Using Reflected Radiation, E.g., Reflex Copying, Etc. Patents (Class 430/395)
  • Patent number: 9034569
    Abstract: An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) process is performed on a target, such as a semiconductor wafer, having a photosensitive layer. The method includes providing a one-dimensional patterned mask along a first direction. The patterned mask includes a substrate including a first region and a second region, a multilayer mirror above the first and second regions, an absorption layer above the multilayer mirror in the second region, and a defect in the first region. The method further includes exposing the patterned mask by an illuminator and setting the patterned mask and the target in relative motion along the first direction while exposing the patterned mask. As a result, an accumulated exposure dose received by the target is an optimized exposure dose.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2015
    Assignee: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yen-Cheng Lu, Shinn-Sheng Yu, Jeng-Horng Chen, Anthony Yen
  • Patent number: 8867024
    Abstract: A system for exposing a resist layer to an image that includes a layer reflective to imaging tool radiation and a resist layer having a region of photosensitivity over the reflective layer. An imaging tool projects radiation containing an aerial image onto the resist layer, with a portion of the radiation containing the aerial image passing through the resist and reflecting back to the resist to form an interference pattern of the projected aerial image through the resist layer thickness. The thickness and location of the resist layer region of photosensitivity are selected to include from within the interference pattern higher contrast portions of the interference pattern in the direction of the resist thickness, and to exclude lower contrast portions of the interference pattern in the resist thickness direction from said resist layer region of photosensitivity, to improve contrast of the aerial image in said resist layer region of photosensitivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kafai Lai, Dirk Pfeiffer, Alan Rosenbluth
  • Patent number: 8476004
    Abstract: A method for forming photoresist patterns includes providing a substrate, forming a bi-layered photoresist on the substrate, and performing a photolithography process to pattern the bi-layered photoresist. The bi-layered photoresist includes a first photoresist layer and a second photoresist layer positioned between the first photoresist layer and the substrate. The first photoresist layer has a first refraction index and the second photoresist layer has a second refraction index, and the second refraction index is larger than the first refraction index.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignee: United Microelectronics Corp.
    Inventors: Yong-Fa Huang, Cheng-Han Wu, Yuan-Chi Pai, Chun-Chi Yu, Hung-Yi Wu
  • Patent number: 8309296
    Abstract: A method for processing a workpiece (10) having a photoresist layer (12) using an exposure device (30) is disclosed. A transparent sheet (20) which allows transmission of light emitted from the exposure device (30) is disposed between an object lens (35a) of the exposure device (30) and the photoresist layer (12), and the photoresist layer (12) is exposed to the light through the transparent sheet (20).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Assignee: FUJIFILM Corporation
    Inventor: Yoshihisa Usami
  • Patent number: 8125618
    Abstract: A system for exposing a resist layer to an image that includes a layer reflective to imaging tool radiation and a resist layer having a region of photosensitivity over the reflective layer. An imaging tool projects radiation containing an aerial image onto the resist layer, with a portion of the radiation containing the aerial image passing through the resist and reflecting back to the resist to form an interference pattern of the projected aerial image through the resist layer thickness. The thickness and location of the resist layer region of photosensitivity are selected to include from within the interference pattern higher contrast portions of the interference pattern in the direction of the resist thickness, and to exclude lower contrast portions of the interference pattern in the resist thickness direction from said resist layer region of photosensitivity, to improve contrast of the aerial image in said resist layer region of photosensitivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2012
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kafai Lai, Dirk Pfeiffer, Alan E. Rosenbluth
  • Patent number: 7921674
    Abstract: There is provided a method of manufacturing an optical waveguide, the method including: allowing a beam to be incident in an optical waveguide direction of an optical waveguide material; generating an optical soliton in the optical waveguide material by adjusting intensity of the incident beam according to the optical waveguide material; allowing the incident beam to be re-incident at an intensity higher than an intensity of the incident beam after checking generation of the optical soliton in the optical waveguide material; and increasing a refractive index of an optical soliton-generating area of the optical waveguide material by the re-incident beam to thereby form an optical waveguide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2011
    Assignee: Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hong Ki Kim, Bae Kyun Kim, June Sik Park, Dong Hoon Kang, Sang Su Hong, Chang Yun Lee, Tak Gyum Kim
  • Patent number: 7736841
