Patents Represented by Attorney, Agent or Law Firm Harold Patton
  • Patent number: 6406421
    Abstract: There is provided a system and method for continually monitoring the occurrence of contraction during stimulation of skeletal muscle which is employed in a cardiac assist-type system. During delivery of a periodic burst, or train of stimulus pulses, the impedance of the muscle between the electrodes through which the pulses are delivered is monitored, and evaluated to determine whether or not stimulation has been achieved. In a particular embodiment, the impedance and impedance derivative values are accumulated throughout the burst, and assessed to determine whether the impedance change corresponded to a full muscle contraction. In the event of failure to stimulate the muscle to contraction, the system can automatically adjust the pulse output parameters to achieve reliable contraction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2002
    Assignee: Medtronic, Inc.
    Inventors: Pierre Andre Grandjean, David E. Francischelli, Kendra K. Gealow, Robert Leinders, Martinus A. G. M. Bakx, Koen J. Weijand
  • Patent number: 6370431
    Abstract: There is provided a pacemaker system which includes intervention for overdriving the patient's natural heart rate in the event of a sensed incipient ventricular arrhythmia condition, and particularly torsades de pointes. The pacemaker continually acquires QT signals and analyzes them for respective properties, updating statistical information relating to the properties. In a preferred embodiment, the pacemaker analyzes QT interval, QT dispersion, time derivative of the QT interval, and/or T-wave amplitude and determines an intervention for pacing therapy based upon changes to these properties. The pacemaker also monitors premature ventricular beats and generates data representative of such occurrences, which data is used alone or in combination with QT data in determining whether intervention is indicated, for adjusting the intervention pacing rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2002
    Assignee: Medtronic, Inc.
    Inventors: Gustaaf A. P. Stoop, Geeske Van Oort, Christianus J. J. E. Van Groeningen, Bernhard A. P. De Vries
  • Patent number: 6321104
    Abstract: A system and method are provided for anchoring a cranial lead or catheter member within a cranial burr hole in a patient, utilizing a feed-through subassembly which permits a lead to be eccentrically positioned with respect to the center of the burr hole, enabling fixation of the lead to the skull while the lead is maintained stereotactically rigid. The feed-through, or anchoring assembly comprises a burr hole element which is positioned within the burr hole, having a radial slit which extends axially through the piece and has a groove for receiving and containing an O-ring, which O-ring is adjustably positioned radially along the slit in accordance with the target position. The O-ring is made of a compressive material, and has a center orifice which closely receives the lead.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, Inc.
    Inventors: Frans L. H. Gielen, W A. J. Elands
  • Patent number: 6305381
    Abstract: A system and method for locating an implantable medical device. The system consists of a flat “pancake” antenna coil positioned concentric with the implantable medical device target, e.g. the drug reservoir septum. The system further features a three location antenna array which is separate from the implantable device and external to the patient. The antenna array features three or more separate antennas which are used to sense the energy emitted from the implanted antenna coil. The system further features a processor to process the energy ducted by the antenna array. The system senses the proximity to the implant coil and, thus, the implant device by determining when an equal amount of energy is present in each of the antennas of the antenna array and if each such ducted energy is greater than a predetermined minimum. When such a condition is met, the antenna array is aligned with the implant coil. Thus the needle port through the antenna array is lined up with the septum of the drug reservoir.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc.
