Abstract: In an ultrasound imaging system, a displacement vector is estimated for a pattern of samples throughout an imaged region of interest (ROI) by comparing two successive B-mode frames. The displacement vector is preferably estimated using block matching. Once displacement vectors are estimated for samples throughout the ROI, corresponding strain values are estimated, which indicate the degree of elasticity of the respective tissue portions. An image is then displayed showing the strain distribution within the ROI as it is stressed, for example, by the user pressing the ultrasound transducer against the patient's body. The invention allows for both real-time and post-processed generation of elasticity displays, even based on the same body of acquired frame data. The real-time display is preferably generated using lower quality block matching whereas the post-processed elasticity calculations are carried out using high-quality techniques.
Abstract: A virtual machine monitor (VMM) is included in a computer system that has a protected host operating system (HOS). A virtual machine running at least one application via a virtual operating system is connected to the VMM. Both the HOS and the VMM have separate operating contexts and disjoint address spaces, but are both co-resident at system level. A driver that is downloadable into the HOS at system level forms a total context switch between the VMM and HOS contexts. A user-level emulator accepts commands from the VMM via the system-level driver and processes these commands as remote procedure calls. The emulator is able to issue host operating system calls and thereby access the physical system devices via the host operating system. The host operating system itself thus handles execution of certain VMM instructions, such as accessing physical devices.
September 10, 1998
Date of Patent:
December 17, 2002
Edouard Bugnion, Scott W. Devine, Mendel Rosenblum
Abstract: A spinning reel for fishing includes a motor that, when activated, automatically reels in a fishing line when a fish bites a hook, whose inner end forms a contact arm of an electrical sensor in the lure. An electrical device such as a vibrator and-or light is also included within the lure in order to help attract fish. Electrical wires lead from the reel to the lure.
Abstract: A monolithic integrated circuit amplifier has a gain stage and a buffer stage. The buffer stage includes an output stage and two separate voltage supplies, the second of which has a greater magnitude than the first. Switching circuitry is included that is connected to the output stage via a regulator bus. When an output demand voltage is less than a switch-over threshold, current to the output stage is provided substantially from the first voltage supply; when the output demand voltage is greater than the switch-over threshold, current to the output stage is provided substantially from the second voltage supply. Collector voltage at the output stage is dynamically controlled to be greater than the emitter voltage by a difference voltage that increases proportionally as output voltage increases above the switch-over threshold. This difference voltage is commonly referred to as “headroom.
Abstract: Data to be analyzed is transferred from one or more user systems to a host system, which includes an analysis/decision support module. Queries are generated, either automatically by the analysis/decision support module, or by the user, who then submits them to the host system. More than one user may participate in the system, including transferring data to the host. This joint participation includes the option of collaboratively submitting or adjusting queries and viewing the results of the data analysis, either in real time, or asynchronously. Data used as the basis of an analysis may therefore come from different entities, even from data bases that are available publicly via the network, but whose owners are not participants in the collaborative, hosted analysis system according to the invention. The host system thus acts as a network portal through which different users may store and share not only data for analysis, but also the results of such analysis.
Abstract: In a computer that has hardware processor, and a memory, the invention provides a virtual machine monitor (VMM) and a virtual machine (VM) that has at least one virtual processor and is operatively connected to the VMM for running a sequence of VM instructions, which are either directly executable or non-directly executable. The VMM includes both a binary translation sub-system and a direct execution sub-system, as well as a sub-system that determines if VM instructions must be executed using binary translation, or if they can be executed using direct execution. Shadow descriptor tables in the VMM, corresponding to VM descriptor tables, segment tracking and memory tracing are used as factors in the decision of which execution mode to activate. The invention is particularly well-adapted for virtualizing computers in which the hardware processor has an Intel x86 architecture.