    Abstract: A method and system for exposing a resist layer with regions of photosensitivity to an image in a lithographic process using a high numerical aperture imaging tool. There is employed a substrate having thereover a layer reflective to the imaging tool radiation and a resist layer having a region of photosensitivity over the reflective layer, with the resist layer having a thickness. The imaging tool is adapted to project radiation containing an aerial image onto the resist layer, with a portion of the radiation containing the aerial image passing through the resist layer and reflecting back to the resist layer. The reflected radiation forms an interference pattern in the resist layer of the projected aerial image through the resist layer thickness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kafai Lai, Dirk Pfeiffer, Alan E. Rosenbluth
  • Patent number: 7569332
    Abstract: A processing method of a thin-film includes a step of forming a predetermined pattern film or predetermined elements on a substrate or on a film formed in an upstream process, a step of forming a transparent film over the formed predetermined pattern film or predetermined elements, a step of forming a pattern-transferred film having shapes corresponding to shapes of the formed predetermined pattern film or predetermined elements, on the formed transparent film, and a step of forming an opaque film on the pattern-transferred film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 4, 2009
    Assignees: TDK Corporation, SAE Magnetics (H.K.) Ltd.
    Inventors: Mitsuharu Isobe, Hiromichi Umehara, Hirotaka Gomi, Tomohide Yokozawa
  • Patent number: 7514115
    Abstract: Aspects of the invention can provide a method of fabricating an organometallic compound film capable, by stably forming a film with the organometallic compound, of increasing bonding forces of junction interfaces and of realizing a hyper thin film, the organometallic compound film, and an organoelectronic device (e.g., an organic electroluminescence device, an organic solar battery, or an organic thin film transistor) and an electronic device equipped with the organometallic compound film are provided. The method of fabricating a thin film of an organometallic compound on a substrate, can include the step of forming an organic material by a liquid phase process and the step of forming metal by a vapor phase process to form a thin film of an organometallic compound composed of the organic material and the metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Takeshi Takashima, Katsuyuki Morii, Hirofumi Hokari, Rie Makiura
  • Patent number: 7473915
    Abstract: A radiation source for use in lithography. The radiation source comprising a pn-junction disposed on a substrate that can be reverse-biased to cause avalanche breakdown and emission of UV or DUV radiation by deceleration of electrons accelerated into an n-type region of the pn-junction. The radiation source can have a low operating voltage, a high switching speed, and provides great design freedom. High intensity can be provided, e.g., by the use of large or multiple sources. The pn-junction can be doped with impurities to increase emission of radiation at a desired frequency and increase the efficiency of the device. For protection, the pn-junction may be covered by a layer of transparent oxide. By reverse biasing the pn-junction with a potential difference at least 4V, radiation of wavelength 300 nm or less can be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2009
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventor: Arnold Sinke
  • Patent number: 7470504
    Abstract: A method for exposing a resist layer with regions of photosensitivity to an image in a lithographic process using a high numerical aperture imaging tool. There is employed a substrate having thereover a layer reflective to the imaging tool radiation and a resist layer having a region of photosensitivity over the reflective layer, with the resist layer having a thickness. The imaging tool is adapted to project radiation containing an aerial image onto the resist layer, with a portion of the radiation containing the aerial image passing through the resist layer and reflecting back to the resist layer. The reflected radiation forms an interference pattern in the resist layer of the projected aerial image through the resist layer thickness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2008
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kafai Lai, Dirk Pfeiffer, Alan E. Rosenbluth
  • Patent number: 7449284
    Abstract: A method for fabricating mechanical structures from bonding substrates. The method includes providing a bonded substrate structure, which includes a first substrate having a first thickness of silicon material and a first face. The bonded substrate also includes a second substrate having a second thickness and a second face. At least the first substrate or at least the second substrate (or both) has an alignment mark comprising a front-size zero mark within a portion of either the first thickness or the second thickness. The method includes applying a layer of photomasking material overlying a first backside surface of the first substrate. The method includes illuminating electromagnetic radiation using a coherent light source through the layer of photoresist material and through a portion of the first thickness. The method includes detecting an indication of the alignment mark using a signal associated with a portion of the electromagnetic radiation from a second backside of the second substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2008
    Assignee: Miradia Inc.
