Abstract: A microwave cooking bag, method, and system are disclosed in which a food product in the bag is cooked, browned and crisped in a microwave oven. The bag forms an enclosed cooking space which is substantially surrounded by a susceptor material layer. The susceptor material layer is heated during cooking by the microwave radiation to a temperature sufficient to brown and crisp the food product while the microwave radiation also directly heats and thereby cooks the food product. Both a five-sided bag and a four-sided, pouch-like bag are disclosed.
January 12, 1990
Date of Patent:
July 13, 1993
Kraft General Foods, Inc.
Charles R. Mason, Clement R. Wyss, Mary A. Amini, Ted R. Lindstrom
Abstract: New and improved compositions are described of ethylenically unsaturated organic compounds capable of addition polymerization stabilized from unintentional or premature polymerization in the liquid phase by the addition of the combination cerium compounds which are soluble in the ethylenically unsaturated organic compounds and phenolic type inhibitors.
Abstract: Improvements in efficiencies and yields are achieved in the production of a saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid containing 5 to 9 carbon atoms from its corresponding aldehyde by rapidly hydrolyzing the anhydride of the monocarboxylic acid formed in the oxidation. The hydrolysis is accomplished by contacting the anhydride with water at a temperature from about 130.degree. C. to about 215.degree. C. and at a pressure under which the water is maintained in the liquid state to convert the anhydride to its corresponding acid.
Abstract: In the process of producing ethyl acrylate by the reaction of ethylene and acrylic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, using phenolic type inhibitors, soluble manganese or cerium salts are additionally utilized.
July 5, 1983
Date of Patent:
March 26, 1985
Edward F. Dougherty, Mark O. Scates, James L. Paul
Abstract: A process is described for removing copper and manganese catalysts from an organic phase comprising a saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid containing 5 to 9 carbon atoms by extracting the catalysts with aqueous formic acid.
Abstract: A process is described for removing copper and manganese ions from a saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid containing from 6 to 9 carbon atoms by extracting the metal ions into an aqueous layer in the presence of an extractant acid, the hydrogen of which can be replaced by both metal ions. The metal ion-containing aqueous layer may then be separated from the monocarboxylic acid-containing organic layer, with the latter layer having a substantially reduced content of copper and manganese ions.
Abstract: A process is provided for the continuous production of ethyl acrylate from ethylene and acrylic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid. The process includes the removal of impurities from the reaction system by passing minor portions of sulfuric acid residue from the process through a wiped-film evaporator whose initial sections are heated to a specific temperature range and whose last or withdrawal sections are cooled to a specific temperature range. The treated sulfuric acid residue is withdrawn from the reaction system. This treatment prevents foaming of the sulfuric acid residue. If foaming of the sulfuric acid residue occurs, the foamed residue can back up into the reaction system requiring a shutdown of the entire process. The improvement of this process is the passing of the ethyl acrylate product residue from the finishing distillation tower into the wiped-film evaporator at the same time that the sulfuric acid residue is being treated.
Abstract: In the purification of the corresponding acid products obtained by oxidizing C.sub.5 to C.sub.9 organic saturated aliphatic aldehydes in the presence of a combination of manganese and copper catalysts soluble in said acids, the liquid acid reaction product is separated from the soluble catalysts by distillation in the presence of a sufficient amount of oxygen to prevent copper from plating out on the distillation equipment.
Abstract: A process for the production of cupric and manganous alkanoates containing from 6 to 9 carbon atoms is described. This process comprises first thermally decomposing a mixture of cupric and manganous oxalates, obtained from the oxidation of C.sub.6 to C.sub.9 aldehydes to the corresponding acids using a mixture of copper and manganese compounds soluble in the acid product as the catalyst, in the presence of an organic saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid containing from 6 to 9 carbon atoms, and in the absence of oxygen, to produce manganous alkanoate and metallic copper. The metallic copper is then oxidized with oxygen to copper in the cupric form, which reacts with the organic saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid present to produce cupric alkanoate. The mixtures of cupric and manganous alkanoates obtained can be used as oxidation catalysts, and in fact may be recycled to the reaction sphere in which the C.sub.6 -C.sub.
Abstract: A process is described for recovering water soluble copper and manganese compounds from an aqueous solution by reacting the copper and manganese compounds with saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acids containing 5 to 9 carbon atoms at elevated temperatures forming cupric and manganous alkanoates containing 5 to 9 carbon atoms, and simultaneously removing the water by distillation in the presence of sufficient oxygen-containing gas to prevent the copper from plating on the distillation equipment, recovering the cupric and manganese alkanoates.
Abstract: A process for producing methyl formate is described by the dehydrogenation of methanol over a catalyst produced by reducing a precursor comprising copper oxide and a spinel structure support comprising the oxides of zinc and aluminum, said precursor containing 10 to 80 percent copper.
Abstract: In hydroformylating an olefinic compound to produce an aldehyde derivative thereof employing as a catalyst a complex of a Group VIII metal and an organic ligand dissolved in an inert liquid reaction solvent, improvements in production efficiencies and product separation from reaction product in solution are achieved in using as the inert liquid reaction medium, a saturated alpha-olefin oligomer free of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons having the appropriate viscosity, average molecular weights and flash point properties which are required in the hydroformylating reaction.
Abstract: A method for separating ethyl acetate from methyl ethyl ketone is described including distilling in an anhydrous condition a mixture of ethyl acetate-methyl ethyl ketone in a plate column in the presence of an effective amount of an organic extractive solvent which has the following properties: (1) is soluble in a boiling ethyl acetate-methyl ethyl ketone mixture; (2) does not form an azeotrope with ethyl acetate or methyl ethyl ketone; (3) boils higher than ethyl acetate and methyl ethyl ketone and (4) in combination with the ethyl acetate-methyl ethyl ketone mixture, results in a relative volatility of ethyl acetate to methyl ethyl ketone greater than 1.20.
Abstract: An apparatus for the precision positioning of electrostatic pinning means. The electrostatic pinning means, which significantly improves pinning of a thermoplastic polymeric film cast upon a moving surface, by electrostatic force, is precisely positioned, in relation to an extrusion means and the moving surface, by means of the precision positioning apparatus. The apparatus includes a frame moveable in vertical and horizontal directions. The apparatus further includes the pinning means and support means, connected to the frame, for holding the electrostatic pinning means. Horizontal and vertical adjusting means comprising horizontal and vertical actuating means connected to horizontally and vertically moveable means responsive to the horizontal and vertical actuating means, respectively, are connected to the frame to permit separate horizontal and vertical movements to precisely position the electrostatic pinning means.
Abstract: An adjusting means for controlling the thickness of extrudate exiting from a die. The adjusting means includes a non-flexible block, connected to the die and provided with a tapped hole. Another block, a flexible block is also provided. It is connected to a flexible lip of the die and is also provided with a tapped hole. A bolt which includes a first threaded cylindrical section having a first threaded pitch is also provided. The first threaded cylindrical section is accommodated in the tapped hole provided on the non-flexible block. The bolt further comprises a second threaded cylindrical section having a second thread pitch accommodated in the tapped hole provided on the flexible block. The first and second cylindrical sections are distinguished in that the first and second thread pitches are different.