Physical And Chemical Treatment Of Agricultural Soils Patents (Class 47/DIG10)
  • Patent number: 6080362
    Abstract: A method to disinfect a porous solid medium, such as soil, includes the steps of embedding a plurality of electrodes into the porous solid medium and applying a plurality of alternating current voltage pulses between the electrodes. The voltage pulses have a peak voltage of at least 10 kilovolts and are of an intensity and duration effective to generate a quantity of ozone. The ozone is produced in quantities sufficient to disinfect the porous solid medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: Maxwell Technologies Systems Division, Inc.
    Inventors: Sik-Lam Wong, James Howard Shea
  • Patent number: 6076301
    Abstract: In the process of the invention, the seed to be treated, a predetermined amount of solid matrix material and a predetermined amount of water are admixed and the mixture allowed to stand, preferably in a container which allows entry of air but which reduces evaporation losses, for example, a closed metal container with a small top opening, for a time and at a temperature sufficient to enhance resultant plant vigor, i.e., enhance emergence, growth of yield characteristics, but short of that which would cause the seed to sprout. Faulty seeds may be separated by size and systemic resistance to disease can be induced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: Kamterter II LLC
    Inventor: John Alvin Eastin
  • Patent number: 6060074
    Abstract: A method of controlling plant infestation by fungus or insects by administering to a plant an aqueous solution that includes a chelating agent, humic acid and an alpha-keto acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: Morse Enterprises Limited, Inc.
    Inventors: George C Butler, Jr., Irwin S. Morse
  • Patent number: 6036740
    Abstract: Concentrated aqueous gypsum slurries containing small amounts of water soluble phosphonates are non-clogging when used in drip irrigation systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Inventors: John C. Miller, Deborah L. Miller
  • Patent number: 6001772
    Abstract: A weed eradicating substance, and a desalination substance. A method of use includes irrigating the soil with water, prior to planting, to cause the germination of weed seeds, and thereafter applying a desalination agent to increase weed seed germination. An application of the inventive pesticide then causes a much larger number of weeds to be eradicated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Assignee: Sotac Corporation
    Inventors: Larry C. Boyd, Truman V. Sylling, Stephen L. Allen
  • Patent number: 5974734
    Abstract: In the process of the invention, the seed to be treated, a predetermined amount of solid matrix material and a predetermined amount of water are admixed and the mixture allowed to stand, preferably in a container which allows entry of air but which reduces evaporation losses, for example, a closed metal container with a small top opening, for a time and at a temperature sufficient to enhance resultant plant vigor, i.e., enhance emergence, growth of yield characteristics, but short of that which would cause the seed to sprout. Faulty seeds may be separated by size and systemic resistance to disease can be induced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: Kamterter II, LLC
    Inventor: John Alvin Eastin
  • Patent number: 5934839
    Abstract: Compositions of precipitated cationic polymers containing mixtures of certain salts as well as processes for making and using the same are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1999
    Assignee: CytecTechnology Corp.
    Inventors: Joseph J. Mallon, Raymond S. Farinato, Louis Rosati, John J. Freeman, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5927003
    Abstract: A medium for enhancing growth and availability of water and nutrients during plant growth, comprising a synthetic resin and a support material, the resin consisting essentially of a substantially-linear, non-gelling, water-soluble polymer capable of forming a water absorbing network with the support material, such that the polymer is dispersed within the material upon exposure to water and retains and transports water and nutrients for seedling growth. Use of such polyacrylamides benefits growth by retaining water, reducing evaporation loss, improving yields and enhancing nutrient uptake.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Inventors: Deborah L. Miller, John C. Miller
  • Patent number: 5922316
    Abstract: Compositions for enhancing grain yield and protein yield of a legume grown under environmental conditions that inhibit or delay nodulation thereof are provided. The compositions comprise a nodulation gene-inducing compound such as flavors. Moreover, methods for enhancing grain yield and protein yield of a legume grown under environmental conditions that inhibit or delay nodulation thereof are provided. The methods comprise an addition of an agriculturally effective amount of a nodulation gene-inducing compound such as flavors, in the vicinity of the seed or root of the legume. In particular, a condition which inhibits root nodulation is a root zone temperature below 25.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1999