    Inventors: Koen J. Weijand, Markus Haller, Marty Bakx, Robert Leinders, Todd Goblish, Jon Werder
  • Patent number: 6303179
    Abstract: A method of modifying the surface characteristics of a substrate having a surface with an amide-functional polymer thereon. The method involves contacting the amide-functional polymer with a source of hydroxide ions and a source of hypohalite ions at a temperature of at least about 20° C. for a time effective to convert at least a portion of the amide-functional groups to amine-functional groups to form a substrate surface comprising an amine-functional polymer, wherein the hydroxide ions are present in a molar excess relative to the hypohalite ions and at a concentration of no more than about 0.1 M, based on the total volume of the reaction mixture. A biomolecule is attached to the resultant amine-functional polymer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, INC
    Inventors: Edouard Koulik, Michel Verhoeven, Patrick Cahalan, Linda Cahalan, Judith Vincent
  • Patent number: 6270788
    Abstract: A method for making a biocompatible medical article, and preferably, a blood compatible medical article, through the use of a copolymer coating. The copolymer coating is synthesized using methacrylate or acrylate monomers with a functional group (primary amino group) for subsequent attachment of heparin. Synthesis of the copolymer coating is carried out using the proper proportion of hydrophobic monomer/hydrophilic monomer/functional monomer in order to optimize the solubility of the copolymer in alcohol, its insolubility in water (before and after heparin coupling), the heparin coupling efficacy and heparin bioactivity. Once the copolymer coating is fashioned, a medical article is coated with it. The coating is thereafter dried and heparin attached. In such a manner the present invention provides for a method for making a biocompatible medical article, and preferably, a blood compatible medical article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic INC
    Inventors: Edouard Koulik, Larik Vincent, Patrick Cahalan, Eric Fogt, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Nobuo Nakabayashi
  • Patent number: 6269269
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for synchronized treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. In one embodiment such stimulation is provided by an implantable pulse generator, the implantable pulse generator having a stimulation stage to output stimulation pulses to a body structure, a sensing stage to sense the respiratory effort of a patient, and a controller, to coordinate, and preferably to synchronize, the output stimulation pulses with the sensed respiratory effort. The respiratory effort of a patient is sensed through the use of two electrodes disposed such that the diaphragm is positioned between, and the high frequency current is injected from one electrode to the other and the corresponding impedance is measured, the corresponding impedance thus being a function of the diaphragm position, itself indicating the respiratory effort of the patient. In such a manner the present invention permits the delivery of stimulation to be precisely controlled by the actual respiratory effort of the patient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc.
    Inventors: Frans A. M. Ottenhoff, Koen J. Michels
  • Patent number: 6261280
    Abstract: There is provided an implantable system and method for monitoring pancreatic beta cell electrical activity in a patient in order to obtain a measure of a patient's insulin demand and blood glucose level. A stimulus generator is controlled to deliver stimulus pulses so as to synchronize pancreatic beta cell depolarization, thereby producing an enhanced electrical signal which is sensed and processed. In a specific embodiment, the signal is processed to determine the start and end of beta cell depolarization, from which the depolarization duration is obtained. In order to reduce cardiac interference, each stimulus pulse is timed to be offset from the QRS signal which can interfere with the pancreas sensing. Additionally, the beta cell signals are processed by a correction circuit, e.g., an adaptive filter, to remove QRS artifacts, as well as artifacts from other sources, such as respiration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, INC
    Inventors: Richard P. M. Houben, Alexis C. M. Renirie, Koen J. Weijand
  • Patent number: 6258371
    Abstract: A method for making a biocompatible medical article, and preferably, a blood compatible medical article, through the use of a copolymer coating. The copolymer coating is synthesized using methacrylate or acrylate monomers with a functional group (primary amino group) for subsequent attachment of heparin. Synthesis of the copolymer coating is carried out using the proper proportion of hydrophobic monomer/hydrophilic monomer/functional monomer in order to optimize the solubility of the copolymer in alcohol, its insolubility in water (before and after heparin coupling), the heparin coupling efficacy and heparin bioactivity. Once the copolymer coating is fashioned, a medical article is coated with it. The coating is thereafter dried and heparin attached. In such a manner the present invention provides for a method for making a biocompatible medical article, and preferably, a blood compatible medical article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc
    Inventors: Edouard Koulik, Larik Vincent, Patrick Cahalan, Eric Fogt, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Nobuo Nakabayashi
  • Patent number: 6256537
    Abstract: There is provided a system for regulating ventricular rate in the presence of abnormally high atrial rates, e.g., during episodes of atrial fibrillation. During such an episode, the system, preferably incorporated into an implantable pacemaker, applies subthreshold bursts of stimulus pulses to or proximate to the patient's AV node so as to inhibit conduction of electrical signals through to the ventricle during the bursts. The bursts are timed in relation to the last conducted ventricular signal, and in terms of burst length, to provide a rate of conducted signals through the AV node which results in a substantially regular and reduced ventricular rate. During the inhibition mode of operation, the system monitors to determine the efficacy of inhibition, by tracking the percentage of ventricular senses that occur during the burst periods.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, Inc.
