Abstract: A computer-aided-educational method and system that consider a student's concentration level when teaching the student. The system monitors automatically more than once the student's concentration-sensitive behavior while the student is working on the study materials. Through monitoring the student's volitional or involuntary behavior, the system provides an indication on the student's concentration level. Based on the indication, the system could react accordingly. Reactions include, for example, providing rewards, punishments, and stimulation, or changing the study materials. The system can also react by asking the student a question to stimulate the student or to assess the student's understanding level. Based on the student's response, the system may change to more appropriate study materials, or presentation style.
Abstract: A method and a system to teach a user a subject based on his questions. The system allows the user to control his learning process, and helps to fill in gaps of misunderstanding in the subject. In one embodiment, the system, including a database, presents study materials on the subject to the user. After working on the presented materials, the user enters his question into the system, which generates an answer to the question, and presents it to him. Then the system compares the question with one or more questions previously entered by the user to determine his understanding level in the subject. Based on the determination, the system may present to the user appropriate study materials. The user typically asks more than one question, and the process of answering his question by the system repeats.
Abstract: An educational method and system that assess and enhance a student's understanding in a subject. Based on the student's understanding, individually-tailored tests are generated, whose difficulties are geared towards the student's level of understanding in the subject. Thus, the student not only can use the tests to prepare for an examination, but can also use the tests to learn the subject. The system includes a score generator coupled to a recommendation generator. In one preferred embodiment, the recommendation generator includes an inference engine, and in another preferred embodiment, the recommendation generator includes a pre-requisite analyzer. Both the pre-requisite analyzer and the inference engine in the recommendation generator can generate recommendations based on the student's test results. The recommendation generator is coupled to a report generator and a question generator. The report generator accesses a report format.
Abstract: A database-processing method and system for answering a natural-language question by a computer system with a database. In one embodiment, the system analyzes the grammatical structure of the question. In the analysis, the system scans the question to extract each word in the question; then based on a pre-defined context-free grammatical structure, the question is parsed into its grammatical components using one or more grammatically rules and the database. After parsing the question, the system transforms the components into one or more instructions, using one or more semantic rules and the database. The instructions, when executed, at least access data from the database for generating the answer to the natural-language question. In another embodiment, the system compares the natural-language question with questions stored in the database; each question in the database has its corresponding answer.
Abstract: A system and method to provide dynamic reviews for individual students. In one embodiment for a student, the system selects an un-learnt line-item, and generates detailed learning materials for the un-learnt line-item. Then the system selects a learnt line-item based on one or more learnt-line-item-selection rules, and generates summarized-learning materials on the selected learnt line-item for the student to review. The summarized-learning materials include study-plans. The detailed learning materials may include questions, in addition to study-plans. For an un-learnt line-item, after presenting the generated learning materials to the student, the present invention assesses the student's understanding in the line-item. If the assessment is satisfactory, the un-learnt line-item is re-classified as a learnt line-item. In another embodiment, the present invention accesses a line-item probability value, which is used to select a line-item.
Abstract: A Method and System to teach a user a subject based on his questions. The system allows the user to control his learning process, and helps to fill in gaps of misunderstanding in the subject. In one embodiment, the system, including a database, presents study materials on the subject to the user. After working on the presented materials, the user enters his question into the system, which generates an answer to the question, and presents it to him. Then the system compares the question with one or more questions previously entered by the user to determine his understanding level in the subject. Based on the determination, the system may present to the user appropriate study materials. The user typically asks more than one question, and the process of answering his question by the system repeats.
Abstract: Method and system to help a student to focus on study materials on a computer by restricting the student from enjoying entertainment materials on the computer. The study materials are presented through a study program, and the entertainment materials are presented through an entertainment program. The entertainment program needs a device to entertain. The device can be a speaker or a position-pointing device, such as a mouse. The computer includes an access filter, which separates the programs from the device. The access filter can be modified to restrict coupling between the device and the entertainment program, but simultaneously allow coupling between the device and the study program. The restriction in the access filter can be removed under a predetermined condition, such as the amount of time the student has been working on the study materials, the student's performance in the study materials, and the time of day.