    Assignee: McGill University
    Inventors: Donald L. Smith, Feng Zhang
  • Patent number: 5910050
    Abstract: In the process of the invention, the seed to be treated, a predetermined amount of solid matrix material and a predetermined amount of water are admixed and the mixture allowed to stand, preferably in a container which allows entry of air but which reduces evaporation losses, for example, a closed metal container with a small top opening, for a time and at a temperature sufficient to enhance resultant plant vigor, i.e., enhance emergence, growth of yield characteristics, but short of that which would cause the seed to sprout. Faulty seeds may be separated by size and systemic resistance to disease can be induced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1999
    Assignee: Kamterter II, LLC
    Inventor: John Alvin Eastin
  • Patent number: 5907925
    Abstract: A method of treating waste materials such as city or animal sewage which may contain toxic chemicals includes supplying the waste materials in slurry form using a dispensing machine in the field to a fibrous crop material so that the waste materials, water and toxic chemicals are taken up by the fibrous materials in the plant to avoid toxic materials collecting in the soil. The amount of nutrients in the waste material including phosphorous and nitrogen are measured. The volume of materials supplied to the plant is controlled upon the phosphorous level. The amount of nitrogen can be supplemented on the go from a separate tank on the dispensing machine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1999
    Inventor: Jean Noel Guyot
  • Patent number: 5867937
    Abstract: A novel and improved method for relieving hydrophobicity of peat moss, bark and rockwool used in horticultural media for plant propagation using an effective level of a composition consisting of certain copolymerized alkane oxides is described. A more effective method of delivering these materials based on a composition of hydrous, amorphous silica using the compositions of the present invention is described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1999
    Assignee: Smithers-Oasis Company
    Inventor: Andrew Robert Templeton
  • Patent number: 5803670
    Abstract: A method is described to utilize used open-cast lignite mines by installing greenhouses with technological products attaining water economy of 7-8 times, unlimited nutritional capacity by enclosing pesticides and nutrients in a system of resins so as to release elements gradually, and with addition of calcium carbonate so as to limit the creation of sulfuric acid by the action of ground bacteria without pollution of the soil. This limits the need to move the greenhouses, and constitutes an original solution of agricultural utilization of these otherwise toxic and infertile soils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: Compostella Compania Maritime Ltd.
    Inventor: George N. Valkanas
  • Patent number: 5765304
    Abstract: A process for growing a light weight, transportable sod-mat and for facilitating the implantation of such a mat on a lawn bed comprises germinating lawn-grass seeds (5) in a thin layer of growing medium (4) spread over a mat of non-woven polypropylene (3) laying on an impermeable membrane (2). After germination, the mat and the inseminated growing medium is installed over a layer of porous material such as decomposed granite covering a conditioned subsoil. Drip irrigation lines are run through the upper region of the porous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1998
    Inventor: Edward H. Clark
  • Patent number: 5753183
    Abstract: Methyl iodide is employed as a structural fumigant for the effective control of soil borne and structural pests such as wood rotting fungi, arthropods such as insects and arachnids. Methyl iodide is employed in substantially the same manner as is customary for use of methyl bromide, and is at least as effective as methyl bromide when used in comparable amounts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1998
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Howard D. Ohr, Nigel M. Grech, James J. Sims
  • Patent number: 5738623
    Abstract: This invention relates to the use of activated charcoal granule compositions which, when dry spread and "watered-in" to a site, reduces undesirable biological activity of deleterious organic compounds. When wet, these granules disperse very rapidly with a large dispersion area to original granule diameter ratio. The granules have high loadings of charcoal, i.e., from about 60 to about 95 weight percent and contain from about 5 to about 40 weight percent of a surfactant system which exhibits excellent dispersing; rewetting; and binding properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1998
    Assignees: Aquatrols Corporation of America, Inc., Rhone-Poulenc Inc.
