Abstract: An augmented expander cycle rocket engine includes first and second turbopumps for respectively pumping fuel and oxidizer. A gas-generator receives a first portion of fuel output from the first turbopump and a first portion of oxidizer output from the second turbopump to ignite and discharge heated gas. A heat exchanger close-coupled to the gas-generator receives in a first conduit the discharged heated gas, and transfers heat to an adjacent second conduit carrying fuel exiting the cooling passages of a primary combustion chamber. Heat is transferred to the fuel passing through the cooling passages. The heated fuel enters the second conduit of the heat exchanger to absorb more heat from the first conduit, and then flows to drive a turbine of one or both of the turbopumps. The arrangement prevents the turbopumps exposure to combusted gas that could freeze in the turbomachinery and cause catastrophic failure upon attempted engine restart.
July 20, 2007
Date of Patent:
March 8, 2011
The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Abstract: Novel aqueous thickener or thixotropic polymers are prepared by the copolymerization of (A) about 15-60 weight percent of a C.sub.3 -C.sub.8 alpha, beta-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, preferably acrylic or methacrylic acid or a mixture thereof with itaconic or fumaric acid, (B) about 15-80 weight percent of a nonionic copolymerizable C.sub.2 -C.sub.12 alpha, beta-ethylenically unsaturated monomer, preferably a monovinyl ester such as ethyl acrylate or a mixture thereof with styrene, acrylonitrile, vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate, and (C) about 1-30 weight percent of a new and novel nonionic ethylenically unsaturated nonionic biphillic monomer such as tristyrylpoly(ethyleneoxy).sub.x methyl acrylate, to provide a stable aqueous colloidal dispersion at an acid pH lower than about 5.0 but becoming an effective thickener for aqueous systems upon adjustment to a pH of about 5.5-10.5 or higher. These polymers adjusted to a pH of about 5.