Plant Growth Regulation By Control Of Light Thereon Patents (Class 47/DIG6)
  • Patent number: 6050026
    Abstract: To make it possible to control the forms of flowering plants by controlling light quality of cultivation light, without using any chemicals such as dwarfing agents, a method of cultivating a flowering plant selected from the group consisting of the genus Petunia, the genus Pelargonium and the genus Euphorbia is proposed, which comprises controlling light quality of cultivation light in the daylight period after a seedling culture stage, in particular, after true-leaf development until blooming or bract formation to thereby control the forms concerning the height of a plant, the length of a branch, the length of a corolla, the length of a flower tube, the number of florets, the dimensions of a flower cluster, the number of bracts or the length of a bract.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: National Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture
    Inventors: Toshio Ohtani, Naoya Fukuda, Sadanori Sase, Limi Okushima
  • Patent number: 6037170
    Abstract: An apparatus for culturing microalgae is characterized by comprising:(1) a waterway a to be filled with a suspension containing a culture solution and microalgae and adapted to be irradiated with sun beams while being held in contact with ambient air;(2) an upper hermetically sealed storage tank b for storing said suspension to avoid any contact between the latter and ambient air, said storage tank being provided with a deaeration and a switch valve;(3) an aeration pipe c arranged and apertured in the storage tank b for feeding pressurized gas into the storage tank b; and(4) a pressurized gas feeder d;the upstream end and the downstream end of the waterway a and the storage tank b being linked at the bottom of the storage tank b by way of a water conduit f to form an endless waterway; the upstream end and the downstream end of the waterway a and the storage tank b being linked at the bottom of the storage tank b so as to allow pressurized gas fed through the aeration pipe c to burst out from the bottom of the
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Inventor: Toshirou Sekine
  • Patent number: 5818734
    Abstract: A method for controlling greenhouse light employs first and second algorithms for controlling a supplemental lighting system and a shade control system, respectively, in a greenhouse. The lighting control algorithm controls actuation of electric lamps in the greenhouse based upon a plurality of rules. These rules employ weather and climate data, accumulated and calculated photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) data and off-peak electricity rate hour data to provide uniform daily integrated PPF values in the most cost efficient manner. The shade control algorithm works in conjunction with the lighting control algorithm to insure that the daily PPF values do not exceed a target value on days when the PPF accumulated from solar insolation exceeds the target value. The shade control algorithm operates very precisely to avoid an over shading condition which would require undesirable actuation of the supplemental lighting control system for compensation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1998
    Assignee: Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventor: Louis D. Albright
  • Patent number: 5732506
    Abstract: To make it possible to control the external view of flowers of petunias not by breeding but by only controlling cultivation environment, a method of cultivating a petunia having a colored portion and an outer margin in its corolla is proposed, which comprises controlling light quality of cultivation light in the daylight period after a seedling culture stage, in particular, after flower-bud differentiation until blooming to thereby control the proportion of the colored portion to the outer margin in the corolla. Especially, to broaden the outer margin in the corolla of the petunia, it is preferable to use yellow light as the cultivation light, and to narrow it, blue light as the light quality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1998
    Assignee: National Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
    Inventors: Toshio Ohtani, Naoya Fukuda, Sadanori Sase, Limi Okushima
  • Patent number: 5718080
    Abstract: To make it possible to control the forms of flowering plants by controlling light quality of cultivation light, without using any chemicals such as dwarfing agents, a method of cultivating a flowering plant selected from the group consisting of the genus Petunia, the genus Pelargonium and the genus Euphorbia is proposed, which comprises controlling light quality of cultivation light in the daylight period after a seedling culture stage, in particular, after true-leaf development until blooming or bract formation to thereby control the forms concerning the height of a plant, the length of a branch, the length of a corolla, the length of a flower tube, the number of florets, the dimensions of a flower cluster, the number of bracts or the length of a bract.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1998
    Assignee: National Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
    Inventors: Toshio Ohtani, Naoya Fukuda, Sadanori Sase, Limi Okushima
  • Patent number: 5692337
    Abstract: A collapsible plant shelter is provided which can be readily erected into a cylindrical form of either elliptical or polygonal cross section and readily collapsed into a substantially flat contour for storage. To erect the shelter, the film is provided in a rectangular planar sheet and then rolled into a cylinder. The film is maintained in its cylindrical form by inserting it within a flexible sleeve. The film has sufficient resiliency that it maintains an elliptical cross section when held within the flexible outer sleeve. The sleeve and film are both formed of at least partially transparent material to allow some light to pass through the sleeve and film and into the shelter. To collapse the shelter, the film is merely removed from within the sleeve and allowed to return to its planar orientation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1997
    Inventor: Ronald W. Motz, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5642587
    Abstract: A method for accelerating the growth of Taxus X media `Hicksii` and related Taxus species to enhance the production and recovery of taxol and Taxotere from plant tissues is described. The method includes the steps of increasing the production of biomass by cycling growth periods of Taxus plants within a greenhouse or other enclosed structure, harvests of plant parts and cold storage of the remaining unharvested plants to break dormancy and condition the plant for the next cycle of growth and harvest. After at least several cycles, entire plants are harvested for extraction from all plant parts while other plants are saved for stock plants or reforesting. The collected plant material is prepared for extraction of taxol or Taxotere, compounds used in the treatment of cancer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1997
    Assignee: GRoW International Corp.