    Inventors: Stanley John Kostka, Patrick Michael Holroyd, Mark David Einziger, Edward G. Fu, Alan Joseph Stern
  • Patent number: 5738703
    Abstract: This invention is a method to produce a substitute for peat moss comprising:mixing in a mixer adsorptive cellulosic material with an effective amount of an inoculum containing cellulose degrading microorganism such as lignin cellulose degrading bacteria upon anaerobic fermentation and manure municipal waste or similar waste, manufactured feedstock or a blend of these,transferring said mixture to a chamber,allowing the temperature of said mixture to rise in said chamber until said cellulosic material changes color, thenaerating said mixture to remove water vapor, ammonia and other gases in an exhaust gas and then removing said mixture from said chamber for use as a substitute for peat moss and other uses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1998
    Inventor: William E. Bandurski
  • Patent number: 5733070
    Abstract: A method of improving ground soil irrigation by employing an additive or amendment in the form of an improved synthetic solution grade calcium sulfate dihydrate composition. This composition is formulated by contacting a calcium compound having a calcium cation with a chemical agent enabling the calcium compound to yield calcium ions upon reaction with the chemical agent and which enables the calcium cation to react with an anion of the chemical agent forming a second calcium compound. The second calcium compound is reacted with a sulfur containing acid, such as sulfuric acid, to thereby form a calcium sulfate dihydrate. The compound has improved suspension characteristics and will remain in suspension for a much longer period of time than a conventional solution grade calcium sulfate dihydrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1998
    Inventor: Edwin Charles Angell
  • Patent number: 5731268
    Abstract: A method for improvement (treatment) and prevention of dry spots on the grass surface of a golf course comprising sprinkling of an acetylene alcohol derivative (s) or sprinkling of it along with a water soluble polymer water retentive agent on the grass surface. Also, a method for prevention of dry spots on the grass surface of a golf course comprising sprinkling of a water soluble polymer water retentive agent(s) on the grass surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1998
    Assignee: Shin-EtsuChemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenichi Taguchi, Takumi Shirataki, Kinya Ogawa, Kouji Kinoshita
  • Patent number: 5720130
    Abstract: The invention provides a method for reducing soil contamination that comprises: establishing growing plants in the contaminated soil, the plants being selected from the group consisting of Hibiscus species in sections Meunchhusia or Striati or hybrids obtained by a cross with one or more species within sections Meunchhusia or Striati; severing and removing hibiscus plant material from the site. In preferred embodiments, the selected plants are hybrids. Especially preferred plants are selected from the group consisting of H. coccineus, H. cubensis, H. dasycalyx, H. laevis, and H. moscheutos. Contaminates may include metals, metal salts, nonmetals and organic wastes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1998
    Inventor: Georgia A. Bost
  • Patent number: 5712224
    Abstract: A weed eradicating substance, and a desalination substance. A method of use includes irrigating the soil with water, prior to planting, to cause the germination of weed seeds, and thereafter applying a desalination agent to increase weed seed germination. An application of the inventive pesticide then causes a much larger number of weeds to be eradicated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Sotac Corporation
    Inventors: Larry C. Boyd, Truman V. Sylling, Stephen L. Allen
  • Patent number: 5682709
    Abstract: A method of recycling carbon dioxide for enhancing plant growth. The method comprising the steps of collecting carbon dioxide-containing gas, depositing the carbon dioxide-containing gas into an underground void which is substantially free of methane, storing the carbon dioxide-containing gas in the underground void until it cools to a less than ambient daytime temperature, and distributing the stored carbon dioxide-containing gas to plants within a contiguous tract of plants under field conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1997
    Assignee: The Agricultural Gas Company
    Inventor: Stewart E. Erickson
  • Patent number: 5683957
    Abstract: An inexpensive composition effective for forming a long lasting, erosion controlling, germination promoting, pliable film over bare soil. The composition may be formulated in dry or liquid form and applied as either a dry powder or liquid dispersion. The composition includes at least a major proportion of gelatinized starch and a plasticizer. The composition may further include a fungicide, a bactericide, a micronutrient, and a filler. The liquid form will also include sufficient solvent--typically water--and may further include a thickener and an emulsifier for purposes of controlling settling of the components and maintaining a uniform dispersion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1997
    Assignee: IntAgra, Inc.
