Abstract: A system and method are disclosed for measuring medium range distances, of about 1-10 meters, to a target. A transmission signal is reflected off the target, with the phase difference between the transmitted and received signals taken as an indication of the target distance. The transmitter and receiver are part of a phase-locked loop, with a VCO adjusting the transmission frequency until a predetermined transmission-reception phase difference is reached. A coarse distance measurement is first obtained by comparing the transmitted signal with the received signal, followed by a fine distance measurement in which a multiple of the transmission signal frequency is compared with the received signal. The frequency multiplication in the preferred embodiment is obtained by dividing the VCO output frequency to obtain the transmission frequency. The transmission signal is initialy set at a low frequency prior to the coarse adjustment to avoid phase ambiguities.
Abstract: An improved input current compensation circuit is provided for a dual branch amplifier, particularly an amplifier employing superbeta transistors. The compensation circuit has a superbeta compensation transistor which is matched with the superbeta amplifier transistors, a bipolar transistor connected across the superbeta transistor in a manner analogous to a voltage limiting circuit in the amplifier section, and current sources which provide operating currents to both the superbeta and bipolar compensation transistors. The base current of the superbeta compensation transistor is mirrored to the bases of the superbeta amplifier transistors, and the superbeta transistors, bipolar transistor and current sources in the compensation section are scaled relative to corresponding elements in the amplifier section so that the superbeta amplifier transistor base currents are substantially compensated by current mirrored from the compensation circuit.
Abstract: Each bomblet within a cluster bomb is provided with an individually programmable detonation time delay, such that the bomblets can be programmed to detonate at desired intervals over a relatively long period of time. Program signals are transmitted to a number of bomblets at the same time from a wire that runs through openings in the bomblets, but is not mechanically attached to the bomblets. The wire is attached to the bomb canister at selected points and is severed inbetween the connection points when the canister is opened, thus permitting the wire sections to be pulled away without disrupting the bomblets' dispersion pattern. Each bomblet has a secondary transformer winding to receive signals from the transmission wire, and is provided with a unique address code such that it responds to a timing program signal only when the signal is preceded by an appropriate address code.
Abstract: A method for creating a 3-D effect is disclosed in which a scene is recorded with a relative lateral movemnet between the scene and the recording mechanism. The recording is played back and viewed through a light filter which has a greater optical density for one eye than for the other eye, thereby causing one eye to perceive a darker image which appears to lag in time behind the image perceived by the other eye. The result is a three-dimensional effect which can be controlled by controlling the direction and speed of relative movement, the relative optical densities of the filter used for each eye, and the size of the distance from the viewing screen. The invention also includes viewer glasses with a spectral density gradient in which the optical density of one lens is at least 0.3 optical density darker than the optical density of the other lens, and the differene in optical densities between the two lenses is preferably within the range of approximately 0.8 to approximately 2.0.
Abstract: An FM transmission system and method in which a gain control signal is generated and used to encode the audio signal in accordance with a predetermined compression curve. At the receiver the gain control signal is recovered and used to decode the audio signal, thereby providing a faithful reproduction of the original signal regardless of which compression curve is used. The compression curve can be tailored for optimum results for receivers with and without the decoding circuitry, depending upon the program material. The audio signal is delayed in the encoder while the gain control signal is generated, allowing the control signal to fully respond to changes in the audio signal without clipping the audio signal. The gain control signal is segregated from interfering with the remainder of the transmitted signal by restricting it to a low frequency bandwidth centered on the 38 KHz subcarrier for the L-R signal, and placing it in phase quadrature relation to the remainder of the transmitted signal.
Abstract: A fiber optic switching system and method is described which is capable of rapidly switching among a number of closely spaced optical rods for optical connection with a communications channel, while alleviating alignment problems caused by vibration and similar environmental conditions. Focusing lenses are moved relative to stationary multirod cables, and brought into coarse alignment with desired rods in each cable in a programmed switching sequence. At each coarse lens position a fine alignment is achieved between the lens and rod by directing an optical alignment beam along the focal axis of the lens, reflecting the beam off the rod, and sensing the portion of the alignment beam which is reflected back through the lens as an indication of the misalignment. The misalignment detectors form part of a servomechanism that rapidly adjusts the lens position in response to detected misalignments to bring the lens into alignment with the desired rod.
Abstract: An interactive system and method for testing vehicle electronics systems is disclosed in which various vehicle subsystems are exercised under the control of the tester unit while the performance of associated subsystems are monitored to detect and isolate malfunctions. The tester includes interchangeable program cartridges that can be easily inserted to adapt the unit for a variety of different vehicles and test procedures, and also optional interchangeable input/output cartridges for test procedures in which additional access to or from the tester or peripheral devices is necessary. The test unit accesses the vehicle's electronics data bus by means of an assembly line diagnostic link, the access being accomplished via a multiplexer that makes it possible to locate faults on the data bus itself. The tester greatly reduces the time and effort necessary to analyze malfunctions in the field, and is considerably more comprehensive than prior test equipment.
Abstract: A system and method is described for amplifying and transmitting an information signal from a downhole drillstring location. The amplifier shifts the relatively low frequency information signal up to a high frequency level, amplifies the high frequency signal and processes it through an impedance matching transformer, and then demodulates the amplified signal back to the original low frequency for transmission through the earth to the surface, thus enabling the use of a much smaller transformer than when the information signal is processed entirely at the low frequency level. A novel transducer consisting of generally cylindrical conductive sleeves separated by an insulative gap is used to provide structural integrity and to transmit the amplified information signal. The conductive sleeves are heat shrunk onto an insulative sleeve and a central mandrel.