    Inventors: Harry W. Janes, Gerald E. Gore, Wayne K. Wittman, Harry T. Roman
  • Patent number: 5525860
    Abstract: The invention provides a fluorescent lamp for plant growth capable of controlling morphology in terms of grass height, area and shape of leaves and so forth, approximating those obtained under natural daylight, while effectively promoting photosynthesis of the plant. The fluorescent lamp has a glass tube and a fluorescent layer formed on the inner surface of the tube and composed of four fluorescent components having light emission peaks in the bands of 440 to 460 nm, 540 to 560 nm, 600 to 620 nm and 700 to 800 nm, respectively, said fluorescent layer having the PF ratio ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 in terms of the ratio between the photon flux PF contained in the wavelength band of 600 to 700 nm to that in the wavelength zone of 700 to 800 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kimitoshi Horaguchi, Masaaki Morita, Haruo Shibata, Katsusuke Murakami, Ichiro Aiga
  • Patent number: 5519964
    Abstract: Disclosed are a composite plastic film and a greenhouse constructed by using the same as a covering sheet spread over a framework capable of exhibiting improved temperature elevation-suppressing effect in summer and improved warm-keeping effect in winter. The composite film has a double-layered structure consisting of a transparent or translucent thermoplastic resin film as the substrate and a transparent overlayer of a polymeric resin formed on one surface of the substrate film and these two layers are correlated each with the other in relation to two newly defined parameters including "the total heat volume", which is a product of the overall weight and the specific heat capacity of the film, and "the absorptivity of radiation heat" defined in terms of the decrease in the radiation temperature of sunlight by transmitting the film, the overlayer having the total heat volume not exceeding 10% of that of the substrate film and the absorptivity of radiation heat not exceeding 60% of that of the substrate film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1996
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Sekuto Kagaku
    Inventors: Masami Kujirai, Yumiko Kujirai, Yukio Kujirai
  • Patent number: 5515648
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the propagation and growing of plants, and particularly concerns an apparatus for growing large numbers of plants in a small area, with optimized use of available and artificial light, and to reduce the effect of plants competing for light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1996
    Assignee: Perifleur Products Ltd.
    Inventor: Alec G. Sparkes
  • Patent number: 5514580
    Abstract: A process for propagating Pelargonium x domesticum varieties by tissue culture propagation of petiole sections taken from a mother plant. In addition to tissue culture propagation steps and growth media constituents which are known in the art, an essential step of the preferred embodiment of the invention includes the conducting of callus formation by initial culturing of the petiole section in the dark. In all embodiments of the invention, however, it is believed that the effectiveness of the present process is attributable at least in part to the presence in the culture medium of a growth regulator selected from the group consisting of amino or benzyl-glucosides and amino- or benzyl-glycosides or any other composition chemically equivalent to the exemplary regulator benzylamino riboside.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 7, 1996
    Assignee: Oglevee, Ltd.
    Inventors: Wendy Oglevee-O'Donovan, Eleanor Stoots
  • Patent number: 5498541
    Abstract: An improved method for producing potato microtubers by tissue culture is provided. The improvement comprises culturing potato plants in a medium containing a high sugar content, i.e., 8% (w/v), for about 1 to 4 weeks under the light prior to culturing the plants in the dark to produce the microtubers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1996
    Assignee: Japan Tobacco Inc.