    Inventors: Emil A. Huang, Peter C. Lytle
  • Patent number: 5653053
    Abstract: A soil conditioning composition is provided which is suitable as a direct substitute for sphagnum peat moss. The composition is composed primarily of waste paper products which have been processed to form small clumped particles. As such, the composition sufficiently exhibits the textural and physical properties of sphagnum peat moss, such that it can be readily mixed into soil in order to promote moisture retention in the soil, as well as enhance aeration of the soil. Furthermore, the composition includes bone meal as a primary constituent. The clumped particles and bone meal are processed such that the bone meal forms a cohesive layer over each of the individual clumped particles, so as to further promote the moisture-retention capability of the particles. Furthermore, the bone meal advantageously contributes fertilizer grade phosphorus the composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 5, 1997
    Assignee: Wabash Valley Products
    Inventor: Mont A. Handley
  • Patent number: 5628811
    Abstract: A method of ameliorating acid soils so as to enhance plant growth is provided by adding to soil 0.05 to 20 percent by weight, based on the weight of the soil, of a flue gas desulfurization by-product consisting essentially of 80-99 percent by weight of gypsum (CaSO.sub.4.2H.sub.2 O) and 1-20 percent by weight of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH).sub.2).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignees: Dravo Lime Company, U.S. Department of Agriculture
    Inventors: John W. College, Joel H. Beeghly, K. Dale Ritchey, Virupax C. Baligar, Ralph B. Clark
  • Patent number: 5628144
    Abstract: In the process of the invention, the seed to be treated, a predetermined amount of solid matrix material and a predetermined amount of water are admixed and the mixture allowed to stand, preferably in a container which allows entry of air but which reduces evaporative losses, for example, a closed container with a small top opening, for a time and at a temperature sufficient to allow the seeds to imbibe water from the matrix and come to a water content equilibrium sufficient to enhance resultant plant vigor, i.e., enhance emergence, growth or yield characteristics, but short of that which would cause the seed to sprout. The seeds and matrix may be inoculated with beneficial microorganisms during priming. Moreover, inoculate seeds and matrix may be used to inoculate soil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: Kamterter Products, Inc.
    Inventor: John A. Eastin
  • Patent number: 5591697
    Abstract: The present invention relates to compounds represented by the following formula (I) ##STR1## (wherein R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, R.sup.4, and R.sup.5 independently represent a hydrogen atom, or an acetyl or benzyl group, R.sup.6 represents a hydrogen atom, a hydroxyl, acetoxy, or benzyloxy group, R.sup.7 represents a hydrogen atom, or R.sup.6 and R.sup.7 together may represent another direct bond, and R.sup.8 represents a carboxyl, methoxycarbonyl, hydroxymethyl, or acetoxymethyl group) or salts thereof and a process for the preparation thereof, as well as their utilities in a method for culture, a method for the growth inhibition of moyashi roots, and a method for the growth promotion of moyashi hypocotyls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1997
    Assignee: Research Development Corporation of Japan
    Inventors: Koji Hasegawa, Hideo Kakuta, Junya Mizutani
  • Patent number: 5590983
    Abstract: A method of improving ground soil irrigation by employing an additive or amendment in the form of an improved synthetic solution grade calcium sulfate dihydrate composition. This composition is formulated by contacting a calcium compound having a calcium cation with a chemical agent enabling the calcium compound to yield calcium ions upon reaction with the chemical agent and which enables the calcium cation to react with an anion of the chemical agent forming a second calcium compound. The second calcium compound is reacted with a sulfur containing acid, such as sulfuric acid, to thereby form a calcium sulfate dihydrate. The compound has improved suspension characteristics and will remain in suspension for a much longer period of time than a conventional solution grade calcium sulfate dihydrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1997
    Inventor: Edwin C. Angell
  • Patent number: 5538890
    Abstract: A broad spectrum biological herbicide comprises a mammal-sparing bioherbicide fungal mutant, e.g., a S. sclerotiorum mutant, of limited survival time and geographical dissemination characteristics under standard agricultural conditions. The invention also relates to a method of obtaining herbicides of the invention comprising obtaining viable wild type bioherbicide fungal spores, subjecting these to UV light to reduce the number of viable fungi to less than 5% the initial number of spores, selecting mutants which differ from the wild type in at least one characteristic such as altered phenotype or morphology, and further selecting a mammal-sparing bioherbicide fungal mutant of reduced survival time and geographical dissemination characteristics under agricultural conditions when compared with the wild type. The invention also relates to a method of using the broad spectrum biological herbicide to reduce the number of weeds in an area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 13, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1996
    Assignee: Research and Development Institute, Inc. at Montana State University
    Inventors: David C. Sands, Roger V. Miller, Eugene Ford, Gregory Kennett
  • Patent number: 5538524