October 26, 1998
Date of Patent:
May 28, 2002
Scott W. Devine, Edouard Bugnion, Mendel Rosenblum
Abstract: Vibrations and/or rotations of a machine are sensed, preferably using one or more accelerometers, whose output is sampled by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and forms an input signal to a processing system. An alarm that warns of existing or impending failure or defects in the machine is generated whenever an alarm condition is met. The alarm condition is preferably that the kurtosis of the sampled input signal exceeds a predetermined threshold. In order to enable use of the invention with a wide range of machines, and make the system wholly or at least substantially self-calibrating, the processor preferably also adjusts the sampling rate of the ADC as a predetermined function of the input data sets. An auto-ranging feature, which may be implemented within the processor or as a separate circuit, is preferably also included to scale the output signal of the sensor to fall within a predetermined range of the ADC.
Abstract: An access device such as a catheter, or introducer, or any combination of the above is provided. Within the access device is at least one lumen, channel or instrument that carries or itself is a thermally active mass, such as infusion fluids, control wires, etc. A temperature sensor such as a thermistor is secured to the access device in order to measure the temperature of a temperature medium, typically blood; in a patient. Various insulating lumens, insulating members and mounting and extrusion configurations are provided by the invention to insulate the temperature sensor thermally from the thermal mass, which might otherwise degrade the accuracy of the temperature measurement. The invention also provides an arrangement whereby the temperature sensor is connected to an external monitor for display of the patient's temperature.
Abstract: The invention estimates a cardiac performance value such as cardiac output (CO) and cardiac ejection fraction (EF) by sensing a downstream indicator concentration signal y(t) that corresponds to an indicator (preferably heat) signal x(t) injected upstream in a patient's blood channel. The signal x(t) is preferably generated as a series of alternating transitions between a high state and a low state, such as a PRBS signal. The signal y(t) is then divided into at least one sub-signal that is synchronous with x(t). A decay parameter &tgr; that minimizes a cost function that includes a time-domain channel relaxation model is then calculated. The cardiac performance value is then calculated based on this value for &tgr;. For each transition of the injected indicator signal, a corresponding segment of the indicator concentration signal is preferably isolated, and a segment relaxation parameter is then calculated.
Abstract: In its broadest terms, the invention is an electrostatically shielded and resistively insulated high-value resistor that is implemented using a CMOS resistive sealing layer of a larger CMOS device. In particular, the IC resistor according to the invention uses a substantially continuous, resistive layer to electrically connect the resistor input and output electrodes, which are formed as portions of a top metal layer. The resistive layer itself forms a resistive electrical path between the input and output, isolation of the resistor from other components on the same integrated circuit being provided without patterning of the resistive layer. An output ring portion of the top metal layer is electrically connected to the output electrode and surrounds the input electrode. A grounded shield ring portion of the top metal layer is also preferably included. The shield ring surrounds the output ring portion and forms a first electrostatic shield for the resistor.
Abstract: A shoe horn (1) of a flexible, thin material such as plastic or metal that, in use, changes its shape to approximately correspond to the rear or inner portion of a shoe where the heel of the user is to be inserted. Its size does not significantly exceed the standard size of a bank (ATM) or credit card, so that it can be stored, for example, in a wallet. The shoe horn can comprise two or more portions (1a, 1b) of different shapes having shoulders or hook-shaped portions (1c) that prevent the shoe horn, in use, from gliding down into the shoe.
Abstract: A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) includes separate converter segments for converting the most significant bits (MSB's) and next-most-significant bits (NSB's) of a digital input word. The MSB's are converted in a thermometer-encoded capacitive DAC (CDAC), in which the MSB's are decoded and used to control the state of CDAC switches, which connect any of a plurality of CADC reference voltages, through respective unit capacitors, to the DAC output. The NSB's are converted in a preferably binary encoded resistive DAC (RDAC), in which two separate sets (“A” and “B”) of RDAC switches selectively connect a plurality of RDAC reference voltages to respective A and B RDAC output buses. Control circuitry is included to decode and apply the MSB's as state control signals to the CDAC switches on each clock cycle. The NSB's are also decoded and applied as control signals, but on alternate clock cycles, to the A and B RDAC switch sets.