    Inventor: Xiao Charles Yang
  • Patent number: 7276328
    Abstract: A method of reflective lithography includes directing an asymmetric radiation (light) beam onto a reticle of a reflective lithography system. The asymmetry in the shape of the radiation beam may be used to compensate for a non-zero (non-normal) angle of incidence of the incident radiation. The radiation source shape may be configured to produce a substantially-symmetric output from the reticle. The shape of the radiation source may be configurable by any of a variety of suitable methods, for example by use of a configurable reflective device such as a fly's eye mirror, or by use of one or more suitable mirrors, lenses, and/or slits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2007
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Cyrus E. Tabery, Bruno M. LaFontaine, Ivan Lavolic
  • Patent number: 7262422
    Abstract: Disclosed are immersion lithography methods and systems involving irradiating a photoresist through a lens and an immersion liquid of an immersion lithography tool, the immersion liquid in an immersion space contacting the lens and the photoresist; removing the immersion liquid from the immersion space; charging the immersion space with a supercritical fluid; removing the supercritical fluid from the immersion space; and charging the immersion space with immersion liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2007
    Assignees: Spansion LLC, Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Ramkumar Subramanian, Bhanwar Singh, Khoi A. Phan
  • Patent number: 7258966
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing a diffuser for a backlight module is disclosed. The method includes providing a transparent substrate; forming a first transparent photoresist layer on the transparent substrate; spreading a plurality of masking particles on the first transparent photoresist layer; exposing and developing the first transparent photoresist layer; removing the masking particles; etching the exposed region of the first transparent photoresist layer to form a first scattering array; and optionally forming a passivation layer on the first transparent photoresist layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2007
    Assignee: Chunghwa Picture Tubes, Ltd.
    Inventors: Ching-Yu Chao, Wen-Jiunn Hsieh
  • Patent number: 7109498
    Abstract: A radiation source for use in lithography. The radiation source comprising a pn-junction disposed on a substrate that can be reverse-biased to cause avalanche breakdown and emission of UV or DUV radiation by deceleration of electrons accelerated into an n-type region of the pn-junction. The radiation source can have a low operating voltage, a high switching speed, and provides great design freedom. High intensity can be provided, e.g., by the use of large or multiple sources. The pn-junction can be doped with impurities to increase emission of radiation at a desired frequency and increase the efficiency of the device. For protection, the pn-junction may be covered by a layer of transparent oxide. By reverse biasing the pn-junction with a potential difference at least 4V, radiation of wavelength 300 nm or less can be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2006
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventor: Arnold Sinke
  • Patent number: 7094521
    Abstract: After forming a resist film made from a chemically amplified resist material, pattern exposure is carried out by irradiating the resist film with exposing light while supplying, between a projection lens and the resist film, a solution of water (having a refractive index of 1.44) that includes an antifoaming agent and is circulated and temporarily stored in a solution storage. After the pattern exposure, the resist film is subjected to post-exposure bake, and the resultant resist film is developed with an alkaline developer. Thus, a resist pattern made of an unexposed portion of the resist film can be formed in a good shape.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2006
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masayuki Endo, Masaru Sasago
  • Patent number: 7083896
    Abstract: An improved digitally imageable relief printing element having an increased direct-cure imaging speed upon exposure to lasers and other digital sources of actinic radiation. The printing elements of the invention comprise a reflective layer beneath a photosensitive resin layer so that instead of being absorbed by the reflective layer, photons of actinic radiation are reflected back up into the photosensitive layer, thereby speeding up the curing rate of the printing element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2006
    Assignee: Napp Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: David Roberts, Geoffrey Yuxin Hu
  • Patent number: 7033739
    Abstract: In an implementation, energy reaching the lower surface of a photoresist may be redirected back into the photoresist material. This may be done by, for example, reflecting and/or fluorescing the energy from a hardmask provided on the wafer surface back into the photoresist.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2006
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Michael Goldstein, Manish Chandhok, Eric Panning, Robert Bristol, Bryan J. Rice
  • Patent number: 7005232