    Abstract: A barrier grown sod production process is provided for use in growing healthy barrier grown sod on a large-scale. The process includes growing seeded growth media on a moisture impervious plastic sheet which is placed over crowned row mounds. Trenches between the row mounds may also be lined with the plastic sheet. Crowning of the row mound aids in controlled drainage of excess water, thereby keeping the ground soil dry for vehicle access and for maintaining the critical salinity/moisture content/oxygenation/fertility balance necessary for producing healthy barrier grown sod.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1996
    Assignee: Southland Sod Farms
    Inventor: Martin Gramckow
  • Patent number: 5518692
    Abstract: Methyl iodide is employed as a soil fumigant for the effective control of plant pathogens, nematodes, bacteria and weeds. Methyl iodide is employed in substantially the same manner as is customary for use of methyl bromide, and is at least as effective as methyl bromide when used in comparable amounts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1996
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Nigel M. Grech, Howard D. Ohr, James J. Sims
  • Patent number: 5472458
    Abstract: An artificial soil structure includes at least one hydrophobic layer of hydrophobic particles provided in a soil. A particle size of the hydrophobic particles can be 2000 micrometers and less. The hydrophobic particles are sand and/or dirt treated with a water-repellent agent or hydrophobic particles having a high molecular weight polymer. An artificial water-retentive soil structure includes a soil block containing a water-retentive agent and a hydrophobic layer of hydrophobic particles provided on the soil block. A method of preventing land desertification includes the steps of placing a hydrophobic layer of hydrophobic particles in a soil at a prescribed depth from the earth surface and controlling the water content in said soil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1995
    Assignee: Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kinya Ogawa, Yoichi Hirasawa, Takao Oshima, Yoshiaki Nishimura
  • Patent number: 5464457
    Abstract: This invention provides a process for fumigating a plot of ground soil which involves dispersing a particulate ammonium carboxylate such as ammonium bicarbonate on or below the ground surface, followed by covering of the treated ground area with a tarpaulin to seal the ground surface from contact with the atmosphere. The tarpaulin covering is maintained on the ground surface for a sufficient time period to allow decomposition of the ammonium bicarbonate into a mixture of ammonia and carbon dioxide gases, and to effect fumigation of the covered plot with the generated gas mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Church & Dwight Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Anthony E. Winston, Keith A. Jones
  • Patent number: 5458662
    Abstract: Processed coconut outer husk chops, including coconut outer husk chops produced by compressing coconut outer husk at substantially right angle to the directions of coirs and chopping the compressed coconut outer husk. A reference sample of a resulting coconut outer husk chop which was left at 20.degree. C. at 50% relative humidity for three days contains 0.01-2 wt % tannin and 0.15-0.6 wt % Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Each processed coconut outer husk chop is sufficiently porous, and has a shape holding power, a good drainage, a low tannin content and a high iron content. A process for producing processed coconut outer husk chops is disclosed. The processed coconut outer husk chops are suited to a planting material, an inert medium for hydroponics and a microorganism propagating bed for propagating a decontaminating microorganism nurtured with a malodorous substance and trace pollutant in air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1995
    Inventor: Minoru Toyone
  • Patent number: 5393312
    Abstract: An agent for the prevention of salt damage of plants for use in intermediate soil comprised of water-repellent particles, and a method of preventing salt damage to plants from salty soil using an agent to establish a water-repellent layer as a layer above the underground water level. An agent for the prevention of salt accumulation in greenhouse soil comprised of hydrophobic particles which are substantially hydrophobic. A salt accumulation prevention layer containing an agent for the prevention of salt accumulation in greenhouse soil which is provided at the surface layer or a prescribed depth from the surface layer of the greenhouse soil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1995
    Assignee: Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Kinya Ogawa, Kenichi Ito, Yoichi Hirasawa, Takao Oshima, Seiji Sakai
  • Patent number: 5389116
    Abstract: An improved ground cover. The ground cover is comprised of mulch and a binder. The mulch is molded into the shape desired and held together by the binder. The mulch is comprised of a plurality of small pieces. The binder surrounds the mulch and holds the mulch together. The mulch bound together is both gas and water permeable. Also, the bound mulch is biodegradable and harmless to soil and plants. The mulch may contain leachable plant nutriments. The mulch is opaque so as to retard weed growth and able to retain water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Inventor: David A. Byrd
  • Patent number: 5368092
    Abstract: A subsurface hydronic heat-exchanging apparatus and method are provided for controlling the temperature of a turf field. A temperature-controlling fluid is circulated from a temperature-controlled fluid source through a supply header laterally disposed to the field and coupled to an array of hollow tubular heat-exchanging elements underlying the field. Fluid is recirculated to the fluid source from the tubes through a return header laterally disposed to the field and coupled to the tubes. Temperature sensors are disposed adjacent the turf field which detect the temperature of the field and a temperature control device is provided which is responsive to the detected temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Assignee: Biotherm Hydronic, Inc.