    Inventors: Ichiro Oka, Carolyn Sluis
  • Patent number: 5429646
    Abstract: A method for killing the parasite plant mistletoe and other photobiotic plants is disclosed. Opaque, heat-absorbing material is provided. The opaque, heat absorbing material is located about a parasitic plant and secured thereabout. The material is left about the plant until the plant dies from lack of light and from elevated temperatures. The material and the dead parasitic plant are then removed from the host plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1995
    Inventor: Wyatt W. Givens
  • Patent number: 5412905
    Abstract: A single unit plant protection device in a vertical open top cone configuration. Fabricated from recycled plastic material to form a blanket of bubbles or dead air cells. Tinted green to aid in heat absorption while still allowing light to penetrate through to young plants. Designed to slip over an inverted 12".times.33" three wire tomato cage for support. Functions as a barrier against cold, wind, insects, and disease. May be reversed after last frost to provide protection for balance of plant's life while tomato cage provides structural support to plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1995
    Inventor: Ian T. Allison
  • Patent number: 5375368
    Abstract: A plant shelter (10) is provided which surrounds a plant (P) and provides a microclimate (M) surrounding the plant (P) for enhanced growth of the plant (P). The plant shelter (10) is formed from a film (20) rolled into a cylindrical wall (25). The film (20) has selective absorption characteristics resulting in the film (20) shielding the plant (P) from ultra-violet radiation (U) and visible radiation which is not of a wavelength corresponding to blue light (B). The shelter (10) can be closed partially on a top edge (22) thereof to further isolate the microclimate (M) from conditions of the climate (C) outside the shelter (10).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Inventor: Ronald W. Motz, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5321907
    Abstract: A method for storing horticultural plants and an apparatus therefor are disclosed. The method of the present invention comprises placing the live horticultural plants in a container for transportation, wherein the temperature and the humidity in the container are kept at conditions suited for the horticultural plants within the range of 10.degree.-25.degree. C. and 60-90% RH, volatile gas generated by the horticultural plants are removed, the air inside the container is circulated, and the horticultural plants are irradiated with a light mainly composed of red light and blue light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1994
    Assignee: Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoichiro Ueno, Hiroshi Amatsu, Teruyuki Tashiro, Shingo Takamatsu, Yukihito Morimoto
  • Patent number: 5269093
    Abstract: Disclosed are a method and an apparatus for controlling the plant growth with artificial light in plant factories, atria, etc. The stem extension and the leaf/stem dry weight ratio can be controlled artificially by the ratio of the additional far-red irradiation (700-800 nm) to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR 400-700 nm). In a chamber for cultivating plants, an artificial lighting source, having 3-band fluoscent lamps for PAR and far-red fluoscent lamps for far-red radiation, is employed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1993
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kimitoshi Horaguchi, Masaaki Morita, Katsusuke Murakami, Ichiro Aiga
  • Patent number: 5174793
    Abstract: A method of plant cultivaton and growth acceleration includes enclosing the plants within a reflective chamber, controlling the CO.sub.2 concentration within said chamber so as to be at least 200 ppm, and irradiating the plants substantially omnidirectionally with a light intensity of approximately 3000 lux, while stably regulating the ambient temperature, relative humidity and nutrient supply.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1992
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki K.K.