    Abstract: An improved digitally imageable relief printing element having an increased direct-cure imaging speed upon exposure to lasers and other digital sources of actinic radiation. The printing elements of the invention comprise a reflective layer beneath a photosensitive resin layer so that instead of being absorbed by the reflective layer, photons of actinic radiation are reflected back up into the photosensitive layer, thereby speeding up the curing rate of the printing element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2006
    Assignee: Napp Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: David Roberts, Geoffrey Yuxin Hu
  • Patent number: 6998195
    Abstract: This invention relates to the field of holography, in particular to a method and a device for recording optical holograms by means of amorphous molecular semiconductor (AMS) films deposited on a glass substrate pre-covered with a transparent electric conducting sub-layer. More precisely, the invention relates to a method and device for registering optical holograms on AMS-films which operates in such a way that the AMS-films possess the maximum achievable information parameters: Holographic sensitivity, optimal spatial frequency of the transmitted characteristic, band parameters for the spatial frequencies of the transmitted characteristic, “signal-to-noise” ratio in the restored holographic image, reference and object beam intensities ratio during hologram registration, and cycling ability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2006
    Assignee: HoloTech A.S.
    Inventors: John Petter Fjeldstad, Irina Evgenievna Fjeldstad, Leonid Mikhailovich Lobanov, Vjacheslav Avtonomovich Pivtorak, Nikolay Georgievich Kuvshinsky, Leonid Ivanovich Kostenko, Andrey Konstantinovich Kadashchuk, Vladimir Petrovich Kushniruk, Valeriy Aleksandrovich Pavlov
  • Patent number: 6849388
    Abstract: A method for providing self-aligned contact pads along an edge face of stacked electronics utilizes reflected light from the metal contact leads to define their location. A thin layer of light sensitive polymer is applied over the edge face, at which incident light is directed. A solvent developer is applied which dissolves the polymer where the reflected light passed. In a two-pass technique reflected light destroys an inhibitor in the polymer, and that portion of the layer is dissolved by a developer to delineate voids for contact pads. In a wavefront cancellation technique reflected light is 180° out of phase with the first pass of light, the combination not cross-linking molecules in the polymer, and that portion of the layer is dissolved to delineate voids for contact pads.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventor: Stewart A. Clark
  • Publication number: 20040214113
    Abstract: In an implementation, energy reaching the lower surface of a photoresist may be redirected back into the photoresist material. This may be done by, for example, reflecting and/or fluorescing the energy from a hardmask provided on the wafer surface back into the photoresist.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 24, 2003
    Publication date: October 28, 2004
    Inventors: Michael Goldstein, Manish Chandhok, Eric Panning, Robert Bristol, Bryan J. Rice
  • Patent number: 6765218
    Abstract: In a lithographic projection apparatus the positions and/or orientations of reflective optical elements is dynamically controlled. The position of a reflective optical element such as a mirror in an illumination or projection system is first measured using an absolute position sensor mounted on a reference frame and thereafter measured by a relative position sensor also mounted on said reference frame. The position of the element is controlled in accordance with the measured position, e.g. to maintain it stationary in spite of vibrations that might otherwise disturb it. The absolute sensor may be a capacitive or inductive sensor and the relative sensor may be an interferometer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2004
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Erik R. Loopstra, Antonius J. J. van Dijsseldonk
  • Publication number: 20040081920
    Abstract: A method for providing self-aligned contact pads along an edge face of stacked electronics utilizes reflected light from the metal contact leads to define their location. A thin layer of light sensitive polymer is applied over the edge face, at which incident light is directed. A solvent developer is applied which dissolves the polymer where the reflected light passed. In a two-pass technique reflected light destroys an inhibitor in the polymer, and that portion of the layer is dissolved by a developer to delineate voids for contact pads. In a wavefront cancellation technique reflected light is 180° out of phase with the first pass of light, the combination not cross-linking molecules in the polymer, and that portion of the layer is dissolved to delineate voids for contact pads.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 22, 2002
    Publication date: April 29, 2004
    Inventor: Stewart A. Clark
  • Patent number: 6696223
