Abstract: A pulse generator comprises a toroid (11) of a superconducting material such as Niobium on a glass or ceramic substrate (12). A cryogenic source such as liquid helium cools the toroid to within a few degrees of absolute zero and a perpetually circulatory current is set up in the toroid. A laser beam is fired at the toroid to cause localized heating and the resultant current drop due to the material resistance causes an output pulse to be induced in an adjacent current winding (14).
Abstract: The architecture of a conventional digital computer, for example, a microprocessor, is modified by interposing a multiplexer (31), a logic array (32) and a demultiplexer (33) between the instruction register (17) and instruction decoder (18). The logic array "scrambles" the bits in each instruction code; however, if the program to be run is priorly encrypted with this "scrambling" in mind, it will run normally. On the other hand, if the encrypted program is copied, the copied program will not run on an unmodified computer.
Abstract: An RF-excited radial-flow, cylindrical plasma reactor (10) includes a toroidal waveguide (17) of rectangular cross-section connected to a microwave source (21). One of the reactive species (37) is flowed through the waveguide and pre-ionized, thus, permitting independent control over the activation of both reactive species.
Abstract: Workpieces (10; FIG. 7), differing from each other only in their color, are optically sorted by illuminating the workpieces with a light beam (13) of stable color temperature. The diffuse reflection from the workpieces is analyzed by three photo-detectors, each of which is filtered to respond to a different color. Two of the colors are primary colors, as defined by the Tristimulus Theory. The third color is not a true primary color but, when added to a percentage of one of the other two colors, effectively synthesizes the third primary color. A workpiece is identified by comparing the set of Tristimulus signals it generates with a look-up table stored in the memory (25) of a microprocessor (17).
Abstract: Method of anisotropically etching a semiconductor substrate (32). The substrate (32) is placed in an evacuated reaction chamber (50) and exposed to a gas plasma (63) which has been excited with an AC source having a frequency greater than 0 Hz but less than 300 KHz. The pressure in the chamber, and chamber geometry, are such that the volume power density of the plasma is less than 0.01 W/cm.sup.3.
Abstract: An articulated robot arm (10) comprises n arm sections (13, 16, 18, 21) pivotally mounted one to the other. A plurality of independently controlled servomotors (12, 14, 17, 19) at each of the arm joints moves the tip (22) of the arm towards the desired location. All arm angles are measured with respect to a common reference plane, e.g. the horizon.
Abstract: Two rotors cooperate to advance a rod of indefinite length continuously into an extrusion die. Portions of radially extending surfaces of the two rotors are utilized to grip the rod therebetween, in order to effect such advance of the workpiece rod upon the simultaneous rotation of the two rotors. An annular groove extends along the appropriate radially extending surface of one of the rotors. Such annular groove serves to retain the rod therein while guiding rhe rod along a path leading to the die. The face-to-face arrangement of the two rotors along their respective radially extending surfaces permits a very high extrusion pressure to be supported, while also allowing effective sealing of the annular groove at such very high extrusion pressure.
Abstract: The technical field to which this invention pertains is high-voltage amplifiers. The amplifier includes a high-voltage capacitor (C1) across which the output of the amplifier is developed. This capacitor is charged towards the supply potential (V) by a constant current generator (10). At the same time, the capacitor is continuously discharged by a controllable current generator (11). A voltage amplifier (13) connected to the input signal to be amplified and to a scaled-down version (R,R) of the output of the high-voltage amplifier, alters the rate at which the capacitor is discharged and, hence, the output voltage developed across the capacitor. The principal use of the invention is to drive the electrostatic deflection plates of an ion implantation machine or an electron beam milling apparatus. The invention may also be used to drive other highly capacitive loads, for example, piezo-electric crystal devices.
Abstract: An annular groove (35) is located in an outer surface of an inner toroid (31), and is partly covered by an inner surface of an outer toroid (32). Alternatively, an annular groove (25) is located in an inner surface of an outer toroid (22), and is partly covered by an outer surface of an inner toroid (21). As the toroids are rotated together about different, intersecting axes, an elongated workpiece (W) is introduced into an open portion of the annular groove, advances into the closed portion of the annular groove, and is extruded through a die (48) upon again approaching the open portion of the annular groove, thereby forming an elongated product (P).
Abstract: Parameters of a clad optical fiber are measured by irradiating the fiber with a laser beam to generate a scattering pattern. Measurements are made of fringes and modulations in the scattering pattern and these measurements are translated into such parameters as the diameter of the core and cladding thickness as well as the deviation from concentricity of the core of the clad optical fiber.
Abstract: Parameters of a clad optical fiber are measured by irradiating the fiber with a laser beam to generate a scattering pattern. Measurements are made of fringes and modulations in the scattering pattern and these measurements are translated into such parameters as core and fiber diameter.