Abstract: A lubricating oil additive composition which imparts improved oxidation properties to crankcase lubricants comprises an antioxidant selected from aromatic or alkyl sulfides and polysulfides, sulfurized olefins, sulfurized carboxylic acid esters and sulfurized ester-olefins, and a tertiary amine of the formula (R).sub.3 N wherein each R is independently C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 alkyl, phenyl or phenyl substituted by 1 or 2 alkyl groups of up to 12 carbon atoms. Lubricating oil compositions containing this additive composition are also disclosed.
Abstract: Disclosed is a process for hydrocracking high-boiling hydrocarbons to lower-boiling hydrocarbons under hydrocracking conditions including high concentrations of water and water precursors and a low partial pressure of hydrogen. Also disclosed is a combination process for the production of synthetic hydrocarbons from CO and H.sub.2, wherein the CO and H.sub.2 are contacted in a reaction zone containing both a Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and a hydrocracking catalyst to produce a reaction product essentially free of oxygenated components. The synthetic hydrocarbons produced by the process of this invention are particularly useful as transportation fuels.
Abstract: Disclosed is an integrated process for the generation of base-load and peak-load power, particularly electrical power, from a solid carbonaceous material. A solid carbonaceous material is gasified to produce a combustible synthesis gas. A portion of this synthesis gas is contacted with a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst to produce condensable hydrocarbons. Preferably, a second portion of the synthesis gas is combusted and utilized to generate a base-load power output and the condensable hydrocarbons are utilized as a fuel as needed for peak-load power production.
Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the retorting of shale and other similar hydrocarbon-containing solids in which the solids to be retorted are mixed with a hot solid heat transfer material to rapidly heat the hydrocarbon-containing solids to a high temperature and conveyed through the retorting vessel by means of a flexible, generically helical shaped, elongated, hollow longitudinal core element. The shale and heat transfer material are conveyed concurrently through a first section of a cylindrical vessel while a stripping gas is introduced into a latter section of the vessel and flows countercurrent to the movement of the two solids. The stripping gas along with entrained fines, gaseous hydrocarbons, and liquid hydrocarbons in the form of a mist are removed from a middle section of the vessel while the retorted shale is removed from the end of the vessel.
Abstract: A motor fuel comprising 85-99 volume percent gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbons and 1 to 15 volume percent oxylate.The oxylate consists of tertiary butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. Preferred composition for the oxylate is about 20-90 volume percent tertiary butyl alcohol, 5-40 volume percent isopropyl alcohol, and 5-40 volume percent methyl alcohol.The oxylate improves the octane of the gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbons more than expected, and the motor fuel containing oxylate is an excellent unleaded gasoline.
Abstract: Disclosed is an integrated process for the generation of power, particularly electrical power, from a solid carbonaceous material. A solid carbonaceous material is gasified to produce a combustible synthesis gas. A first portion of this synthesis gas is contacted with Fischer-Tropsch and hydrogenation catalysts to produce normally liquid hydrocarbons and a second combustible gaseous stream. Portions of the two combustible gaseous streams are combined and combusted and utilized to generate a base-load power output and the liquid hydrocarbons are utilized as a fuel for a gas turbine to produce supplemental power for peak-load demand.
Abstract: The invention is an improvement in the prior art processes for producing a microorganism using ethylene as a carbon source. The improvement comprises:1. hydrating ethylene by contacting ethylene and water, both being in the vapor phase, with a supported phosphoric acid catalyst to form an aqueous-phase effluent comprising ethanol, diethyl ether, acetaldehyde, dissolved phosphate and water;2. feeding said effluent without substantial purification to a microorganism fermentation zone; and3. withdrawing from the fermentation zone an effluent and separating said microorganisms from said effluent and recycling to said hydration zone at least a portion of the unreacted water, ethanol, ether and aldehydes along with excess residual salts.
Abstract: In a staged calcination process a sulfur-containing green coke is converted to a low-sulfur-content coke and two off-gas streams, one which contains sulfur dioxide and another which contains hydrogen sulfide. In one stage the green coke is calcined and partially desulfurized under oxidative conditions at a temperature in the range 1000.degree. to 3000.degree.F. In a second stage, the calcination and desulfurization is continued by heating the coke from 2000.degree. to 4000.degree.F under substantially reducing conditions. Preferably the reaction times and conditions in the stages are adjusted to result in the production of two mols of hydrogen sulfide per mol of sulfur dioxide. Portions of the two off-gas streams are mixed and reacted to form elemental sulfur.
Abstract: A novel multifunctional lube oil additive is provided and comprising the reaction product of an alkyl phenol having from 8 to 35 carbons in the alkyl group, sulfur and an alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide. The reaction is performed in a two step process in the presence of a mutual solvent whereby the sulfurized metal phenate produced has a sulfur to metal atom ratio between about 1 and 2 .Iadd.and an alkalinity value of 40 to 200 mg. KOH/gram..Iaddend.