    Inventors: Akira Ikeda, Shigeki Nakayama, Kenji Ezaki, Toshitsugu Ishii
  • Patent number: 5138792
    Abstract: The invention relates to polymeric mulch sheets and mulch films for use in agriculture. These filter out a large part of the solar radiation which promotes photosynthesis and plant development, and transmits enough solar radiation so as to heat the soil beneath such films. The sheets or films have a green color and transmit about 15-30 percent of the energy in the green range, and a large percentage of the energy in the 730 to 1100 nm range. Such mulch films substantially reduce weed growth. The invention further relates to a method of plant cultivation where the plants are cultivated, using sheets or films according to the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1992
    Inventor: Yael Allingham
  • Patent number: 5138794
    Abstract: A new and innovative technique of producing Lilium elegans Asiatic hybrid lily is disclosed. Very small bulbils from leaf axils of L. elegans receives sequential low-high-low temperature treatment before planting in the soil medium. After planting, scale leaves emerge and bulb weight increases. After about 13 scale leaves have emerged from the bulbs, the temperature is lowered to favor shoot emergence, preferably under long day photoperiod to accelerate shoot emergence and to induce flower bud formation. A desirable plant producing up to three flowers on a long stem is produced in about 270-300 days after harvesting bulbils, thus bypassing the field production phase of the bulb that lasts more than a year in the field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventor: Mark S. Roh
  • Patent number: 5134803
    Abstract: The invention relates to cultivation of a rose plant in a greenhouse and the like which is capable of growing a rose so that an object twig with a flower can be cut in about a waist-high position, and picking cut flowers with long stems and of a high quality. In the invention, initially grown twigs are bent in the vicinity of the plant foot and kept prostrated, and basal shoots coming out from the position near said foot are grown into twigs. Then, the twigs with flowers are cut off at the base portion thereof to obtain the initial cut flowers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1992
    Assignee: Taiyo Kogyo Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Chozo Takasuka, Teiji Yokota, Masaru Suematsu
  • Patent number: 5095650
    Abstract: Apparatus is provided comprising a housing for growing plants under controlled conditions. The housing is defined by a base, walls and a cap. Electrical sockets are mounted in the housing, and fluorescent lamps are electrically connected to the sockets. Supports connected to the wall in spaced-apart relation to the sockets are releasably engageable with the fluorescent lamps for support thereof. A typical wall is formed with a recess having a given length in a first direction. The support is made of a flexible material and is formed with a stem, clips extending from one side of the stem for embracing and supporting the fluorescent light, and a head extending from another side of the stem and engageable in the recess. Arms lead away from the head and wall at first locations adjacent to and on either side of the stem and towards the wall at second locations farther from and on either side of the stem. Feet are respectively at distal ends of the arms and engageable in the recess.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1992
    Assignee: Pyraponic Industries, Inc. II
    Inventor: Jeffery J. DeMarco
  • Patent number: 5095414
    Abstract: An improved single light fixture for use in intermittently illuminating plants in a greenhouse. A bulb of a particular selected light output frequency is selected, and the fixture comprises an oscillating parabolic mirror which sweeps the light from the bulb across all of the plants in the greenhouse.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventor: Richard W. Tinus
  • Patent number: 5058316
    Abstract: A mushroom cultivation method and apparatus concentrate the sunlight through a sunlight concentrating device 17 and introduce the sunlight into a hermetically sealed cultivation chamber through optical fibers 8 at a cultivation term after completion of scrambling of mushroom spawn (operation of budding mushrooms). Mushrooms are irradiated with the introduced sunlight intermittently for a predetermined time. Cultivation environment near natural growing environment can be formed. The intensity of illumination, a wavelength and an irradiating time of the sunlight are adjusted if necessary.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1991
    Inventor: Shigenobu Watari
  • Patent number: 5049505
    Abstract: The seedling breeding apparatus according to the present invention comprises a culture box including a nutrient medium support, a removable sterilizable germ-entrance preventive joint connected at one end to the culture box, a gas feeding system and a nutrient medium solution feeding system, both being connected to the culture box through the germ entrance-preventive joint. Therefore, the culture box and the germ entrance-preventive joint can be separated from the feeding systems and sterilized and hence sterilization is easy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 17, 1991
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Komatsu Seisakusho
    Inventor: Masahiro Sei
  • Patent number: 5040329
    Abstract: Ultraviolet energy in the germicidal band is directed towards plants, particularly the grape vines on the vineyard trellis, providing a lethal exposure (irradiation) for the purpose of eradicating microorganisms, and stimulating host plant defense mechamisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1991
    Inventor: Alfred J. Michaloski
  • Patent number: 5022181
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for encouraging maximal plant growth which method and apparatus comprise a light filter which prevents the natural decay of plant growth stimulating materials by absorption of UV radiation while permitting photosynthesis to occur with blue light in the absence of attendant heat generating and dehydrating radiations caused by green, yellow and infra-red light. The objective is made possible according to the preferred embodiment of the invention by interposing separately, continuously, or discontinuously, a combination of filters made of solid material between the sun and the growing plants which block out radiation in those wave lengths which are either physiologically harmful or which retard growth, but do not inhibit those wavelengths which are necessary for photosynthesis, metabolism, differentiation and development.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1991
    Assignee: R. E. I., Inc.