July 1, 1983
Date of Patent:
September 1, 1987
Llewellyn A. Rubin, William H. Harrison
Abstract: An active load circuit for operational amplifiers and the like is described which provides an improved common mode rejection ratio and common mode voltage range, and alleviates transistor saturation and cut off problems during maximum slew rates. Drive currents from the operational amplifier or other circuit are transmitted directly through respective load resistors, thereby reducing voltage offsets which degrade common mode rejection ratio. At the same time the absolute voltage levels at the operational amplifier or like circuit are reduced, thereby increasing the common mode voltage range. A pair of active load transistors are supplied with current from current sources independent of the amplifier transistors, and deliver their respective currents to the same resistors which receive the amplifier currents. An output is taken from one of the load transistors without connecting to either of the amplifier transistors.
Abstract: The goggle mounting system comprises protective goggles which carry one strap on each side for attachment to a helmet. The straps are flexible and resilient. The attachment of the straps to the helmet is such that the strap on only one side is easily disconnectable, while the strap on the other side is pivoted to the helmet and remains connected. The strap fasteners differ from one another in that one strap is attached to the helmet by means of mating sections of Velcro, respectively attached to the side of the helmet and the other fixedly attached to the strap. The other strap is attached to the helmet by a resilient snap fixed to the helmet and a mating member on the end of the strap.
Abstract: A dual vise is disclosed which has first and second vise assemblies. The vise assemblies have centrally fixed stationary jaws and independently controlled moveable jaws, each vise assembly being capable of holding a work piece under a pressure which is independent of the holding pressure for the other vise assembly, The pressure for each vise assembly is under the control of the operator. The moveable jaws are preferably controlled by concentric lead screw shafts. When used in conjunction with numerical control equipment, productivity is increased and damage to individual work pieces is reduced.
Abstract: A test socket for a leadless chip carrier is disclosed in which a clamp is pivotally mounted to a base member, such that the carrier can be inserted into a recess in the base member and the clamp pivoted closed to lock the carrier in place. The clamp includes a set of arms which engage corresponding brackets on the base to progressively secure the carrier and chip as the clamp is rotated either clockwise or counterclockwise. The clamp makes direct contact with the chip to assure a good electrical connection with underlying electrical contact springs.
Abstract: A blocking member in the form of a short member attached to the front face of a cassette housing in front of the guide of the tension sensor of the video tape recorder blocks the movement of that guide to prevent the cleaning tape from being under too much tension which would otherwise slow or prevent movement of the tape through the various guides and heads in the video recorder and also could stop rotation of the video record/playback head drum.
Abstract: A system is disclosed for locating a label on the spine of a bound work. An elongate leader extends through a slot formed when an overlay cover is placed on and sealed to the spine of the bound work, and out each end of the slot. The leader includes an adhesive portion in the vicinity of one end onto which a label can be affixed. The leader is pulled longitudinally through the slot, causing the label to enter the slot through one transverse edge. Pressure is then applied to the label via the overlay cover, and the force on the leader is continued until the leader separates from the label, leaving the label at a desired position along the spine of the bound work. The label can be removed from the spine in a similar fashion by sliding the adhesive portion of the leader through one transverse edge of the slot until it adheres to the label. The leader and label are then withdrawn from the slot.
Abstract: A bicycle shoe is disclosed in which a plurality of spaced air scoops are located at the front of the shoe and aligned with channels formed in the inner base of the shoe and extending toward the heel. As the wearer moves rapidly forward on a bicycle, air is taken in through the scoops and distributed across the wearer's foot, producing a comfortable cooling action. The depths of the channels at their forward ends are preferably increased to provide the air scoops with greater intake areas, and the advantageous arrangements of the channels along the base of the shoe are disclosed.
Abstract: A temperature insensitive voltage reference is described which can advantageously be implemented using standard CMOS processing techniques. A pair of parasitic bipolar transistors are coupled with appropriate resistors to produce a voltage with a temperature coefficient that is equal in value but of opposite polarity to a zener diode voltage-temperature coefficient. This voltage is then combined with a zener diode voltage to yield the desired output reference voltage.
Abstract: A fire fighting tool is described which is capable of both penetrating the wall of an enclosure, and dispensing a fire fighting agent into the interior of the enclosure. A drill bit or other penetrating device is carried at the forward end of an elongate shaft which is connected at its rear end to a drill motor or other appropriate actuating device. The shaft is surrounded by a barrel which receives a fluid fire fighting agent and includes a series of outlet openings at its forward end through which the agent is dispensed. The shaft is thus surrounded and cooled by the agent during the penetration operation. A leaky bearing is provided at the forward end of the barrel, and is specially configured along with the shaft and drill bit to induce a leakage of agent through the bearing and onto the bit and surrounding enclosure wall during drilling, thereby cooling the various parts and lessening the risk of an explosion. The barrel is designed to hold the tool in place once it has been inserted into the enclosure.
Abstract: A CMOS output drive circuit has two field effect transistors (FETs) implemented with a CMOS process and characterized by parasitic bipolar transistors. The back-gates of the two transistors are tied together, such as by forming the devices in a common well, and the back-gate of the second FET is also connected to prevent its associated parasitic bipolar transistor from conducting. Quiescent loads are applied to the two FETs so that their voltages are comparable during low output loading, resulting in a drive circuit with high input impedance and high output voltage swing. The output terminal is taken from the first FET, the voltage of which becomes unbalanced from the second FET at relatively high output loads, turning on the parasitic bipolar transistor for the first FET. This gives the drive circuit a desirably high input impedance and low output impedance for heavy output loads.