Abstract: A roadway lane marker has a translucent body to receive light from a vehicle's headlights on its back window, the light being transmitted through the marker body to illuminate its front face. A plurality of such markers, implanted at spaced intervals along edges of roadway lanes, will delineate to a driver looking back from a vehicle entering a roadway at night from a merging side road or ramp, the lane in which a vehicle generally behind him is approaching.
Abstract: A reverse osmosis system including a proportioning flow control, for controlling brine flow from a pressure resistant vessel containing a membrane cartridge, which has ends of two small diameter duct portions enclosed inside a hollow body, which is separate from the pressure resistant vessel containing the membrane cartridge. Means, such as a unitary mass of solidified epoxy adhesive, seals the passage of each of the duct portions through a wall of the hollow body and leaves space within the hollow body with which the open ends of the small diameter duct portions communicate and which itself communicates with a relief valve connected to a collector or tank for storage of permeate from the membrane cartridge under elevated pressure.
Abstract: A semipermeable membrane cartridge is reciprocated within a pressure resistant vessel to provide improved liquid flow and turbulence over the semipermeable membrane surfaces. The end of the semipermeable membrane cartridge exposed to the pressure of feed liquid introduced into one end of the pressure resistant vessel is adjusted or arranged to be of substantially the same effective cross sectional area as that of the end of the cartridge exposed to the pressure of brine being released from the other end of the pressure resistant vessel. This essentially balances the liquid pressure forces on the ends of the semipermeable membrane cartridge to provide improved conditions for reciprocation.
Abstract: A reverse osmosis system employs a tank for storing permeate under a pressure which is a portion of the pressure of feed water introduced into a pressure resistant container housing a semipermeable membrane cartridge. Control means such as an automatic valve, preferably of the double diaphragm type, in the line introducing feed water into the pressure resistant container closes to shut off feed water flow when the pressure in the permeate storage tank reaches a first predetermined value, less than the feed water pressure, and re-opens to re-establish feed water flow at a second predetermined pressure lower than the first or shut-off pressure. A constricted passageway device such as a venturi in the pipe or connection between a dispensing device such as a faucet and the permeate storage tank has its throat communicating with the sensing conduit for actuating the feed water control valve.
Abstract: A process for recovery of fresh water by reverse osmosis from high salt content feed, such as sea water, comprises treating the feed water in an initial stage at relatively low pressure (between about 300 and 550 psi) employing a loose semipermeable membrane, to produce an intermediate product water containing one-fourth to one-half the TDS (total dissolved solids) content of the original feed water. The intermediate product water is treated in a subsequent stage also at a relatively low pressure (between about 300 and 550 psi) employing a tight semipermeable membrane, to produce a fresh product water containing less than 2,000 ppm TDS, and preferably a potable water containing less than 1,000 ppm TDS.
Abstract: A restrictor in the form of an elongated small duct or tube is employed for brine or concentrate flow control in a reverse osmosis system. The duct is composed of two portions, one end of one of these portions being connected to the brine output of a semipermeable membrane cartridge, and one end of the other of these two portions being connected to the brine disposal system. The other ends of both these duct portions communicate with the interior of a common compartment which, in turn, communicates through a pressure relief or check valve with the purified water collector of the semipermeable membrane cartridge. When the pressure in the purified water collector exceeds the pressure in the compartment, the check valve opens and purified water flows into the compartment and out through the portion of the elongated small duct or tube leading to concentrate disposal.
Abstract: A reverse osmosis apparatus includes a pump for pressurizing feed water introduced into a pressure resistant container in which is slidably mounted a semipermeable membrane cartridge. A rod, attached to an end of the semipermeable membrane cartridge, passes slidably and sealingly through one end of the pressure resistant container and is connected to means for reciprocal actuation. Means, preferably common, are provided to actuate the pump and the rod which imparts longitudinal reciprocal motion to the rod and the membrane cartridge within the pressure resistant container, thereby providing improved turbulence and circulation of the feed water through the semipermeable membrane cartridge over the membrane surfaces. The common means may be in the form of a lever operated by a handle or pedal, or by a power source such as an electric motor.
Abstract: A reverse osmosis apparatus comprises an elongated pressure container housing a plurality of semipermeable membrane cartridges in end-to-end relationship. A separate tap from the product water collector of the semipermeable membrane cartridge or cartridges nearest the inlet of the pressure container for introduction of pressurized feed liquid, produces a high quality water product. A tap from the product water collector of the remainder of the semipermeable cartridges in the pressure container produces a lower quality water product. A minor amount of high quality product water and a major amount of lower quality product water may readily be produced. The process and apparatus may advantageously be employed in the second or subsequent or final step of a multistage process for converting sea water to potable water.