    Abstract: A method for generating a photoresist pattern on top of an object that includes a layer of material that is opaque to light of a predetermined wavelength. The object is first covered with a layer of photoresist material. The layer of photoresist material is then irradiated with light of the predetermined wavelength from a position under the object such that the object casts a shadow into the layer of photoresist. The photoresist material is then developed to generate the photoresist pattern. The layer of photoresist material is irradiated from below the object by providing a reflecting surface below the object and a light source above the object. A mask is positioned between the object and the light source such that the mask casts a shadow that covers the object and a portion of the area surrounding the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Agilent Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Tetsuya Hidaka, Yawara Kaneko
  • Patent number: 6687041
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus for creating a pattern with extremely high resolution on a workpiece, such as a pattern on a semiconductor chip. The apparatus comprises a source for emitting electromagnetic radiation in the EUV wavelength range, a spatial modulator (SLM) having a multitude of pixels, an electronic data processing and delivery system receiving a digital description of the pattern to be written, extracting from it a sequence of partial patterns, converting said partial patterns to modulator signals, and feeding said signals to the modulator, and a precision mechanical system for moving said workpiece and/or projection system relative to each other. It further comprises an electronic control system coordinating the movement of the workpiece, the feeding of the signals to the modulator and the intensity of the radiation, so that said pattern is stitched together from the partial images.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2004
    Assignee: Micronic Laser Systems AB
    Inventor: Torbjorn Sandstrom
  • Patent number: 6596465
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a semiconductor component includes providing a semiconductor substrate (150) with a photoresist layer and providing a reflective lithographic mask (120, 200) having a radiation-absorptive composite layer (270) in a pattern over a radiation-reflective composite layer (220). A radiation sensitive layer is disposed over the semiconductor substrate, and an extreme ultra-violet light (110, 130) reflects a pattern off of the mask and onto the photoresist layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2003
    Assignee: Motorola, Inc.
    Inventors: Pawitter Jit Singh Mangat, James Richard Wasson, Scott Daniel Hector
  • Patent number: 6593585
    Abstract: In a lithographic projection apparatus the positions and/or orientations of reflective optical elements is dynamically controlled. The position of a reflective optical element such as a mirror in an illumination or projection system is first measured using an absolute position sensor mounted on a reference frame and thereafter measured by a relative position sensor also mounted on said reference frame. The position of the element is controlled in accordance with the measured position, e.g. to maintain it stationary in spite of vibrations that might otherwise disturb it. The absolute sensor may be a capacitive or inductive sensor and the relative sensor may be an interferometer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2003
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Erik R. Loopstra, Antonius J. J. van Dijsseldonk
  • Patent number: 6544698
    Abstract: The present invention is a system and method to create two dimensional and three dimensional structures using a maskless photolithography system that is semi-automated, directly reconfigurable, and does not require masks, templates or stencils to create each of the planes or layers on a multi layer two-dimensional or three dimensional structure. In an embodiment, the invention uses a micromirror array comprising up to several million elements to modulate light onto a substrate that has photoreactive or photoresist compounds applied to the exposed surface. The desired pattern is designed and stored using conventional computer aided drawing techniques and is used to control the positioning of the individual mirrors in the micromirror array to reflect the corresponding desired pattern. Light impinging on the array is reflected to or directed away from the substrate to create light and dark spots on the substrate according to the pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: University of South Florida
    Inventor: David P. Fries
  • Patent number: 6541184
    Abstract: A system and method is provided that facilitates the application of a uniform layer of developer material on a photoresist material layer. The system includes a multiple tip nozzle and a movement system that moves the nozzle to an operating position above a central region of a photoresist material layer located on a substrate, and applies a volume of developer as the nozzle scan moves across a predetermined path. The movement system moves the nozzle in two dimensions by providing an arm that has a first arm member that is pivotable about a first rotational axis and a second arm member that is pivotable about a second rotational axis or is movable along a translational axis. The system also provides a measurement system that measures the thickness uniformity of the developed photoresist material layer disposed on a test wafer. The thickness uniformity data is used to reconfigure the predetermined path of the nozzle as the developer is applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2003
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Ramkumar Subramanian, Khoi A. Phan, Bharath Rangarajan, Bhanwar Singh, Michael K. Templeton, Sanjay K. Yedur