    Inventors: Gustaaf A. P. Stoop, Josephus P. A. Smit, Peter Van Dam
  • Patent number: 6251126
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for synchronized treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. In one embodiment such stimulation is provided by an implantable pulse generator, the implantable pulse generator having a stimulation stage to output stimulation pulses to a body structure, a sensing stage to sense the respiratory effort of a patient, and a controller, to coordinate, and preferably to synchronize, the output stimulation pulses with the sensed respiratory effort. The respiratory effort of a patient is sensed through the use of two electrodes disposed such that the diaphragm is positioned between, and the high frequency current is injected from one electrode to the other and the corresponding impedance is measured, the corresponding impedance thus being a function of the diaphragm position, itself indicating the respiratory effort of the patient. In such a manner the present invention permits the delivery of stimulation to be precisely controlled by the actual respiratory effort of the patient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic INC
    Inventors: Frans A. M. Ottenhoff, Koen J. Michels
  • Patent number: 6253109
    Abstract: There is provided apparatus and a method for testing to optimally place a deep brain lead, particularly for stimulating the GPi or other deep brain target to treat neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease and the like. The invention embraces determining the location of a feedback target such as the motor cortex, the location of the deep brain target, and inserting a test lead along a substantially linear trajectory so as to be able to stimulate both concurrently. The test lead has an electrode at about its distal end for stimulation of the deep brain target, and an electrode adjustably positioned 3-8 cm proximal for stimulation of the motor cortex. When stimulation is applied concurrently through both electrodes, the affected body portion, e.g., limb, can be made to move when and if the deep brain electrode is optimally positioned. The position can be checked during surgical implant of the system, and the lead position adjusted until the optimum position is found.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc.
    Inventor: Frans L. H. Gielen
  • Patent number: 6249702
    Abstract: There is provided a system and method for determining, in a DDD or DDD(R) pacing system, when a delivered atrial pace pulse has failed to capture the patient's atrium. Each cycle, following a delivered ventricular pace pulse, or every N cycles a measure of change in QT interval is obtained and compared to stored criteria. When an atrial pulse has achieved capture, the difference in QT from the last beat will be small, normally less than 2 ms. However, if there has not been atrial capture, the delivered ventricular pace pulse is in fact asynchronous with respect to the atrium, and under these circumstances the change in QT is greater than 2 ms, e.g., in the range of 2-10 ms. Accordingly, when the pacemaker sees a change in QT within the 2-10 ms range, this indicates failure of capture, and responsive action is taken by either directly incrementing the energy level of the atrial pace pulses, or performing an atrial threshold search and then resetting the atrial pace energy level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc.
    Inventor: Geeske Van Oort
  • Patent number: 6238423
    Abstract: An anticonstipation apparatus, and method, that may include using an implanted stimulus generator that may supply electrical stimuli to the muscles associated with a target portion of the patient's gut, from the esophagus to the anus, through an electrical lead and several pairs of electrodes. The electrical stimuli may be provided to nerves in the autonomic nervous system that are associated with the muscles, or the stimuli may be provided directly to the muscles themselves. The stimuli may be provided sequentially, in a proximal to caudad direction, in order to initiate, enhance or artificially produce peristalsis in the gut's target portion in a proximal to caudad direction. If the gut's target portion is in the descending colon, such stimulation may be coordinated with similar stimulation of the muscles associated with the rectum and anus. A sensor may be provided to detect when the target portion is experiencing constipation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, Inc.
    Inventor: Gust H. Bardy
  • Patent number: 6238422
    Abstract: There is provided a pacemaker system having the capability of providing therapy for preventing conditions likely to lead to myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmia during patient morning time. Specifically, a therapy is initiated before calculated patient awakening time, for raising pacing rate slowly so as to shorten QT interval to an acceptable level relative to rate at the time of patient awakening, and specifically a level that achieves satisfactory diastolic filling time. The pre-awakening therapy pacing routine is designed to overcome normal QT prolongation which occurs during sleep state, and which is delayed after patient awakening. In the event that criteria for an acceptable diastolic filling time are not met at or after patient awakening, the pacemaker takes steps to control rate, such as ceasing synchronous pacing and limiting automatic rate response.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, Inc.
