Abstract: A holographic full-color, data retrieval and projection system includes a holographic information storage plate that includes a plurality of reflective holograms, each designed to diffract light over a certain spectral bandwidth, and a holographic screen character plate, which includes a plurality of screen hologram character shapes that reflect diffracted light in a uniform, well-defined cone of diffuse light directed toward the viewer, producing images having high screen gain and high brightness, yet with lower power consumption than heretofore obtained.
Abstract: A radiometer (100) uses the fringe pattern of an interferometer (110) to scan a scene to produce a time record from which a high-resolution radio frequency, or other radiation, distribution of the scene can be reconstructed. A matched filter (120), or other means, transforms the time record according to a function of a signature of the determinable scanning motion relative to the fringe pattern.For many applications, the modulation transfer function (123) of an included matched filter is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transform of the signature that would be produced by a constant point emitter scanned by the lobes of the interferometer fringe pattern.Two-dimensional reconstructions may be provided for by multiple scans at different orientations. Alternatively, frequency scanning or another scanning technique can provide resolution orthogonal to the fringe pattern scanning motion.
Abstract: Apparatus is provided for simultaneously rotating a plurality of parallel shafts connected, for example, to an array of rf switches that feed energy to or from an array of antenna feed horns. Each shaft is connected by a separate crank to a planar drive plate that is controllable moved relative to the switches in an orbiting fashion, to rotate the shafts in unison. The drive plate is controllably moved by a motor drive system that includes an orbiting motor secured to the plate and a base motor secured to a fixed substrate that houses the switches. The output shafts of the two motors are coupled together such that operation of either motor moves the orbiting motor, and thus the drive plate, in an orbiting motion about the base motor and substrate.
Abstract: A lasing medium (3) and a Raman medium (20) share a common optical cavity. The lasing medium (3) projects laser light into the Raman medium (20) and, when a threshold intensity within the Raman medium is reached, the Raman medium absorbs the laser light and re-radiates coherent light at a shifted frequency. Optical elements within the system provide an optical cavity for the lasing medium and a second cavity for the Raman medium.
Abstract: A directly heated catalyst 10 is comprised of an electrically conductive ceramic substrate 12 having a catalytic coating 14 applied to at least an outer surface thereof. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention the catalytic coating is a noble metal or non-noblemetal coating. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention a high surface area form of platinum (Platinum Black) is deposited upon a ceramic substrate, such as a substrate comprised of SiC or SnO.sub.2. The coating is brought to its activation temperature by resistively heating the substrate with an electrical current. A temperature sensing device (20, 40), such as a thermocouple or a thermostat, may be coupled to the catalyst structure for sensing the temperature of the catalyst to control the heater current supplied to the substrate. The catalyst is shown to be useful for CO.sub.2 gas lasers.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for joining two semiconductor devices 10 and 10', each having a plurality of metallic contact bumps 12 and 12' on the major surfaces 14 and 14' thereof. The devices are etched to remove oxide 18 from the contact bumps and to prevent subsequent oxidation thereon. The devices are then oriented so that the bumps 12 and 12' on the respective devices are aligned opposite each other. By applying pressure to the devices, the bumps are caused to cold-weld together to form a single device 24.
Abstract: A receiver is disclosed for acquiring and tracking a data signal in a highly stressed environment. The receiver comprises first and second I.F. sections, a mixer for translation from the first I.F. frequency to the second I.F. frequency, a 2 kHz bandpass filter at the second I.F. frequency, signal translator for synchronous translation of the signal at the second I.F. frequency to baseband, a digitizer for complex sampling operation on the baseband signal, a microprocessor for processing the digital samples, and a numerically controlled oscillator coupled to the mixer and controlled by the microprocessor. The microprocessor formulates matched digital discrete Fourier transform filters which drive frequency, phase and symbol lock loops at the symbol rate. Each of the loop filters is formed by symbol-rate recursive, first-order equations.
Abstract: A current mirror circuit 10 is coupled to a first and a second photodetector 18 and 20 and differentially couples together the two photodetectors to an amplifier 12 such that a resulting differential output current is independent of the intrinsic responsivity difference between the two photodetectors. The circuit includes a first transistor 14 having an input terminal coupled to an output terminal of the first photodetector and a second transistor 16 having an input terminal coupled to an output terminal of the second photodetector. A capacitance 22 is coupled between a control terminal of the first transistor and a control terminal of the second transistor, the control terminal of the first transistor further being coupled to the input terminal of the first transistor. A first switch 24 is coupled between the control terminal of the second transistor and the input terminal of the second transistor.
July 6, 1988
Date of Patent:
August 15, 1989
Santa Barbara Research Center
Mark A. Goodnough, John A. Stineman, Jr., Alan W. Hoffman
Abstract: A solar cell assembly wherein a solar cell is provided with electrical layer contacts for both the p-type semiconductor layer and the n-type semiconductor layer which are exposed on a top side of the solar cell, so that electrical contact to both layers can be made from the top side of the cell, and a glass cover overlying the solar cell includes a pair of U-shaped electrical cell contacts extending over the sides of the glass cover so that one leg of each U makes contact with one of the layer contacts and the other leg is accessible from the top of the cover glass. External electrical contact to the cell is easily and conveniently made, and cells can be electrically joined to adjacent cells in an array using a connector bar. The glass cover also supports the solar cell so that excess material on the substrate of the solar cell can be etched away to reduce the weight of the solar cell assembly.