  • Patent number: 6504644
    Abstract: An apparatus for creating a pattern on a workpiece sensitive to radiation, such as a photomask, a display panel or a microoptical device. The apparatus includes a radiation source, a spatial modulator (SLM) having a multitude of modulating elements (pixels), a projection system, an electronic data processing and delivery system controlling said modulator, a precision mechanical system for moving said workpiece and an electronic control system. Specifically, the drive signals can set the pixels in a number of states larger than two, and intermediate modulation states are used for pixels along edges of pattern features. The design of the modulating elements and the exposure method create, for differently placed and/or differently oriented edges in the pattern, a symmetry in the aperture stop of the projection system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2003
    Assignee: Micronic Laser Systems AB
    Inventor: Torbjorn Sandstrom
  • Publication number: 20020018968
    Abstract: A color developing composition is stable in the presence of calcium ion because of the presence of two specific types of polyphosphonic acid sequestering agents. The composition also comprises a color developing agent in free base form and an antioxidant for the color developing agent. The mixture of sequestering agents includes a polyaminopolyphosphonic acid and either a hydroxyalkylidenediphosphonic acid or morpholinomethanediphosphonic acid. The composition can be used to provide images in various color photographic silver halide materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 10, 1999
    Publication date: February 14, 2002
    Inventors: SHIRLEYANNE E. HAYE, JANET M. HUSTON, CHARLES M. DARMON, CHARLES S. CHRIST, PAUL A. SCHWARTZ, WILLIAM G. HENRY
  • Patent number: 6309809
    Abstract: A pattern is formed on a substrate by the process of providing a substrate having a surface with previously patterned features having a non-uniform electromagnetic reflectivity, applying a second image recording material to the surface, employing the features with a non-uniform physical property of reflectivity to delineate a desired pattern in the second image recording material and applying electromagnetic energy to take advantage of the reflectivity features to provide variable processing of the second material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alexander Starikov, Douglas Seymore Goodman
  • Patent number: 6285488
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus for creating a pattern on a workpiece, such as a photomask, a semiconductor wafer, an electronic interconnect device, a printed circuit board, a display panel, a microoptical device or a printing plate, whereby a pattern with less visible edges is created. The apparatus comprises a source for emitting light pulses, a spatial modulator (SLM) having several pixels, a projection system, an electronic data delivery system, and a precision mechanical system moving said workpiece relative to said projection system. Further, it comprises an electronic control system coordinating the workpiece, the modulator and light sources, so that a large pattern is stitched together from the partial images created by the sequence of radiation pulses, where adjacent images being stitched together are overlapping at the common boundary, and the overlapping images have essentially the same pattern in the overlap region and a reduced light intensity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2001
    Assignee: Micronic Laser Systems AB
    Inventor: Torbjorn Sandstrom
  • Patent number: 6242160
    Abstract: KrF excimer laser beam is selectively irradiated to a resist film. At this time, an incident light (KrF excimer laser beam) is reflected at the surface of an antireflection film to be a first reflected light, and is reflected at the surface of a film to be patterned to be a second reflected light. A standing wave is obtained by interference between the incident light and the first and the second reflected light. A light intensity of this standing wave has extreme maximum and extreme minimum appearing alternately, and a pair of extreme minimum and extreme maximum is across the first interface. A reflection index of the first reflected light is a range of 10 to 20%. Also, the thickness of the antireflection film is adjusted so that the extreme maximum of the pair is located in the resist film and the extreme minimum of the pair is located in the antireflection film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2001
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Shinichi Fukuzawa, Kunihiko Kasama
  • Patent number: 6208747
    Abstract: A method (300) of characterizing a lithographic scanning system includes the steps of printing a first pattern (302) using a reticle (220) having a first orientation with respect to the lithographic scanning system and measuring a critical dimension of the first pattern at a plurality of points (310). The method (300) further includes printing a second pattern (320) using the reticle (220) having a second orientation with respect to the lithographic scanning system different than the first orientation and measuring a critical dimension of the second pattern at the plurality of points (322).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2001
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices Inc.