    Inventor: Geeske Van Oort
  • Patent number: 6238420
    Abstract: A pacing system and method for providing multiple chamber pacing of a patient's heart, and in particular, pacing programmed for treatment of various forms of heart failure. The system utilizes impedance sensing for determining optimum pacing parameters, e.g., for pacing the left ventricle so that left heart output is maximized. The impedance sensing also is used for determination of arrhythmias or progression of heart failure. Impedance sensing is provided for between selected pairs of the four chambers, to enable optimizing of information for control and diagnosis. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, impedance measurements are obtained for determining the timing of right heart valve closure or right ventricular contractions, and the timing of delivery of left ventricular pace pulses is adjusted so as to optimally synchronize left ventricular pacing with the right ventricular contractions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc.
    Inventors: Arnoldus Bakels, Robert Leinders, Cobus de Roos
  • Patent number: 6223079
    Abstract: A pacing system and method for providing multiple chamber pacing of a patient's heart, and in particular, pacing programmed for treatment of various forms of heart failure. The system utilizes impedance sensing for determining optimum pacing parameters, e.g., for pacing the left ventricle so that left heart output is maximized. The impedance sensing also is used for determination of arrhythmias or progression of heart failure. Impedance sensing is provided for between selected pairs of the four chambers, to enable optimizing of information for control and diagnosis. In a preferred embodiment, impedance measurements are obtained for determining the timing of right heart valve closure or right ventricular contractions, and the timing of delivery of left ventricular pace pulses is adjusted so as to optimally synchronize left ventricular pacing with the right ventricular contractions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, INC
    Inventors: Arnoldus Bakels, Robert Leinders, Cobus de Roos
  • Patent number: 6223082
    Abstract: A pacing system and method for providing multiple chamber pacing of a patient's heart, and in particular, pacing programmed for treatment of various forms of heart failure. The system utilizes impedance sensing for determining optimum pacing parameters, e.g., for pacing the left ventricle so that left heart output is maximized. The impedance sensing also is used for determination of arrhythmias or progression of heart failure. Impedance sensing is provided for between selected pairs of the four chambers, to enable optimizing of information for control and diagnosis. In a preferred embodiment impedance measurements are obtained for determining the timing of right heart valve closure or right ventricular contractions, and the timing of delivery of left ventricular pace pulses is adjusted so as to optimally synchronize left ventricular pacing with the right ventricular contractions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc.
    Inventors: Arnoldus Bakels, Robert Leinders, Cobus de Roos
  • Patent number: 6223081
    Abstract: A medical device system such as a pacemaker system is provided wherein pressure signals representative of a patient's cardiac movements are transmitted through a pacing lead to the pacemaker, where they are sensed and utilized for control of pacemaker operation. In a preferred embodiment, the invention utilizes a standard pacing lead, which may already be in place within the patient, the lead having a lumen through which relative pressure signals are transmitted from the patient's heart to the proximal end of the lead. The proximal end of the lead is connected to a pressure sensor, mounted either in the pacemaker header portion or within the hermetically sealed pacemaker can. The sensor signals are coupled to appropriate processing circuitry and are used for control of one or more pacing parameters, such as pacing rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic, Inc.
    Inventor: Harry B. A. Kerver
  • Patent number: 6219579
    Abstract: A pacing system and method for providing multiple chamber pacing of a patient's heart, and in particular, pacing programmed for treatment of various forms of heart failure. The system utilizes impedance sensing for determining optimum pacing parameters, e.g., for pacing the left ventricle so that left heart output is maximized. The impedance sensing also is used for determination of arrhythmias or progression of heart failure. Impedance sensing is provided for between selected pairs of the four chambers, to enable optimizing of information for control and diagnosis. In a preferred embodiment, impedance measurements are obtained for determining the timing of right heart valve closure or right ventricular contractions, and the timing of delivery of left ventricular pace pulses is adjusted so as to optimally synchronize left ventricular pacing with the right ventricular contractions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: Medtronic Inc.
    Inventors: Arnoldus Bakels, Robert Leinders, Cobus de Roos