Abstract: A spacecraft (100) such as a satellite, is shaped roughly in the form of a cup with a hollow inner cavity (106) such that a plurality of such spacecraft may be stowed for launch in a nested stack (204), thereby enabling a greater number of satellites to be launched simultaneously with a single launch vehicle (201). The cup-shaped configuration results from the satellite having a base member (105) with panels or side walls (101a, 101b, 101c) extending from portions of the perimeter of the base member at a non-zero angle thereto.
Abstract: A wide-field optical receiver element for determining the direction of a distant source of electromagnetic radiation. A cylindrical reflecting surface is used in an off-axis configuration to produce line images corresponding to sources over the field of view. A planar detector is located at a plane at or near positions where the line images over the field of view are produced, so that a component of the angular direction of the source can be determined from the position of the line image on the detector.
Abstract: A system located on board a geosynchronous satellite for detecting spin axis precession and developing thruster control signals for restoring the spin axis to the desired attitude. Fuel economy is enhanced by performing the major attitude correction at a time when the fuel expended contributes to that required for orbit inclination control.
July 5, 1988
Date of Patent:
June 6, 1989
Hughes Aircraft Company
John W. Smay, William F. Hummel, Jr., Carl L. Chen, Loren I. Slafer
Abstract: A radiometric imager for providing a series of registered images of a scene, each image corresponding to the radiation pattern for a unique, narrow frequency band. One embodiment includes a single frequency-dispersive linear antenna providing an output signal based on a series of conical fanbeams, with the antenna being controllably rocked about one axis and rotated about a perpendicular axis such that each fanbeam intersects each segment of the scene a plurality of times. In alternative embodiments, the imager includes a second frequency-dispersive linear antenna arranged in parallel with the first antenna to produce a fanbeam interferometer. Rocking movement of the two antennas coupled with either translation of the two antennas, rotation of the two antennas about an axis parallel with the antenna axes, or movement of the two antennas toward and away from each other, provides sufficient data to permit creation of the registered images.
Abstract: A nutation sensor and nutation control system using a relative spin phase sensor in a dual-spin stabilized satellite is disclosed. The relative spin phase sensor provides index pulses indicative of the relative spin phase and rate between the satellite rotor and platform. Nutation of the satellite perturbs the relative spin position of the rotor and platform and means are provided for analyzing index pulse arrive times to calculate nutation of the satellite. In the nutation control system, means are provided to apply a nutation damping torque to the satellite.
June 18, 1987
Date of Patent:
April 25, 1989
Hughes Aircraft Company
John W. Smay, John F. Yocum, Jr., Eugene Gonzalez, Jr.
Abstract: A satellite communications employs separate subsystems for providing broadcast and point-to-point two-way communications using the same assigned frequency band. The broadcast and point-to-point subsystems employ an integrated satellite antenna system which uses a common reflector (12). The point-to-point subsystem achieves increased communication capacity through the reuse of the assigned frequency band over multiple, contiguous zones (32, 34, 36, 38) covering the area of the earth to be serviced. Small aperture terminals in the zones are serviced by a plurality of high gain downlink fan beams (29) steered in the east-west direction by frequency address. A special beam-forming network (98) provides in conjunction with an array antenna (20) the multiple zone frequency address function. The satellite (10) employs a filter interconnection matrix (90) for connecting earth terminals in different zones in a manner which permits multiple reuse of the entire band of assigned frequencies.
Abstract: A short slot waveguide hybrid coupler is disclosed wherein the coupling factor is switchable over a predetermined range of discrete coupling factors. A coupling slot formed in the common dividing wall between the contiguous first and second waveguides of the coupler allows coupling of electromagnetic energy between the two waveguides in accordance with a first coupling factor. A plurality of conductive pins are arranged for selective insertion into the coupling slot to effectively shorten the slot and thereby progressively reduce the coupling factor as more pins are inserted into the coupling slot.
Abstract: A method for estimating vehicle reference speed and acceleration utilizing an adaptive filter for providing periodically updated reference values given by a currently extrapolated value plus a correction term which is a function of current wheel slip, wheel acceleration and wheel velocity. The method may be successfully employed over a wide range of road friction coefficients and may be used for traction control as well as anti-skid braking, since the approach does not assure a fixed limiting wheel acceleration. The method avoids the necessity of maintaining low slip values on preselected wheels in order to obtain suitable reference speed values.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for precisely determining the relative velocity of an interferometer and a scene being scanned. The apparatus uses a matched filter technique in which reference signals based on high and low relative velocity estimates are correlated with an incoming interferometer signal and controllably adjusted until the correlation is maximized. The controllably adjusted reference signals are then used to produce an extremely accurate and precise measurement of relative velocity.
Abstract: A direct digital frequency synthesizer including a counter circuit for receiving input signal pulses and for providing a corresponding output signal after receiving a number of input signal pulses, the number being selected based on the state of a control signal. The invention includes a circuit for generating a substantially random sequence of numbers and a comparator circuit for comparing a respective number of the substantially random numbers to a predetermined number and for providing the control signal in response thereto.
Abstract: An image processing system 10 includes an array (12) of detectors 14, each of which is designed to produce a current proportional to incident radiation. This system provides image processing at a viable sampling rate even for very large arrays and permits very efficient determination of single element detections.The modulation functions supplied from a weighted summer (18). The weighted summer applies an invertible matrix of weights to a series of orthonormal Walsh functions defined over a predetermined sampling interval, the Walsh functions being generated by a function generator (16).The modulated outputs of the array are combined by a summer (20) and distributed among parallel channels by a divider (22). Correlators (24) correlate the signal in each channel with a respective one of the original Walsh functions. The correlated outputs are digitized by analog-to-digital converters for transmission and processing by a digital processor (28).