Abstract: A display comprises means for changing the polarization of light, such as a liquid crystal cell, and has a means for analyzing light on one side thereof. A means for diffusing light is disposed between the cell and the analyzing means. This arrangement results in a higher contrast ratio for the display than for the prior art arrangement having the analyzing means disposed between the cell and the diffusing means.
Abstract: A semiconductor structure GaInAs provides significantly low output capacitance in a digital integrated circuit, such as an inverter. A dopant density (N) within the range of 1.0.times.10.sup.16 cm.sup.-3 and 4.7.times.10.sup.16 cm.sup.-3 and an active layer thickness (a) within the range of 0.15 micrometer and 0.33 micrometer are selected in proper combination to provide a design criterion to provide good device performance with a significantly small propagation delay between the input and output terminals.
Abstract: A method for making a partially radiation hardened oxide adjacent an edge comprises forming an oxide layer on another layer with a temperature between about 975.degree. C. and 1400.degree. C., preferably between about 1000.degree. C. and 1200.degree. C. Then the structure of the oxide layer is damaged, such as by ion implantation, preferably with an inert element. Thereafter the oxide layer is annealed at a temperature between about 850.degree. C. and 900.degree. C., preferably at about 875.degree. C.
Abstract: A protection circuit comprises first and second circuit to respectively protect an IC against negative and positive going transients in an input signal. If the input includes a repetitive signal greater than a threshold for firing the negative going protection circuit, substrate current injection and signal clamping will result. To prevent this, the first circuit includes an emitter-base shunt resistor and a Zener diode coupled to a pair of opposite conductivity type transistors to lower the threshold thereof. Each of the circuits comprises a pair of opposite conductivity type transistors formed in a single isolated region, which in turn is formed in an opposite conductivity type substrate.
Abstract: An LCD pixel in accordance with the invention has disposed on a substrate a segmented back-to-back diode, an address line, and an electrode adjacent to the address line. The electrode has an additional portion, with one diode segment disposed on the additional portion and the other diode segment disposed on the address line. A free area of the substrate is adjacent to the additional portion so that the diode area is accurately defined.
Abstract: A floating gate structure wherein the floating gate is a second level polysilicon layer that is substantially shielded from the substrate by a segmented, discontinuous first level word line. Coupling of the floating gate to the substrate for "writing" is accomplished by extending the floating gate between word line segments while electrical continuity of the word line is maintained by buried contacts which make electrical contact to a continuous third level polysilicon layer.
Abstract: High power operation of an amplifier is more easily achieved in the 15 GHz and higher portion of the radio frequency spectrum by utilizing transmission line techniques to form the elements of the amplifier. Source, drain and gate members are arranged as elements of a radio frequency transmission line on a doped, semiconductor surface. When properly biased, the device operates as an amplifier.
Abstract: An electrically alterable, nonvolatile floating gate memory device is described wherein the word line and the floating gate are arranged in a parallel relationship with the word line positioned above the floating gate and coincident therewith. A program line is oriented perpendicularly to both the floating gate and the word line in order to minimize the floating gate-program line capacitance and maximize the floating gate-word line capacitance. The net result of using such an arrangement is to reduce the disturbance of the non-selected cells during the write cycle and also to achieve a significant higher packing density.
Abstract: A method for making a TFT comprises forming an amorphous silicon layer having a smooth upper surface. An insulating layer is then formed on the smooth surface at or below the critical temperature for the instantaneous crystallization of amorphous. This slowly converts the amorphous silicon to polycrystalline silicon while retaining the smooth surface. TFTs incorporating the invention have a relatively high field effect (surface) mobility.
Abstract: A conventional vapor phase deposition reactor tube typically formed of quartz is provided with a tubular liner supporting one or two crucibles carrying in turn one or two boats for holding constituents used for the deposition process. The liner, crucibles and boats are formed preferably of pyrolytic boron nitride (PBN). Reactant or constituent gas carrying tubes are formed preferably of sapphire. A buffer zone of an inert gas upstream of the liner and between the liner and the tube serves to isolate the liner and reactor tube from contaminating gases.
Abstract: A structure having dual word line, electrically alterable, nonvolatile floating gate memory cell is described wherein the word-line-to-floating gate capacitance is made significantly greater than either the program-line-to-floating gate capacitance or the floating-gate-to-substrate capacitance. This allows the program line and word line to be counter driven to minimize coupling to the floating gate during the write/erase cycle and to maximize coupling during the read cycle. The net result is higher write/erase/read efficiencies than heretofore possible.
Abstract: Disclosed is a protection circuit which may be used, for example, in a television receiver to protect circuitry inside an integrated circuit from damage due to high voltage transients. The protection circuit comprises a PNPN structure forming a silicon control rectifier (SCR) and a resistive element integral to the SCR structure. In one embodiment the resistive element is a linear resistor and in another embodiment is a non-linear resistor in the form of a diode connected transistor. The SCR and the resistive element are arranged to form a two terminal, high current protection circuit which is rendered conductive when the potential difference across the two terminals is greater than one forward biased PN junction voltage drop. One terminal of the protection circuit is connected to an input or output terminal of the protected circuit, and the other terminal is connected to the most positive power supply potential.
Abstract: A novel, nonvolatile, floating gate memory structure, and a method for its fabrication, is described wherein the floating gate is substantially shielded from the substrate by the program or control gate. The program or control gate is provided with an aperture located over an auxiliary channel region. A portion of the floating gate is formed to extend through the aperture to allow charge to be played on the floating gate.
Abstract: An improved toilet which is a combination of a self-flushing system and an Econo-system, wherein re-cycled water from wash basins, or drinking fountains are used to supplement use of fresh water for flushing; the toilet including a lever operated by the toilet seat to activate a self flush piston having a manually adjustable regulator thereabove, and the toilet including an inner and outer tank with float valve means to control the intake of fresh water in accordance to the quantity of re-cycled water stored in the system at time of a flushing action.