the axis of drill string (1). Hydraulic or electro-mechanical means allow a strong alternating force of controlled frequency and duration to be applied to this mass. The energy necessary to the operating thereof is taken from the fluid current. This source requires no substantial modification in the usual drilling equipments. Drilling a well and performing seismic measurings may be achieved at the same time by means of the source by arranging sensors at the surface and/or in one or several adjacent wells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1995
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Philippe Staron, Jean Laurent
  • Patent number: 5372207
    Abstract: The method consists in performing seismic prospecting operations by using a drill bit (1) working at the bottom of a well (2), which generates very powerful acoustic jogs, in transmitting in real time or in delayed time reference signals representative of the jogs of the drill bit picked up in the immediate vicinity thereof by bottomhole sensors and in correlating the seismic signals picked up by a reception set with the reference signals coming from the bottom. The reference signals may be transmitted to the surface station through a line (4) included in a drill string (3). Absorbing elements are preferably interposed on the string to damp the vibrations propagating directly towards the surface along the drill string. Resonant elements and possibly acoustic discontinuity elements favouring resonances in the seismic frequency band may also be interposed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1994
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Charles Naville, Philippe Staron, Guy Pignard, Christian Wittrisch
  • Patent number: 5319610
    Abstract: An acoustic wave generator for telemetering signals through a drillstem comprises a sub interposed in the drillstem with a central mandrel and a piston mass disposed in sleeved relationship around the mandrel and reciprocable by hydraulic pressure fluid to impose reaction forces on the mandrel and the drillstring at selected frequencies to transmit acoustic waves through the drillstring. A control system for operating the generator includes a hydraulic pump, a control valve and a frequency control circuit which operates the control valve to effect reciprocation of the piston mass at selected frequencies for transmitting serial data from the control system through the drillstring to a receiving system. The generator is coaxially arranged in the drillstring and is operable to generate high-energy acoustic wave signals for propagation through relatively long drillstrings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1994
    Assignee: Atlantic Richfield Company
    Inventor: Tom P. Airhart
  • Patent number: 5313025
    Abstract: This disclosure is directed to a displacement amplifier for forming acoustic pulses and more particularly to one which incorporates a flexible movable lightweight diaphragm of rectangular configuration. It has upper and lower ends which are connected to opposing piston rods driven by duplicate pistons and double acting cylinders. The cylinders are located at opposite ends of the diaphragm or membrane. They are supported in an elongate tool which positions the flexible membrane in a generally rectangular window. This enables the membrane to flex as the pistons are driven, thereby enabling the flexure of the membrane to form dipole source for radially directed compression waves transmitted from the membrane in the window.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1994
    Assignee: Halliburton Logging Services, Inc.
    Inventors: Dennis E. Roessler, A. J. Mallett
  • Patent number: 5115881
    Abstract: An anti-bounce device for a mass striking a target element, with the device including a counter-mass and an arrangement for holding the counter-mass spaced from the mass at a predetermined distance and for braking the mass and the counter-mass to delay the counter-mass so as to put the counter-mass in a phase opposition with the mass as the mass bounces after impact thereby dissipating any bouncing forces. The linking and braking arrangement may include a volume of fluid in a chamber provided between the mass and the counter-mass or a layer of damping material interposed between the mass and counter-mass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1992
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventor: Patrick Meynier
  • Patent number: 4895218
    Abstract: A downhole seismic acoustical signal source capable of selectively firing numerous, prewired explosive charges. The downhole seismic source uses a self-contained firing circuit that is capable of receiving select and fire signals from a seismic crew at the ground surface through a standard seven conductor wireline cable to detonate the explosive charges. The downhole seismic source is capable of generating numerous signals in a given downhole trip through the firing of many individual explosive charges.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1990
