Abstract: The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces.
Abstract: This invention relates to improvements in substrates containing alumina and a Group IV-B oxide and in producing the same and in processes of producing hydrodesulfurizing catalysts based on Group VIII and Group VI in the catalysts employing such substrates, and hydrodesulfurizing process employing the same.
Abstract: This invention relates to the production of a cracking catalyst derived from hydrothermal treatment of an ammoniated silica-alumina gel, the alumina component of which is formulated from a mixture of anionic and cationic aluminum containing salts.
Abstract: This invention relates to a process for production of catalyst substrates and catalysts of calibrated pore size distribution by incorporation in and removal of particles of determined particle size from substrate or catalyst formulations.
Abstract: The invention relates to the application of coolant onto the surface of an electromagnetic D.C. cast ingot or billet where two coolant streams are directed to the solidified or partially solidified metal so that the two streams intersect a short distance away from the metal surface. By controlling the velocity and/or volume of one or both coolant streams, the point of impact on the metal surface can be brought closer to the discharge end of the inductor and thereby increase cooling rates. In this manner the excursions of molten metal which form the icicle-like appendages on EM cast ingot or billet can be effectively eliminated. When the end of the ingot or billet passes the area of coolant impact and the risk of such excursions is slight, the point of coolant impact can be lowered to a more conventional level for the remainder of the cast.
Abstract: The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB.sub.2, for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints.
Abstract: A zeolite containing catalyst which is associated with finely dispersed metal is formed by decomposing a compound, whose anion contains a metal and a (CN) radical, which has been deposited on the host catalyst.
Abstract: A one-piece metal wheel, preferably of aluminum, for example a wheel suitable for use on automotive and truck vehicles, is formed by (1) extruding a straight section comprising a first portion in the configuration of the wheel rim and an integral straight web portion, (2) cutting this extrusion to the appropriate length and forming it into a circular shape, (3) joining, for example by pressure welding the ends of the extrusion to form a continuous loop, and (4) deforming the web portion of the extrusion to form the center or disc of the wheel.
Abstract: A taphole assembly comprises three refractory pieces: (1) a monolithic central block with a hole for the passage of molten metal and (2) upper and lower wedge supports for the central block. The purpose of the assembly is to position the taphole between parallel layers of lining brick with the metal conducting hole at an angle to the lining brick surfaces. The assembly is installed by supporting the central block on a counterweighted bar in position in the furnace, and constructing the furnace lining around the assembly.
Abstract: A precipitation system is provided for the production of strong, coarse alumina hydrate (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.3H.sub.2 O) from Bayer process aluminate liquors. In the system three distinct, but interconnected processing stages are utilized which comprise an agglomeration stage, a growth stage and a seed generation stage. In the agglomeration stage hydrate particles agglomerate to form coarse particles; in the growth stage these particles grow and acquire strength; while in the seed generation stage alumina hydrate seed is generated to be used in the agglomeration and growth stages.The precipitation system combines the advantages of both the American and European Bayer processes in that it results in the production of a strong, coarse product hydrate and an increased yield.
Abstract: A refractory gun mix contains from 1 to 5% alkali metal phosphate, for example monosodium phosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, or a long chain glassy polyphosphate, from 0.5 to 5% hydrated aluminum sulfate (e.g., Al.sub.2 (SO.sub.4).sub.3.14H.sub.2 O), from 0.5 to 5% bentonite, and up to 10% pitch, preferably hard pitch, the balance being sized refractory grain, preferably MgO-containing and/or CaO-containing grain such as periclase, chrome ore, and/or dolomite. In a preferred embodiment, the alkali metal phosphate contributes three atoms of phosphorous for each atom of aluminum contributed by the aluminum sulfate.
Abstract: Cement waste product (CWP), such as recovered from kilns utilized in cement production, is used for scrubbing of sulfur oxide-containing industrial offgases. The CWP is preconditioned with liquid water prior to employing it as a scrubbing medium. Preconditioning involves addition of sufficient water to the essentially anhydrous CWP to achieve essentially total rehydration of the rehydratable calcium compounds contained in the CWP, for example, aluminates, oxide and sulfates. The preconditioned CWP is dried and used as a highly efficient scrubbing medium for sulfur oxides.
Abstract: An article handling system for cans and the like, wherein improved means are employed for selectively isolating individual cans from a substantially continuously recirculating mass or plurality of cans and for, therafter, transferring the isolated cans in single file fashion away from said recirculating mass of cans to a discharge station located somewhat remote from the recirculating mass of cans in such a fashion as to avoid adverse interference with the normal movements of the recirculating mass of cans. The single file movement of the isolated cans is then continued as the isolated cans are individually transferred from the discharge station to a further location.
January 7, 1980
Date of Patent:
February 24, 1981
Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation
Ludwig Beck, Huibertus A. Beekes, Rodger E. Cole
Abstract: A refractory gun mix of improved properties, particularly low rebound, wide water range, and good adherence when gunned onto hot surfaces, used a bonding system of from 1 to 5% sodium silicate, 0.3 to 3% gypsum, and 0 to 5% bentonite, the percentages being based on the total weight of the composition. The gun mix may contain other materials, for example pulverized pitch.
Abstract: The invention relates to a D.C. casting assembly having an inflatable, rubber-like collar near the discharge end of the mold for removing coolant from the surface of the solidified metal. The collar, which surrounds the metal exiting from the mold is initially deflated to allow the large butt of the ingot or billet to pass through without contact and then inflated to effect contact with the ingot or billet and thereby remove coolant.
Abstract: Sodium borate, preferably a hydrated sodium borate and most preferably borax (the decahydrate), is added to a graphitic refractory composition suitable for forming a refractory monolith, for example a plastic or a ramming mix, in order to reduce the loss of plasticity of the mix during storage, to inhibit fungi formation in the mix during storage, and to improve the intermediate temperature strength of the composition.
Abstract: Repair of furnace structures, particularly hot furnace structures, can be achieved by gunning with less dusting and rebound and higher cohesiveness, adherence, and strength in the gunned refractory when the refractory comprises an admixture of aluminosilica aggregate, plastic clay, graphite and, as binder, a liquid sodium silicate solution.
Abstract: A magnesium hydroxide of low lime and boron content is produced from a brine containing magnesium chloride and over 1 ppm boron (on a B.sub.2 O.sub.3 basis) by treating it to reduce its CO.sub.2 content to less than 15 ppm and reacting it with an excess of active lime in a first reaction stage, decanting the spent brine from the precipitated high lime magnesium hydroxide, and then reacting the high lime magnesium hydroxide with additional brine in a second reaction stage to produce a magnesium hydroxide containing less than 1% CaO and less than 0.1% B.sub.2 O.sub.3 on the ignited basis. A portion of the high lime magnesium hydroxide from the first reaction stage is recycled to that stage as seed. Before being discarded, the spent brine from the first reaction stage may be reacted with treated brine to precipitate magnesium hydroxide of relatively high CaO and B.sub.2 O.sub.3 content.