    Inventors: Khanh B. Nguyen, Harry Levinson
  • Patent number: 6060224
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Inventors: William C. Sweatt, Richard H. Stulen
  • Patent number: 6051476
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method to reduce step difference of a cell region and a peripheral region, and to increase the capacitance. A first intermetal insulating layer, a planarization layer and a second intermetal insulating layer are formed successively on the semiconductor layer including a storage node. A contact hole is formed by etching the first intermetal insulating layer, the planarization layer and the second intermetal insulating layer so that a selected portion of the storage node is exposed. A photoresist pattern in which a wave of saw-teeth shape is formed at sidewalls, is formed on the second intermetal insulating layer so as to fill the contact hole. Spacers are formed at both sidewalls of the photoresist pattern in which the wave of saw-teeth shape is formed. Herein, a wave of saw-teeth shape is formed at inner surfaces of the spacer owing to both sidewalls of the photoresist pattern. The photoresist pattern in which the waves of saw-teeth shape are formed at sidewalls thereof, is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: Dongbu Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Soo Man Lee
  • Patent number: 5981150
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for forming a resist pattern which allows a closest pattern to be formed thus solving a problem of misalignment. A substrate has, on the surface thereof, first and second domains having different reflectivity to first light. A resist covers the first and second domains. The first light illuminates the resist and reflects from the surfaces of the first and second domains. A resist pattern forms in the fashion of self-alignment based on the illuminated and reflected light. The sum of the exposure of the illuminated and reflected light is set above a threshold of exposure by which the resist is sensitized in the first domain and set below the threshold of exposure in the second domain.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Masami Aoki, Shigeru Kambayashi, Junichi Wada, Yasuhiko Sato
  • Patent number: 5952148
    Abstract: The invention discloses that a photograph with a 3-dimensional image results when the non-angular reflector (of mercury) used in the Lippmann process of color photography is replaced by an angular reflector; the preferred form of the angular reflector is a retro-reflector.A photographic system is described which produces photographs with 3-dimensional images. The photo-sensitive element records the interference patterns of light waves, and the system is an improvement over the Lippmann process of color photography which produces photographs with 2-dimensional images. A photographic system is also described that produces a photograph with a 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional cross sections of a subject; the system is useful in medical imaging. During exposure, motion of more than one wavelength of light is permissible between the subject and lens or the lens and the photo-sensitive element.These improvements result from the use of a particular type of angular reflector which is a retro-reflecting sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1999
    Inventor: George M. Sawyer
  • Patent number: 5948588
    Abstract: The invention discloses that a photograph with a 3-dimensional image results when the non-angular reflector (of mercury) used in the Lippmann process of color photography is replaced by an angular reflector; the preferred form of the angular reflector is a retro-reflector.A photographic system is described which produces photographs with 3-dimensional images. The photo-sensitive element records the interference patterns of light waves, and the system is an improvement over the Lippmann process of color photography which produces photographs with 2-dimensional images. A photographic system is also described that produces a photograph with a 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional cross sections of a subject; the system is useful in medical imaging. During exposure, motion of more than one wavelength of light is permissible between the subject and lens or the lens and the photo-sensitive element.These improvements result from the use of a particular type of angular reflector which is a retro-reflecting sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1999
    Inventor: George M. Sawyer
  • Patent number: 5942375
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a printed wiring board, including the steps of (a) applying a photoresist film to a surface of a printed wiring board and inner surfaces of holes formed with the printed wiring board throughout a thickness thereof, (b) exposing the photoresist film to a light through a mask film and further through a light scattering layer composed of glass beads, and (c) developing and etching the photoresist film to form through-holes throughout the printed wiring board. For instance, the light scattering layer is constituted of two transparent light-transmissive films and a glass bead layer sandwiched between the transparent light-transmissive films. The method enables the inner surfaces of the holes to be sufficiently exposed to a light such as ultraviolet ray, to thereby provide a printed wiring board having fine through-holes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1999