    Inventors: Jim K. Rearden, Michael Muchow
  • Patent number: 5368626
    Abstract: A growth medium that is capable of supporting plant life includes a water retention component and soil. The water retention component can be a water retaining grain polish, bran or cut, short mineral wool fibers. A method of making the growth medium includes the steps of providing the water retention component and the soil, applying the water retention component to the soil and admixing the water retention component into the soil to distribute the water retention material within the soil to improve the water retaining capabilities of the soil. Vegetation matter, especially when mixed with animal excrement, will also contribute to the water retention property of the growth medium in addition to its slow release nutrient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Assignee: Chicago International Corp., Ltd.
    Inventor: Daniel N. Schnuda
  • Patent number: 5366961
    Abstract: A pesticidal material which comprises an inclusion compound or a molecular complex of a pesticide and a host molecule characterized in that the host molecule is a mono-, oligo- or polysaccharide ester. A pesticidal composition and a method for combatting insect pests involving the above pesticidal material are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Assignee: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    Inventor: Kevin J. Harrington
  • Patent number: 5360782
    Abstract: Aqueous thiocarbonate solutions are stabilized by the addition of base, sulfide and/or polysulfide, and the stability and safety of the more concentrated solutions containing 1 weight percent or more equivalent CS.sub.2 as a thiocarbonate are achieved as reflected by significant reduction of CS.sub.2 partial pressure in such solutions. Also, deposit formation in irrigation systems delivering such thiocarbonates, such as drip emitters and sprinkler heads, is reduced or eliminated with minor amounts of sodium hexametaphosphate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1994
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Donald C. Young, James A. Green, II
  • Patent number: 5332580
    Abstract: Aqueous thiocarbonate solutions are stabilized by the addition of base, sulfide and/or polysulfide, and the stability and safety of the more concentrated solutions containing 1 weight percent or more equivalent CS.sub.2 as a thiocarbonate are achieved as reflected by significant reduction of CS.sub.2 partial pressure in such solutions. Also, deposit formation in irrigation systems delivering such thiocarbonates, such as drip emitters and sprinkler heads, is reduced or eliminated with minor amounts of sodium hexametaphosphate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1994
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Donald C. Young, James A. Green, II
  • Patent number: 5303503
    Abstract: A fertilization and irrigation system including a hollow tubular fiber conduit having a liquid permeable wall for nitrogen fertilizing and irrigating soil. The conduit or length of this tubular material is placed within the soil generally in the vicinity of the root level of plants to be irrigated. For nitrogen fertilization, ammonium hydroxide (NH.sub.4 OH) is introduced into the conduit, the ammonia (NH.sub.3) then allowed to permeate through the conduit wall into the soil. The presence of ammonium hydroxide may be by circulation or held statically under a varying amount of static head pressure. The ammonium hydroxide interacts to dissolve plasticizer within the hollow fiber conduit so that the plasticizer will thereafter go into colloidal suspension within water and carried away. By removal of plasticizer in this manner, both fertilization efficiency and the water permeability of the conduit for subsequent irrigation of the plants and soil are increased significantly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1994
    Inventor: James A. Patterson
  • Patent number: 5229113
    Abstract: The chemical compounds that induce expression of nodulation genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains have been identified. The isoflavones daidzein and genistein were identified as soybean exudate components that induce nod-genes. Other isoflavones, including 7-hydroxyisoflavone, 5,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, biochanin A, formononetin and prunetin, were also found to act as inducers. In addition, several flavonoid compounds including 4',7-dihydroxyflavone, apigenin, kaempferol and coumestrol, were also found to act as inducers. Nodulation inducing compositions and a method for selectively activating the expression of a gene under the control of a soybean exudate inducible promoter in B. japonicum in response to these inducer molecules are described. In addition, soybean inoculating compositions containing the nod-gene inducers and inoculating methods employing these compositions are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1993
    Assignee: Lubrizol Genetics, Inc.
    Inventors: Renee Kosslak, Roger Bookland, Edward R. Appelbaum
  • Patent number: 5200033
    Abstract: A method and device for removing organic compounds from soil, solids, sludges and other types of contaminated materials utilizing a non-rotating contactor which can be tightly sealed from air infiltration. Binders such as cement, lime, flyash or kiln dust may be added to the soil prior to treatment so as to aid in the volatilization of the volatile organics and to immobilize the non-volatile constituents in the treated solids. The contaminated materials are fed to a chamber with a movable rake therein and are subjected to temperatures sufficiently high to violatize the organic constituents. The volatilized contaminants are purged with small amounts of air or other non-condensible gas and with superheated steam. The organic constituents can be captured in a vapor phase or they can be condensed and captured in the condensed liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1993
    Assignee: LWV Associates, Inc.
