Patents Represented by Attorney, Agent or Law Firm Gregory A. Cone
  • Patent number: 6711503
    Abstract: A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following prediction or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The hybrid method herein means a combination of an initial calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A spectral shape herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The shape can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2004
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventor: David M. Haaland
  • Patent number: 6678048
    Abstract: A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2004
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey L. Rienstra, Stephen M. Gentry, William C. Sweatt
  • Patent number: 6504943
    Abstract: A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. The filter splits the light collected by an optical telescope into two channels for each of the pixels in a row in a scanned image, one channel to handle the positive elements of a spectral basis filter and one for the negative elements of the spectral basis filter. Each channel for each pixel disperses its light into n spectral bins, with the light in each bin being attenuated in accordance with the value of the associated positive or negative element of the spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. The attenuated light in the channels is re-imaged onto separate detectors for each pixel and then the signals from the detectors are combined to give an indication of the presence or not of the target in each pixel of the scanned scene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2003
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: William C. Sweatt, Stephen M. Gentry, Clinton A. Boye, Carter L. Grotbeck, Brian R. Stallard, Michael R. Descour
  • Patent number: 6341257
    Abstract: A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following estimation or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The “hybrid” method herein means a combination of an initial classical least squares analysis calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A “spectral shape” herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The “shape” can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2002
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventor: David M. Haaland
  • Patent number: 6258615
    Abstract: A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Hong Q. Hou, Michael E. Coltrin, Kent D. Choquette
  • Patent number: 6248992
    Abstract: A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2001
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Albert G. Baca, Guillermo M. Loubriel, Alan Mar, Fred J Zutavern, Harold P. Hjalmarson, Andrew A. Allerman, Thomas E. Zipperian, Martin W. O'Malley, Wesley D. Helgeson, Gary J. Denison, Darwin J. Brown, Charles T. Sullivan, Hong Q. Hou
  • Patent number: 6232139
    Abstract: A process for forming a very thin suspended layer of piezoelectric material of thickness less than 10 microns. The device is made from a combination of GaAs and AlGaAs layers to form either a sensor or an electronic filter. Onto a GaAs substrate is epitaxially deposited a thin (1-5 micron) sacrificial AlGaAs layer, followed by a thin GaAs top layer. In one embodiment the substrate is selectively etched away from below until the AlGaAs layer is reached. Then a second selective etch removes the sacrificial AlGaAs layer, that has acted here as an etch stop, leaving the thin suspended layer of piezoelectric GaAs. In another embodiment, a pattern of small openings is etched through the thin layer of GaAs on top of the device to expose the sacrificial AlGaAs layer. A second selective etch is done through these openings to remove the sacrificial AlGaAs layer, leaving the top GaAs layer suspended over the GaAs substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2001
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Stephen A. Casalnuovo, Gregory C. Frye-Mason
  • Patent number: 6231666
    Abstract: A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa2Cu3O7−x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700° C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2001
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Paul G. Clem, Mark A. Rodriguez, James A. Voigt, Carol S. Ashley
  • Patent number: 6228672
    Abstract: A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventor: Carol I. H. Ashby
  • Patent number: 6229947
    Abstract: A monolithic tapered rib waveguide for transformation of the spot size of light between a semiconductor optical device and an optical fiber or from the fiber into the optical device. The tapered rib waveguide is integrated into the guiding rib atop a cutoff mesa type semiconductor device such as an expanded mode optical modulator or and expanded mode laser. The tapered rib acts to force the guided light down into the mesa structure of the semiconductor optical device instead of being bound to the interface between the bottom of the guiding rib and the top of the cutoff mesa. The single mode light leaving or entering the output face of the mesa structure then can couple to the optical fiber at coupling losses of 1.0 dB or less.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Gregory A. Vawter, Robert Edward Smith
  • Patent number: 6172377
    Abstract: A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2001
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventor: Jonathan D. Weiss
  • Patent number: 6158297