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Tutomu Gosima
  • Patent number: 5935743
    Abstract: The invention discloses that a photograph with a 3-dimensional image results when the non-angular reflector (of mercury) used in the Lippmann process of color photography is replaced by an angular reflector; the preferred form of the angular reflector is a retro-reflector.A photographic system is described which produces photographs with 3-dimensional images. The photo-sensitive element records the interference patterns of light waves, and the system is an improvement over the Lippmann process of color photography which produces photographs with 2-dimensional images. A photographic system is also described that produces a photograph with a 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional cross sections of a subject; the system is useful in medical imaging. During exposure, motion of more than one wavelength of light is permissible between the subject and lens or the lens and the photo-sensitive element.These improvements result from the use of a particular type of angular reflector which is a retro-reflecting sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1999
    Inventor: George M. Sawyer
  • Patent number: 5900354
    Abstract: A process for illuminating a structured surface initially introduces a fluid into a volume, the fluid nearly completely chemically inactive with respect to the structured surface. Next, pressure and temperature are established within the volume which maintains the fluid in a supercritical state. The structured surface is then immersed in the supercritical fluid, and optical energy is directed through the supercritical fluid and onto the structured surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1999
    Inventor: John Samuel Batchelder
  • Patent number: 5879866
    Abstract: A pattern is formed on a substrate by the process of providing a substrate having a surface with previously patterned features having a non-uniform electromagnetic reflectivity, applying a second image recording material to the surface, employing the features with a non-uniform physical property of reflectivity to delineate a desired pattern in the second image recording material and applying electromagnetic energy to take advantage of the reflectivity features to provide variable processing of the second material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1999
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alexander Starikov, Douglas Seymore Goodman
  • Patent number: 5851740
    Abstract: When laser light is transmitted by or reflected by a diffuser onto an object being illuminated, the object is not evenly illuminated, but is speckled with large speckles.The invention uses a moving diffuser which reduces the sizes of the speckles when the object is visually observed, and eliminates the speckles when a photographic film or plate is located at the object position and records the laser light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1998
    Inventor: George M. Sawyer
  • Patent number: 5849468
    Abstract: When laser light is transmitted by or is reflected by a diffuser onto an object being illuminated, the object is not evenly illuminated, but is speckled with large speckles.The invention uses a moving diffuser which reduces the sizes of the speckles when the object is visually observed, and eliminates the speckles when a photographic film or plate is located at the object position and records the laser light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1998
    Inventor: George M. Sawyer
  • Patent number: 5686230
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a device provided with a body with a surface, at least a portion of the surface being provided with a radiation-sensitive layer, after which portions of the radiation-sensitive layer are exposed to radiation through a mask, a first portion of the layer being irradiated directly using a first part of a radiation beam projected through the mask and a second portion of the layer being irradiated indirectly using a second part of the radiation beam projected through the mask and reflected onto the second portion, the radiation beam being substantially collimated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1997
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Antonius J. M. Nellissen
  • Patent number: RE36964
    Abstract: Fabrication of devices of micron and submicron minimum feature size is accomplished by lithographic processing involving a back focal plane filter. A particularly important fabrication approach depends upon mask patterns which produce images based on discrimination as between scattered and unscattered radiation by accelerated electrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: Lucent Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Steven David Berger, John Murray Gibson