    Assignee: Exxon Production Research Company
    Inventors: Sen-Tsuen Chen, Erik A. Eriksen, Mark A. Miller, Thomas J. Murray, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4867266
    Abstract: An assembly is provided for generating seismic signals in the earth utilizing one or more shells. A tubular barrel made of frangible material, such as plastic, has a shell positioned within it, the shell having a head with an electrically actuated primer button. A continuity block is positioned within the barrel providing electrical continuity with the shell and the primer button. Conductors are connected to the continuity block and extending exteriorly of the barrel, the shell being fired by connecting the conductors to a voltage source. The barrel may be elongatd to house a plurality of spaced apart shells, the first shell being electrically fired and the other shells being fired by percussion. Each percussion shell is engaged by a plunger which is actuated by the slug fired from the adjacent shell so that upon firing of the electric shell, the slug thereof fires the first percussion shell and each percussion shell thereafter is fired in sequence.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1989
    Inventor: Philip N. Martin
  • Patent number: 4796723
    Abstract: A system is provided for transmitting energy to an apparatus, such as a pulsed or vibratory seismic source, lowered inside a well or drill hole. It includes a structure anchorable in a well, mobile means whose linear displacement with respect to the anchorable structure causes the creation of energy and means for accumulating the energy created, a rigid column connected to said mobile means and drive means disposed outside the well for moving the rigid column linearly. The mobile means and the accumulation means may be formed by a weight and a device for raising this latter or else by a hydraulic system including a linear pump.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1989
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole & Compagnie Generale De Geophysique
    Inventors: Jean Laurent, Charles Naville, Rene Paterna
  • Patent number: 4773501
    Abstract: Device for generating seismic impulses for, for example, seismic prospecting, inside a hole or drilling well by impact of a weight or mass falling onto a target element coupled with a wall of the hole or drilling well. The target element is bound up with a variable volume anchorage element capable of being expanded so that it strikes against the wall of the hole or drilling well and is surmounted by a guiding column along which slides a hammer or weight forming the mass. A cable lifting system and magnetic devices enable the hammer or weight to be hoisted to a particular height above the target element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1984
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Assignees: Institut Francais Du Petrole, Companie General De Geophysique
    Inventors: Pascal Dedole, Jean Laurent, Yves Ollivier
  • Patent number: 4669540
    Abstract: There is provided a new and useful tamping and topping plug for use in a seismic bore hole, and comprising a cylindrical body member having a forward and a rearward end and terminating at its forward end with a closed end part, a plurality of elongated members extending outwardly and rearwardly from at least one end and preferably from the forward and rearward ends of the body member, the members so arranged as to give the plug axial stability when inserted into a bore hole. There is also provided a process utilizing the plug for enhancing information available from seismic blasting.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1987
    Inventors: Paavo Luoma, Jim Jackson
  • Patent number: 4582147
    Abstract: A system for directional drilling of boreholes into the earth under control of the driller at the surface, employing a rotating earth drill including a projectile firing mechanism, that is timed to nonsymmetrically fire projectiles into the earth at controlled angular positions that are offset from the axis of the drill and drill string in the desired direction of drilling.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 15, 1986
    Assignee: Tround International, Inc.
    Inventor: David Dardick
  • Patent number: 4569412
    Abstract: A seismic source operable in deep bore holes, and especially suitable for acoustic well logging and geophysical exploration, produces a controlled-spectrum seismic impulse. The source has a hammer which is hydraulically cocked through a hydraulic transformer into a hydraulic spring. Upon command, the hammer can be released, converting stored energy in the spring to kinetic energy of hammer motion. The hammer impacts on a liquid impulse shaping spring which couples impulse energy of controlled spectral width to the formation surrounding the hole by means of a balanced piston assembly which can be prebiased against the side walls of the hole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 11, 1986
    Assignee: Hydroacoustics Inc.