    Abstract: A surface micromachined Counter-Meshing Gears (CMG) discrimination device which functions as a mechanically coded lock. Each of two CMG has a first portion of its perimeter devoted to continuous driving teeth that mesh with respective pinion gears. Each EMG also has a second portion of its perimeter devoted to regularly spaced discrimination gear teeth that extend outwardly on at least one of three levels of the CMG. The discrimination gear teeth are designed so as to pass each other without interference only if the correct sequence of partial rotations of the CMG occurs in response to a coded series of rotations from the pinion gears. A 24 bit code is normally input to unlock the device. Once unlocked, the device provides a path for an energy or information signal to pass through the device. The device is designed to immediately lock up if any portion of the 24 bit code is incorrect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Marc A. Polosky, Ernest J. Garcia, James J. Allen
  • Patent number: 6140157
    Abstract: An electrically written memory element utilizing the motion of protons within a dielectric layer surrounded by layers on either side to confine the protons within the dielectric layer with electrode means attached to the surrounding layers to change the spatial position of the protons within the dielectric layer. The device is preferably constructed as a silicon-silicon dioxide-silicon layered structure with the protons being introduced to the structure laterally through the exposed edges of the silicon dioxide layer during a high temperature anneal in an atmosphere containing hydrogen gas. The device operates at low power, is preferably nonvolatile, is radiation tolerant, and is compatible with convention silicon MOS processing for integration with other microelectronic elements on the same silicon substrate. With the addition of an optically active layer, the memory element becomes an electrically written, optically read optical memory element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignees: Sandia Corporation, Science & Technology Corporation at University of New Mexico, France Telecom/CNET
    Inventors: William L. Warren, Karel J. R. Vanheusden, Daniel M. Fleetwood, Roderick A. B. Devine
  • Patent number: 6056044
    Abstract: An improved planar heat pipe wick structure having projections formed by micromachining processes. The projections form arrays of interlocking, semi-closed structures with multiple flow paths on the substrate. The projections also include overhanging caps at their tops to increase the capillary pumping action of the wick structure. The capped projections can be formed in stacked layers. Another layer of smaller, more closely spaced projections without caps can also be formed on the substrate in between the capped projections. Inexpensive materials such as Kovar can be used as substrates, and the projections can be formed by electrodepositing nickel through photoresist masks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2000
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: David A. Benson, Charles V. Robino, David W. Palmer, Stanley H. Kravitz
  • Patent number: 6035246
    Abstract: One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2000
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventor: John S. Wagner
  • Patent number: 6031454
    Abstract: A person-specific monitor that provides sensor information regarding hazards to which the person is exposed and means to geolocate the person at the time of the exposure. The monitor also includes means to communicate with a remote base station. Information from the monitor can be downloaded at the base station for long term storage and analysis. The base station can also include means to recharge the monitor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Michael L. Lovejoy, John P. Peeters, A. Wayne Johnson
  • Patent number: 5958157
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for redirecting moving plasma streams using a multiple array of magnetic field generators (e.g., permanent magnets or current bearing wires). Alternate rows of the array have opposite magnetic field directions. A fine wire mesh may be employed to focus as well as redirect the plasma.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: James T. Crow, Gary R. Mowrer
  • Patent number: 5948468
    Abstract: A process for producing near perfect optical surfaces. A previously polished optical surface is measured to determine its deviations from the desired perfect surface. A multi-aperture mask is designed based on this measurement and fabricated such that deposition through the mask will correct the deviations in the surface to an acceptable level. Various mask geometries can be used: variable individual aperture sizes using a fixed grid for the apertures or fixed aperture sizes using a variable aperture spacing. The imperfections are filled in using a vacuum deposition process with a very thin thickness of material such as silicon monoxide to produce an amorphous surface that bonds well to a glass substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1999
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: William C. Sweatt, John W. Weed
  • Patent number: 5949071
    Abstract: A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1999
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Judith A. Ruffner, Jeff A. Bullington, Paul G. Clem, William L. Warren, C. Jeffrey Brinker, Bruce A. Tuttle, Robert W. Schwartz
  • Patent number: 5926773
    Abstract: One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventor: John S. Wagner