Abstract: Disclosed herein is a shaped charge assembly for use in a perforating gun. The shaped charge assembly includes a shaped charge combined with a longitudinal spine extending along a portion of a perforating gun barrel. The shaped charge can be secured to the spine with a retaining shell. A bushing is included between the outer radius of the casing the retaining shell. The bushing serves to absorb shock during detonation of the shaped charge and to help in orienting the shaped charges.
April 8, 2004
Date of Patent:
July 3, 2007
Baker Hughes Incorporated
William Myers, Jr., Timothy Sampson, James W. Reese, Avigdor Hetz
Abstract: A connection system to be used in conjunction with a perforating gun comprising a top sub formed to receive one end of a gun body of a perforating gun, a circumferential groove disposed on the outer surface of the gun body, and a collet secured to the top sub. The collet has at least one finger that engages the groove. Engaging the groove with the at least one finger of the collect connects the gun body to the top sub. A cover sleeve is included that retains the finger in connective engagement with the groove.
Abstract: A method for extracting diamondoid compounds from a hydrocarbonaceous fluid such as natural gas, that contains diamondoid compounds is disclosed. The hydrocarbonaceous fluid is mixed with a first solvent in which diamondoids are at least partially soluble. The resulting mixture is separated into a vapor stream and a diamondoid-enriched solvent stream. The vapor stream is then countercurrently flowed past a second solvent in a multistage contacting device, so that a diamondoid-depleted vapor stream and a second diamondoid-enriched solvent stream are created. The diamondoid-enriched solvent streams can be recycled and either added to the first solvent or removed if they are highly saturated with diamondoid compounds.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for determining heterogeneous properties of a core sample by use of pressure transients. In the method, a pressure is applied to a first closed vessel at one end of a core sample. The pressure is then allowed to dissipate into the core and into a second closed vessel at the other end of the core sample. The pressure in at least one of the vessels or the core itself is measured and recorded as a function of time during the pressure dissipation. The volume of the first vessel is then varied and pressure is once again applied to the first vessel and allowed to dissipate into the core and second vessel. The pressure is again measured and recorded as a function of time during the pressure dissipation. The two sets of recorded measurements are then analyzed to detect deviations from theoretical responses in homogeneous cores which identify heterogeneities.
September 20, 1991
Date of Patent:
November 16, 1993
Chevron Research and Technology Company
Jairam Kamath, Russ E. Boyer, Frank M. Nakagawa
Abstract: A spraying device having a sprayer head and an interchangeable, disposable, recyclable and/or biodegradable, and attachable cartridge, capable of diluting and dispensing a chemical. The device has a rotatable barrel valve to select whether to fill the cartridge, spray the diluted chemical, or prevent any flow. The device further has a pair of coupling tubes which permit the easy connection of the sprayer head to the cartridge in a way to cause, by aspiration, the partially diluted chemical to enter the sprayer head for further mixing and discharge. A rupturable or replaceable membrane is placed across the top of the cartridge to contain the concentrated chemical prior to use. A plug closure permits the addition of a chemical to the cartridge.
Abstract: A method for using mode converted P- or S- wave data to delineate the surface of an anomalous geologic structure such as a salt dome is disclosed. Seismic wavefields are propagated from near the surface, through the earth, and through the anomalous geologic unit, so that a wavefield encounters the geologic unit at a non-normal incidence angle to generate a converted S- wave. Incidence angles of the direct arrival and converted waves are then determined. The intersection point of each converted S- wave raypath with each direct arrival raypath is determined, to provide a length of the raypaths. Travel times along the raypaths are determined, and a point on the interface of the anomalous geologic unit with the surrounding earth is determined by comparing raypath travel time differences with the recorded arrival time differences.
Abstract: A method for geophysical exploration by analyzing shear-wave polarization directions relative to a fixed coordinate frame is disclosed, for either vertical seismic profile data or surface seismic reflection data. Energy in a selected time window of two off-diagonal components is determined, and the source and receiver coordinate frame is then rotated, and energy is again determined. A second rotation of the source and receiver coordinate frame is followed by a third energy determination. A simple trigonometric function equation is generated to fit the determined energy values, and a minimum energy value is determined. The coordinate frame is then rotated by the angle that gives the minimum energy value, so that all of the signal is put on the diagonal components.
Abstract: A method and apparatus measures dielectric properties over a broad range of frequencies. The functions of various resistivity and dielectric constant measuring devices such as logging tools are combined in a single tool. A measuring tool includes novel transmitting and receiving antennas. Electromagnetic energy flows to a transmitting antenna. A stripline adapter permits transmission to a stripline having a metallic central strip. A strip face is bent at approximately right angles, and has a length that is compatible with the desired frequency coverage. A ground plane extends from the stripline adapter to the right angle bend, and a void exists between the center strip and the ground plane. A dielectric is positioned to nearly fill the void. The antennas are positioned so that the strip face lies flush with the tool face, to permit electromagnetic energy to be transmitted into and out of the material to be analyzed.
Abstract: A LCD display is driven by certain elements to indicate the responses of a geophone to various tests as a waveform. Waveforms are displayed for an impulse tests, wherein a current pulse is applied to the geophone and the response is displayed, and for a tap test, wherein the top of a geophone is tapped and the first break of the resulting displayed waveform indicates the polarity of the geophone connections. Response to a resistance test is provided by a level indicator. The waveform on the display may be examined with reference to a comparitor indicative of a proper response, and the operational or disfunctional condition of the geophone thereby determined.