    Inventor: Leo Weitzman
  • Patent number: 5188041
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for removing volatile organic contaminants from soil and waste materials including transporting and placing the contaminated material into a hopper, the hopper being substantially sealed from the atmosphere to prevent fugitive emissions of the contaminants from escaping into the atmosphere; conveying the material under substantially sealed conditions into a heated vapor stripping conveyor; conveying material under substantially sealed conditions along the vapor stripping conveyor to heat the material and thereby cause moisture in the material and the contaminants to be stripped from the material; streaming non-oxidizing gases at a controlled temperature over the material, in the direction of travel of the material, beginning at a point downstream of and adjacent to the introduction of the material into the vapor stripping conveyor to carry the contaminants and moisture away from the material; and maintaining the rate of flow and temperature of the gases to prevent undue surface drying o
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1993
    Assignee: Roy F. Weston, Inc.
    Inventors: John Noland, Michael Cosmos
  • Patent number: 5181952
    Abstract: In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1993
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Frederick G. Burton, Dominic A. Cataldo, John F. Cline, W. Eugene Skiens, Peter Van Voris
  • Patent number: 5141745
    Abstract: Nodulation gene-inducing factors have been isolated and identified. A number of substituted flavones, some of which are components of exudates and extracts of leguminous plants, have been found to induce expression of certain nodulation genes in Rhizobium strains. Three components of clover extract 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'methoxyflavone, and 4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone have been identified as nodulation inducers of certain Rhizobium trifolii nod genes. A number of other flavonoids including flavones, flavanones, flavanols and dihydroflavanols, not necessarily found in legume exudates, were also found to induce expression of certain nodulation genes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1992
    Assignee: The Lubrizol Corporation
    Inventors: Barry G. Rolfe, John W. Redmond, Michael Batley, Michael A. Djordjevic
  • Patent number: 5119744
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for treating turf to reduce the general soil density in which turfgrasses grow and thus promote turf growth and turf drainage which includes injecting through the turf into the soil a pattern of jets of generally incompressible liquid at a jet pressure and jet spacing to provide a lateral dispersion of the liquid within the soil such that the liquid dispersion from adjacent jets coact with one another to lift and fracture the soil. A plurality of small diameter nozzles are mounted on a movable frame generally transverse to the direction of travel of the frame. A pressurized fluid source is mounted on the frame and connected through a control device to the nozzles. The control device control the flow of liquid from the pressure source to the nozzles to produce periodic, relatively small cross-sectional, slugs, or jets, of liquid from the nozzles through the turf into the soil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1992
    Assignee: The Toro Company
    Inventor: Robert C. Comer
  • Patent number: 5099605
    Abstract: The present invention provides a plant growth media which comprises small tufts of mineral wool having dispersed therein, particles of acidic phenolic resin for pH control and particles of vermiculite. The ingredients and structure of the product results in a lightweight growth media having a suitable pH for growing certain plants while also providing for flowability, enhanced water adsorption and cohesiveness which prevents the composition from spilling out of certain types of plant containers. The composition also provides enhanced root anchorage without sacrificing the properties of flowability and water adsorption. The composition also optimizes other features which makes the composition and ideal plant growth media.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1992
    Inventor: Frank W. Moffet, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5014462
    Abstract: Soil amendment techniques are described utilizing solid rubber particles to be mixed with soil to improve porosity and reduce compaction. The rubber particles are preferably derived from shredded scrap tires. The size of the rubber particles may vary, and the amount of rubber mixed with the soil may also vary. The soil amendment techniques are especially useful for reducing compaction of soil under turf (e.g., football fields, soccer fields, golf courses, steeplechase courses, pathways, and the like). The soil amendment also improves soil porosity. Sod grown on soil including rubber particles, and later placed on soil which also includes rubber particles, will reduce certain types of athletic injuries to humans as well as horses. Also, the inclusion of rubber particles in soil improves the use efficiency of water and fertilizer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1991
    Assignee: International Soil Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert C. Malmgren, Parviz N. Soltanpour, Jan E. Cipra