    Inventor: Eric Longstaff
  • Patent number: 5012609
    Abstract: Disclosed are a method and an apparatus for irradiation of plants using optoelectronic devices. In accordance with this invention, optoelectronic devices that emit radiant energy at the appropriate wavelength are operated in a continuous mode or pulsed asymmetrically at a frequency and level of electrical power that results in sufficient irradiance to support plant growth and development. The apparatus consists of: (1) an array of optoelectronic devices, primarily light emitting diodes, for producing irradiance in each of three different wavelength regions necessary for specific plant photobiological reactions, (2) a pulse generator and associated electric power driving components, and (3) an electric direct current (D.C.) power supply.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 7, 1991
    Assignee: Automated Agriculture Associates, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronald W. Ignatius, Todd S. Martin, Raymond J. Bula, Robert C. Morrow, Theodore W. Tibbitts
  • Patent number: 4969288
    Abstract: A nurturing device for effectively nurturing living organisms such as plants, fish, etc. in desert areas of tropical regions by use of unused second-hand containers and a solar ray collecting device. The device comprises a plurality of containers and a solar ray collecting device. The solar rays collected by use of the solar ray collecting device are guided into the containers respectively through optical conductor cables for the purpose of nurturing living organisms therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 13, 1990
    Inventor: Kei Mori
  • Patent number: 4952443
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a covering element comprising (i) an organic matrix and (ii) luminescent doping materials, scintillating doping materials or mixtures thereof, which form at least one light cascade absorbing electromagnetic radiation in at least one first predetermined wavelength band in order to re-emit the same in at least one second predetermined wavelength band; and (iii) a diffusing material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1990
    Inventor: Philippe Gravisse
  • Patent number: 4944125
    Abstract: A filtering device for use in shutting out a greater portion of the ultraviolet and infrared rays but admitting the passage of visible lights indispensable to the growth of plants and human life, the device including a mixture and a container for holding the mixture, the mixture containing water, a compound dissociable into ferrous salt ions, and at least one of L-ascorbic acid and D-ascorbic acid, the container comprising transparent members disposed face to face with each other, with the mixture confined therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 31, 1990
    Assignee: Tabai Espec Corporation
    Inventor: Yoshio Ito
  • Patent number: 4914858
    Abstract: A method for fostering the germination of plant seeds or the cultivation of plant cuttings wherein light-emitting diodes are positioned closely proximate the plant seeds or plant cuttings and energized so as to emit irradiating light on the plant seeds or plant cuttings of a wavelength between 400 and 800 nm. The light-emitting diodes can be energized with continuous or intermittent, high frequency energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1990
    Assignee: Nijssen Light Division B.V.
    Inventors: Cornelis T. M. Nijssen, Otto A. Kuhn, Willem Verbeek
  • Patent number: 4897957
    Abstract: The precision flowering of Regal Pelargoniums includes the following six stages: the production of pathogen indexed Mother Block and selection phase, the stock plant production phase, the vegetative propagation post-harvest phases. By means of temperature control and misting during vegetative propagation, careful control of temperature and accumulated light during floral initiation, and night-break lighting during finishing if necessary, flowering Regal Pelargoniums may be produced any time during the year. Moreover, as a result of the combined method steps of the present application, the production of a finished, flowering plant from a stock plant cutting may be completed in a total of 13 to 16 weeks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1990
    Assignees: Oglevee, Ltd., Research Corporation Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: J. Robert Oglevee, Richard Craig
  • Patent number: 4896455
    Abstract: A plant starter apparatus for allowing a plant seedling to receive light from a multiplicity of directions. A parabolic reflector is positioned such that light striking the parabolic reflector is reflected towards a focal point. A plant container containing both soil and plant seed is positioned such that, upon germination, the plant seedling receives both incident light and the light reflected from the parabolic reflector. As the plant seedling grows, the seedling receives ever-increasing amounts of light reflected from the parabolic reflector. Because the plant seedling receives light from the multiplicity of directions, growth of the plant seedling is maximized as the plant grows vertically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 30, 1990
    Inventor: Eugene J. Kuban
  • Patent number: 4850135