Abstract: A method for improving the seismic resolution of geologic structures is disclosed. Refracted wave arrivals are gathered into common midpoint trace gathers. Data representations originating inside a critical offset distance are muted, and the remaining data is tau-P summed and projected into zero source-to-receiver offset. Constant velocity stacks can then be displayed. A plurality of common midpoint trace gathers can be used to generate multiple panels of tau-P sums. Portions of several of these panels can be combined to provide a complete image of the subsurface reactors. A near-surface velocity model can then be designed, to provide a solution to near-surface statics in seismic traces.
Abstract: An improved method for deteriming the transit time of a radioactive tracer for steam injection profiles in steam injection wells is disclosed. Radiation decay data is collected at two detectors at different depths. The data is then transformed into a new data set, consisting of time intervals between successive decay events. Tracer radiation decay events are distinguished from background radiation decay events by using statistical methods to establish a high probability that background radiation decay events are excluded. The total set of time intervals are then divided into subgroups of a specified sample size. The arrival time of the tracer is determined as the first time at which a specified minimum number of identified tracer radiation decay events occur successively.
Abstract: Improved method and apparatus for directionally applying high pressure jets to well casing or liners to clean openings in the casing, liner and the adjacent geologic formation which are plugged with foreign matter. High velocity jets of liquid having a velocity in excess of 700 feet per second are jetted from jet orifices having a 1/16th to 1/4th inch diameter and having a standoff distance between 5 and 100 diameters of the orifice from the openings to remove substantially all plugging material from the openings. Power swivels permit rotation and Kelly hoses allow reciprocation of the jet tool and tubing string while maintaining high pressure in the apparatus.
Abstract: A method for analyzing seismic shear wave data, using a layer stripping technique, to determine fault plane stress build-up is disclosed. Polarization directions of shear wave data, from either a vertical seismic profile or from surface reflection data, are analyzed, and time lags between fast and slow split shear wave are determined. Natural polarization directions of and time lags between the split shear waves in an upper layer are determined above the shallowest depth where data cues suggest polarization changes take place. Source and receiver axes of the data below the depth of polarization changes are rotated by an azimuth angle, to bring the axes into proper alignment. A static time shift is then applied to eliminate the time lag in the upper layer above the depth where polarization changes were indicated. Shear wave polarization azimuth angles, and time lags between the shear waves are determined for the depth of investigation, and are compared to the strike of a nearby fault.
Abstract: A method for analyzing seismic shear wave data, using a layer stripping technique, to predict subsurface stress regimes is disclosed. Polarization directions of shear wave data, from either a vertical seismic profile or from surface reflection data, are analyzed, and time lags between fast and slow split shear wave are determined. Natural polarization directions of and time lags between the split shear waves in an upper layer are determined above the shallowest depth where data cues suggest polarization changes take place. Source and receiver axes of the data below the depth of polarization changes are rotated by an azimuth angle, to bring the axes into proper aligment. A static time shift is then applied to eliminate the time lag in the upper layer above the depth where polarization changes were indicated.
Abstract: A method for digitizing seismic traces comprising optically digitizing the seismic sections to produce a digitized image, normalizing the digitized image for brightness to produce a normalized digitized image, geometrically straightening the digitized image, and recovering the negative portions of said seismic traces to produce a fully restored wave form of the digitized image.
Abstract: A method of determining relative liquid and vapor phase steam profiles in a steam injection well utilizes an unstable radioactive isotope. A dual detector gamma ray logging tool is inserted into the well at a depth below the perforation zone. The unstable radioactive isotope is then injected into the steam flow, and it naturally hydrolyzes from a vapor phase into a liquid phase at a known rate, so that at a given time after injection, the relative proportions of the vapor phase and the liquid phase can be determined. The transmit times of the vapor and liquid phases to pass between the gamma ray detectors is measured and the above steps are then repeated at a second location. The amount of fluid entering a formation between the first and second locations can then be determined.
Abstract: An improved method to determine the quality of a material disposed in an annular space behind a casing (or a liner) in a wellbore. A transit time of a sound wave to travel through a specimen of the material is determined, and a pulse velocity is calculated. The slurry density and mixing rate of the material are determined at a wellsite, and the slurry volume can then be calculated by multiplying the amount of time that the slurry remains at the slurry density by the mixing rate. The slurry has a theoretical acoustical impedance that is equal to the slurry density multiplied by the pulse velocity. The true annular displacement volume and a theoretical acoustical impedance map, an attenuation rate map, and a voltage map are than drawn. After running an acoustical log, a calculated acoustical impedance is derived, and is compared to the theoretical acoustical impedance to detertmine the quality of the material.
Abstract: The present invention is comprised of a non-intrusive microwave sensor system for measuring fluid saturation or multiple fluids contained within a flowline or a fluid saturated porous medium. Here, the microwave oil saturation scanner (MOSS) comprises a transmit portion and a measurement portion. The transmit portion generates two signals for different purposes. The first signal is used as a reference signal upon which the sample signal is eventually compared. The second signal is transmitted through the sample which causes a phase angle shift and signal attenuation. The two signals are then compared in the measurement portion where the phase angle shift and the signal attenuation is related to the concentration of oil and water in the sample mixture.