Abstract: A rapid thermal heating apparatus in which lamps are disposed in a plurality of light pipes arranged to illuminate and supply heat to a substrate. The light pipes are positioned so that the illumination patterns overlap. The energy supplied to the lamps is controlled to provide a predetermined heating pattern to the substrate. A liquid cooled window cooperates with the light pipes to transmit energy to a wafer disposed in an evacuated chamber.
Abstract: A cryptographic system allows, in one exemplary use, a supplier to cryptographically transform a plurality of messages responsive to secret keys; the transformed messages to be digitally signed by a signer; and the signed transformed messages returned to the supplier to be transformed by the supplier, responsive to the same secret keys, in such a way that a digital signature related to each original message is developed by the supplier. One important property of these systems is that the signer cannot determine which transformed message received for signing corresponds with which digital signature--even though the signer knows that such a correspondence must exist.
Abstract: An improved blind signature system not requiring computation during blinding for anticipating which of a plurality of possible signatures will be made during signing, while still allowing the blinding party to unblind and recover the unanticipated kind of signature on what was blinded. An exemplary embodiment blinds by forming a product including a plurality of generators raised to powers normally secret from the signing party, and unblinds by forming a product with the multiplicative inverse of a signed form of the generators raised to the original powers. Re-blinding allows a signature on a value to be transformed into a signature on a particular blinded form of the value.