Abstract: A spiral wound reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration membrane cartridge has a central collection tube fabricated from a plurality of interlocking segments; the center segments are perforated and the segment at each end is imperforate. The side edges of the cartridge membrane leaves and the permeate transfer sheet are sealingly attached to the central collection tube by circumferential bands of glue located outboard of the juncture of the imperforate end segments with adjacent perforate center segments. Substantial fabrication economies result from injection molding the center segments as identical bodies from a single die; and injection molding the end segments also as identical bodies from a single die.
Abstract: A jacking apparatus comprises a rail having a plurality of pairs of vertical slots longitudinally spaced apart. A sled slides along this rail and has cross members to which are pivotably attached ends of hydraulic cylinders, the other ends of the hydraulic cylinders being pivotably attached to cross heads which also slide along the rail. The cross heads have bevelled latches, slidable vertically, and longitudinally reversible for engagement with the slots in the rail; so that repetitive, reciprocal movement of the hydrauic cylinder pistons will cause successive, incremental movements of the sled and a load selectively pushed or pulled by the sled along the rail.
Abstract: A jacking apparatus comprises a rail with an attached vertical rack having teeth with a steep front face and a sloping back. A notch is arranged in the back of each of the rack teeth. A pair of cars are slidably mounted on the rail with each car carrying a pair of latches, one of which is engageable with the front face of a rack tooth and the other with the notch in the back of that tooth. Reciprocal motion, away from and toward each other, is imparted to the cars while the latches selectively engage teeth in the rack to cause progressive incremental travel of the cars along the rail, to move a load attached to one of them.
Abstract: A double-acting wrench has a main handle and a holding handle, the end of the main handle being connected to a set of reversing gears, and through a ratchet and double pawls to the cage in which the set of reversing gears are mounted. The reversing gears, or the cage in which they are mounted, are selectively connected to a tool driver. Ratchets and double pawls are engageable so that rotation of the main handle in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction with respect to the holding handle will produce continuous clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the tool driver.
Abstract: A ship lifting apparatus, or drydock, is formed by a pair of parallel, spaced apart piers which define a slip in which is located a platform on to which a ship can be floated. The platform is raised or lowered by a plurality of chain jacks mounted in aligned rows on each of the piers. One of the chain jacks is a master jack and has chain link-engaging latches controlled by a cam and follower while the other chain jacks are slave jacks being actuated by connection to each other and the master jack by tensioned cables attached to their latch actuating mechanisms.
October 28, 1975
Date of Patent:
September 7, 1976
Henry B. Chambers, Clair W. Tellefson, Tony H. Balsillie
Abstract: A combination faucet and antisyphon break or air gap for dispensing purified water produced by a membrane type purification unit, has a body having a valve-controlled passage with a spout for dispensing purified water; and a pair of additional vertical passages, one for connection to the brine output of the purification unit and the other for connection to the sewer. The passage connected to the brine output of the purification unit comprises a plastic tube which terminates at its top in a gooseneck, which acts as a channel to direct the brine overflow from this passage past an antisyphon break into the passage connected to the sewer. This passage also comprises a plastic tube.
Abstract: An improved spiral wound reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration membrane cartridge has the inner end and side areas of a permeate transfer leaf sealingly attached to its central collection tube surface, with sealing adhesive applied as band areas near each side edge of the proximate transfer leaf surface in amount in excess of the amount to substantially fill a pair of circumferential grooves in the collection tube when the assembly, including the permeate transfer leaf is spirally wound around it. The adhesive seal is preferably cured at room temperature with the cartridge standing on one of its ends for a period of about 12 to 24 hours. In an alternative embodiment, resilient O rings may be seated in the collector tube grooves, and an additional pair of grooves within the side band areas may also be filled with adhesive.
Abstract: A reverse osmosis system which includes a purified water storage tank, has a by-pass pipe around the concentrate flow control of its membrane module and a normally closed valve in the by-pass pipe. The by-pass pipe valve is opened automatically when purified water is withdrawn from the purified water storage tank, thereby to flush feed water through the membrane module.
Abstract: Mud, slime, precipitated particles and other foreign matter are removed from the surface of a semipermeable membrane used in a membrane process system by flushing, preferably with the membrane in place in its cartridge or container, with water of purity greater than 1 megohm resistivity.
June 21, 1974
Date of Patent:
February 24, 1976
Desalination Systems, Inc.
Clement C. Macevicz, Charles W. Million
Abstract: A reverse osmosis system having a tank for storing purified water includes a valve in the pipe which introduces feed water into a module containing a semipermeable membrane and which produces the purified water. The valve shuts off or turns on introduction of feed water into the module in response to the weight of purified water in the storage tank.
Abstract: A surface washer has a horizontal pipe member fitted with spaced nozzles and rotably attached at each end to a support movable on casters in all directions. At least three casters are employed to obtain a horizontally stable support and preferably four, with two casters supporting each end of the horizontal pipe. A hollow handle is attached to and communicates interiorly with the pipe member at one of its ends, the other end being fitted with a water hose connection. Preferably each caster is pivoted on a shaft in a common bearing, and which has a head rotatable in a closed socket.