    Abstract: Apparatus for stimulating plant growth under controlled conditions comprises a housing having a lower portion, an upper portion, a hollow interior in which plants are grown and an exterior. Fluorescent lamps mounted within the interior stimulate growth of the plants. The housing is formed with vacuum-metalized walls or panels which, when illuminated by the lamps, reflect a major proportion of light into the interior. The housing is further formed with a lower vent and an upper vent to facilitate circulation of air through the interior. The lower vent substantially surrounds the lower portion of the housing and the upper vent substantially surrounds the upper portion of the housing to optimize the flow of air. The lower and upper vents are formed and located with respect to the lamps and walls so as substantially to block passage of light through the vents from the interior to the exterior.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Inventor: Jeffery J. DeMarco
  • Patent number: 4841670
    Abstract: An apparatus for supporting growing plants such as tomato plants, including radially arranged poles projecting from an annular base mounted on the top of a soil containing pot. The stems or branches of the plant are guided upwardly and within the space defined by the poles by means of strings tying the stems or branches securely around the poles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1989
    Inventor: Paul L. Bitter
  • Patent number: 4819373
    Abstract: A process for thinning fruitlets or fruits by exposing the crops to far-red night-break lighting treatments at certain stages of flower and fruit growth and development.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1989
    Assignee: GTE Laboratories Incorporated
    Inventor: Prakash G. Kadkade
  • Patent number: 4817332
    Abstract: A method of plant cultivation and growth acceleration includes enclosing the plants within a reflective chamber, controlling the CO.sub.2 concentration within said chamber so as to be at least 200 ppm, and irradiating the plants substantially omnidirectionally with a light intensity of approximately 3000 lux, while stably regulating the ambient temperature, relative humidity and nutrient supply.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1989
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Akira Ikeda, Shigeki Nakayama, Kenji Ezaki, Toshitsugu Ishii, Isao Itakura
  • Patent number: 4788793
    Abstract: A method of inhibiting premature budding and subsequent flowering of a floral crop selected from the group of chrysanthemum and poinsettia during the season in which the daily photoperiod does not exceed ten hours comprises the step of illuminating the crop, generally six hours after the onset of a night period, with a fifteen minute illumination of a narrowband red light having a predominant emission peak centered around 660 nm having an intensity in the range of 1 .mu.W/cm.sup.2 to 50 .mu.W/cm.sup.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1988
    Assignee: GTE Laboratories Incorporated
    Inventor: Prakash G. Kadkade
  • Patent number: 4749916
    Abstract: An illuminator for cultivating a plant by a discharge lamp excited by the output of a high frequency power source by utilizing photosynthetic mechanism. The output power of the high frequency power source is controlled to high and low powers by a bright and dark controller to alternatively supply the high and low powers to the discharge lamp in predetermined periods.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1988
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hiroyoshi Yamazaki, Yoshinori Anzai, Makoto Yamanoshita
  • Patent number: 4734830
    Abstract: A rotating lamp fixture includes a plurality of lamps, attached to an arm which extends outwardly from a housing preferably mounted to the ceiling of a building. The arm is connected through a torque coupling and a gear train to the shaft of an electrical motor. The motor imparts a relatively slow circular or orbital motion to the lamps through the arm for serving as an artificial light source. The provision of a rotating light source reduces by at least one-third the number of fixed light sources needed for effectively controlling the growth of vegetation. The rotating lamp fixture increases the growth rate, improves the uniformity of growth, and/or precisely controls one or more other growth characteristics of the vegetation. Other features are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 29, 1988
    Assignee: Sun Circle, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael R. Cristian, Genaro R. Calabrese, Jaxon Hice
  • Patent number: 4732443
    Abstract: Light radiator for diffusing and radiating light rays which have been transmitted through an optical cable comprises a transparent cylinder, an optical conductor for guiding light rays into the cylinder, an optical means movably accommodated in the cylinder for reflecting the light rays guided into the cylinder and radiating the light rays outside of it, and a driving means for moving the optical means along the axis of the cylinder. The driving means comprises optical oil in the cylinder and a liquid pump having one end communicating with one end of the cylinder and another end communicating with the other end of the cylinder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1988
    Inventor: Kei Mori
  • Patent number: 4724633
    Abstract: A process for accelerating dehiscence and reduction in "pull force" of fruits and nuts (in order to facilitate the mechanical harvesting process) by exposing the crops to far-red night-break lighting treatments at certain stages of fruit growth and development.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1988