Abstract: An arrangement for driving a rotary dental or medical tool attached to a handpiece includes a vane motor that is compact enough to be mounted within the head of the handpiece. The vane motor includes a rotor, which is mounted within an eccentric bore of a cylinder, which forms a stator. Inlet ports into the vane motor preferably open perpendicular to the rotor's axis of rotation so that intake air is directed substantially directly at the vanes. An arrangement of the inlet and of outlet ports allows a duty stroke for each vane up to 240 degrees. Inlet and exhaust air preferably enters and exits the vane motor via annular channels surrounding either end of the cylinder. There is then no need to align the motor angularly when it is installed in the head. A radial gap is preferably provided between the rotor and the shaft it is mounted on. Channels connecting the bottom of each vane slot with this gap reduce the vacuum effect acting on the vanes as they extend.
Abstract: A plurality of intermediate driving devices are included in stages between a clock generator and a bank of synchronous logic devices. The outputs of the intermediate devices in each stage are connected in parallel over a wide linear dimension. The timing delay of each circuit is then subject to a small variation depending on the irregularities associated with the device characteristics used in its construction. The outputs of the intermediate devices in each stage are tied together to restore regularity and uniformity to all clock generation circuit outputs.
Abstract: A monolithic integrated circuit amplifier has a gain stage and a buffer stage. The buffer stage includes an output stage and two separate voltage supplies, the second of which has a greater magnitude than the first. Switching circuitry is included that is connected to the output stage via a regulator bus. When an output demand voltage is less than a switch-over threshold, current to the output stage is provided substantially entirely from the first voltage supply; when the output demand voltage is greater than the switch-over threshold, current to the output stage is provided substantially entirely from the second voltage supply. Collector voltage at the output stage can be maintained greater than the emitter voltage by a predetermined, substantially constant amount.
Abstract: The invention provides a stable voltage reference circuit that has a single reference diode junction. Two separate current sources are switched so as to alternately apply a first and second current to the junction, with the second current being larger than the first. The voltage over the junction thereby alternates between a first AC input voltage (V1) that has a positive temperature dependence (dV1/dT) and a second AC input voltage (V2) that has a negative temperature dependence (dV2/dT). Combining circuitry is included for adding the first and second input voltages and for thereby generating an output voltage (Vref) substantially constant with absolute temperature. The combining circuitry preferably includes an amplifier that has, for the first input voltage, a gain substantially equal to the ratio of the negative temperature dependence divided by the positive temperature dependence.
Abstract: The invention provides a supporting arrangement for a trailer that is towable by a vehicle, in which the trailer includes a tongue for connecting the trailer to the vehicle. The supporting arrangement includes a tongue jack mounted on the tongue. In a deployed position, the tongue jack vertically supports the tongue and thereby prevents contact between the tongue and the ground. In a retracted position, the supporting arrangement holds the tongue jack clear of the ground. A motion detection arrangement senses a dangerous trailer configuration, in which the tongue jack is in the deployed position and actual or potential motion of the trailer above a safe speed is present, and then activates a retraction assembly that automatically moves the tongue jack from the deployed to the retracted position upon activation of the release mechanism. A manual activation arrangement is preferably also included for allowing activation of the release mechanism by a user.
Abstract: A tensioning device is provided for drive belts, which is formed as a resilient, bendable ring. The ring is arranged to be inserted between lengths of the drive belt and may be positioned in a groove in one of the pulleys of the belt transmission of which the drive belt is an integral part. The ring is designed with such a large circumference that, during expansion, it is squeezed between the lengths of the drive belt, which causes the drive belt to be tensioned.
Abstract: A flash converter is preceded by an accurate continuous-time error amplifier operating on the difference between the input signal and a feedback DAC. The DAC output is operatively coupled to the amplifier input virtual ground or summing node through, for example, a set of precision capacitors. The input circuit is also coupled to the amplifier input through a continuous-time element such as a set of precision capacitors, approximately equal in capacitance to those coupled to the DAC. The amplifier may have a moderate closed-loop forward gain such as 16 with a high-pass characteristic beyond, for example, 10 Hz. The DAC is controlled by the latched output of a digital signal processing block, which uses digital outputs from the flash converter and the last latched output to predict the next value of the input signal. Converter control loop stability is afforded by providing a lowpass character to the prediction circuit.