    Inventors: John V. Bouyoucos, Roger L. Selsam
  • Patent number: 4474250
    Abstract: A method of measuring lithology, and other underground conditions, while drilling bores into the earth employing the repetitive firing of projectiles to fracture rock and penetrate the earth and detecting the high intensity acoustic signals being produced as the drill progressively penetrates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 2, 1984
    Inventor: David Dardick
  • Patent number: 4252209
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for determining the precise position of the drill bit on the bottom of a long drill string in a deep borehole in the earth, during a drilling operation. The method comprises placing a plurality of geophones in a three-dimensional array near the surface of the earth, above the expected position of the drill bit in the earth, causing at least a low energy seismic source to be initiated near the drill bit in the earth, repeating the source a number of times, and determining at the surface of the earth the times of initiation of each of the seismic waves. Responsive to the known times of initiation, stacking each of the repeated geophone signals from each of the geophones, for each of the repetitions of the source, whereby each of the stacked signals will be in-phase with those that resulted from earlier and later repetitions of the source. Several embodiments of an improved downhole seismic source are described, and an improved type of three-dimensional array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1981
    Inventor: Daniel Silverman
  • Patent number: 4252210
    Abstract: In generating seismic waves in earth a generator having a generally elongate, tubular expandable and contractible outer wall portion closed at its upper and lower ends by rigid strength members having separate input and return pressure lines is placed in a well bore, a hydraulic coupling pressure is applied through the input line which causes the expandable wall portion to engage and remain coupled with and in direct contact with the earth wall in the well bore and hydraulic pressure impulses are then cycled through the input and return lines at pressures greater than the coupling pressure to cause further expansion of the expandable wall portion, thereby generating and radiating seismic waves in the earth upon application of each impulse while maintaining the hydraulic coupling pressure sufficient to effectively maintain the outer wall anchored to the wall of the bore hole. The coupling pressure should be sufficient to anchor and couple the transducer to the well bore without any additional anchoring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1981
    Inventor: Ernest O. Sodich
  • Patent number: 4148375
    Abstract: A system for vibrating the earth in a location where seismic mapping is to take place, including forming a relatively shallow hole in the earth such as a hole 10 feet deep, placing a solid propellant in the hole, sealing a portion of the hole above the solid propellant with a device that can rapidly open and close to allow a repeatedly interrupted escape of gas, and igniting the propellant so that high pressure gas is created which escapes in pulses to vibrate the earth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1977
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1979
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Warren L. Dowler, Giulio Varsi, Lien C. Yang
  • Patent number: 4103756
    Abstract: Method and apparatus are provided for generating in situ in a zone of earth surrounding a bore hole both longitudinal and shear waves and of predetermined relative amplitude, entirely mechanically, avoiding use of explosives, and with relatively low power requirements for the stress waves generated. Subterranean impacts generating high amplitude stress waves equivalent to those generated by fifteen pounds of TNT or multiples of such quantities of TNT are realized. These high amplitude waves are produced in an annular zone ten feet or more from the earth bore, where the earth specimen has not been previously disturbed and its measured properties are therefore truly representative of the medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 1, 1978
    Assignee: Applied Theory, Inc.
    Inventors: John G. Trulio, Stephan J. Bless
  • Patent number: 4057780
    Abstract: The configuration and directional orientation of natural or induced fractures in subterranean earth formations are described by introducing a liquid explosive into the fracture, detonating the explosive, and then monitoring the resulting acoustic emissions with strategically placed acoustic sensors as the explosion propagates through the fracture at a known rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1977
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration
    Inventor: Lowell Z. Shuck
  • Patent number: 4040329
    Abstract: A detonator is positioned in the bore of, or adjacent to, a roll or coil of detonating cord, one end of which is attached to the detonator, which in turn is aligned with a shothole and with a flexible, tubular inserting device, which advances over one end of the detonator and forces it into the shothole, during which operation the cord unwinds and is drawn into the shothole at the outside of the tubular inserter. In one embodiment cylindrically-shaped coils of cord containing the detonators are fed, as needed, through a supply tube to a receptacle positioned in front of the shothole and in front of the forward end of the inserter. In another embodiment both primer caps and detonators, with cord attached, are rotatably indexible into registry with the inserting tube and a shothole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1977
    Assignee: Nitro Nobel AB
    Inventor: Sten Herman Ljungberg
  • Patent number: 4038631
    Abstract: A method for generating and detecting seismic shear wave energy in the earth are disclosed useful for determining shear wave velocities in localized regions in the earth at sites where foundations of large civil engineering structures are proposed or earth embankments and dams have been built, thereby providing information affecting the basic dynamic design parameters for constructing or evaluating the project and obtaining earthquake resistant design. An airgun of elongated generally cylindrical configuration and having a single discharge port opening out radially on one side only for abruptly releasing compressed air in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the airgun is lowered into a borehole in a manner and by apparatus to control the direction in azimuth at which this single lateral discharge port is aimed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1977
    Inventor: Vincent J. Murphy