    Assignee: GTE Laboratories Incorporated
    Inventor: Prakash G. Kadkade
  • Patent number: 4698226
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus are disclosed for incorporating a design into the skin of an apple or other fruits or vegetables with a photochemically reactive skin or surface by covering the apples while still on the tree with a bag having a reflective outer surface and a non-reflective inner surface. The bag has at least one aperture to allow for the drainage of fluids out of the bag, and further has a light barrier positioned to block light from entering through the aperture into the interior of the bag. The bagged apples are harvested and transferred to a substantially light-exclusive environment where the bag is removed. A label or symbol is applied to the skin of the apple or fruit and the apple or fruit exposed to artificial light to develop the color of the skin of the apple.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1987
    Inventor: David W. Guthrie
  • Patent number: 4626065
    Abstract: A light conduction apparatus for photosynthetic reaction includes a rotatable light distributor which may be a transparent rod or disc. Converged light is guided by a solid or tubular light conducting member into the light distributor and routed along at least one optical path through the light distributor as far as a radiation surface of the latter. The light output from the radiation surface is supplied a moment to each of a number of light conducting rods, which lead to a confinement for photosynthesis, once for each full rotation of the light distributor. Thus, the confinement shares a single light source which can be small size for given dimensions of the confinement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1986
    Inventor: Kei Mori
  • Patent number: 4255897
    Abstract: A plurality of space lattices arranged within an enclosed cultivation space, wherein one space lattice consists of plants which are arranged to move in a continuous vertical serpentine path within the space lattice. A space lattice formed of illumination means is arranged in an interstitial manner relative to the circulating plant lattice and serves to artifically illuminate the plants while they are circulating. A measurement space lattice is arranged coextensive with the illumination space lattice and serves to make measurements of selected parameters of environmental parameters within the cultivation space. An environmental factor space lattice is also arranged coextensive with the illumination space lattice and is connected to suitable sources so that moisture, nutrients and selected gases may be supplied to the plants as they circulate through the cultivation space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1981
    Inventor: Othmar Ruthner
  • Patent number: 4253271
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1978
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1981
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventor: Lawrence P. Raymond
  • Patent number: 4250666
    Abstract: A device is disclosed for supporting plants for decorative or gardening purposes. A plurality of rotatable or fixed trays or shelves are mounted on a central support, and shelves can optionally be added on the sides of the device, such as adjustable shelves for potted plants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1981
    Inventor: Roy R. Rakestraw
  • Patent number: 4250661
    Abstract: A covering multilayer film or sheet structure for agricultural application, which consists essentially of:(1) a film or sheet of a resin composition comprising (A) 100 parts by weight of a thermoplastic resin selected from the group consisting of olefinic resins and vinyl chloride resins and (B) about 1 to about 40 parts by weight of an acetal resin, and(2) a layer of the thermoplastic resin (A) laminated to at least one surface of the film or sheet (1); and a method for maintaining an agricultural locus at temperatures suitable for the growth of plants, using aforesaid covering multilayer film or sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1981
    Assignee: Sekisui Kagaku Kogyo K.K.
    Inventors: Yoshiaki Kodera, Kiyoyuki Watanabe, Tetsuo Kadoya, Tadashi Taguchi
  • Patent number: RE31023
    Abstract: The present invention provides a highly automated agricultural production system which comprises, as essential components:1. A sensing subsystem comprising direct and indirect sensing means in an agricultural production area. The direct sensing means are generally ground or plant mounted. The indirect sensing means are remote from the area being sensed. The direct and indirect sensing means are adapted to jointly generate data on all important parameters in the homogeneous agricultural production area;2. A data transmitting subsystem for forwarding data generated by the direct and indirect sensing means to computing means and for transmitting instructions from the computing means via interfacing means (controllers) to various devices (field effectors) in the agricultural area to perform various functions;3. A computing subsystem linked by way of said data transmitting subsystem to said indirect and direct sensing means in a pattern of many feedback loops.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1979
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1982
    Assignee: Advanced Decision Handling, Inc.
    Inventor: Arthur D. Hall, III