Abstract: A computer-aided-educational system and method for rewarding a student when the student attains a milestone in a subject. The subject is divided into line-items with at least one line-item being more difficult than another line-item. In one embodiment, the system includes a milestone setter, a performance analyzer, a reward determinator and a reward generator. The milestone setter sets a number of milestones, with each milestone being related to a line-item, and with an instructor providing inputs to the milestone setter to set each line-item that has a milestone to be reached. The performance analyzer coupled to the milestone setter determines whether the student has reached a milestone. The reward determinator coupled to the performance analyzer determines a reward for the student if the performance analyzer indicates that the student has reached a milestone. The reward generator, coupled to the reward determinator, generates the reward for the student.
Abstract: A computer-aided-educational system and method to further a student's understanding in a subject through associating the subject's different areas that the student has learnt. The subject is divided into line-items and relationship-items, with each relationship-item relating two or more items. The items are separated into learnt and un-learnt elements. The invention includes the steps of (1) selecting an un-learnt element; (2) generating learning materials for the student to learn the selected element; and (3) assessing the student's learning progress in the selected element. If the assessment on the selected element is satisfactory, then the invention (1) classifies one or more relationship-items to be learnt as un-learnt elements, with each classified relationship-item relating the selected element with one or more learnt elements; and (2) re-classifies the selected element as a learnt-element. Then the invention repeats from the step of selecting an un-learnt element.
Abstract: Providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure.
Abstract: Selecting different sectors in a storage medium using switches on the storage medium, instead of programming the instrument reading the storage medium. Each switch has a switching material. The switching material can be located at more than one interchangeable position. The position determines the priority of its corresponding sector as compared to other sectors. The location of the switching material is determined electronically. Switching materials suitable for the present invention include a reflective material, an opaque material, a reflective concave material, a convex lens, a prism, a set of lines, a magnetic material and a flexible reflective membrane.
Abstract: A method of magnifying a digital image based on an edge map. The image has many original pixels, with each pixel having a level, and the locations of the pixels having a resolution. The method to magnify the image includes the steps of producing an edge map with many boundaries from the digital image, projecting the edge map onto the digital image, generating one or more additional pixels in locations among the original pixels by manipulating the levels of one or more original pixels without crossing any boundaries set by the edge map, and expanding the distances between the pixels so that the resolution of the locations of the pixels becomes the same as the original pixels. In another preferred embodiment, the original digital image is enlarged to the size of the magnified image by extending proportionally the locations of the original pixels. Then the edge map is produced and projected onto the enlarged image to generate additional pixels.
Abstract: A field compositor, with a regular and systematic structure, that merges fields of data together to compose new data words. Starting from a basic cell, the field compositor merges longer words by connecting more of the basic cells together in a systematic and orderly fashion. The cells are connected in a regular structure so that routing data through the compositor can be done in a similarly regular manner. The basic cell of a one-dimensional regular array has three control inputs to control two outputs, one being a data output; depending on the logic levels presented to the three inputs, data from the first or the second set of data are selected to be the data output of the cell. The basic cell of a two-dimension regular array has five control inputs and two outputs, one being a data output; depending on the logic levels of the five control inputs, data from the first or the second set of data are selected to be the data output of the cell.
Abstract: A field emission microelectronic device based on field emitter structures and fabrication processes. In one embodiment, the microelectronic device includes an electron source, a collector adjacent to the source, and an isolator. The source and the collector are both coupled to a substrate. At appropriate voltages on the source and the collector, electrons are emitted from the emitter out of the substrate into the collector per unit time, creating a current. The isolator is at an isolator voltage to create an electrostatic enclosure to substantially confine the electrons in the vicinity of the electron source and the collector. The microelectronic device is substantially electrostatically shielded and may be used as a current controller in a flat panel displays.
Abstract: A compiler-linker software system translates a source code file into a machine executable code file. The compiler converts source code files to corresponding object code files. The linker converts the object code files to machine executable code files and tables required for execution. For each procedure, the linker derives one or more tables and one of the tables is a line number table. The line number table identifies the offset of a block of machine executable codes in the procedure with their corresponding source code line number. The construction of the line number table at link-time, not at compile-time, enables all changes to the sequences of machine executable codes and addresses to be accommodated without requiring supplemental processing of the line number table.
August 17, 1992
Date of Patent:
August 16, 1994
Richard R. Rupp, Gary A. Coutant, Joseph A. Coha
Abstract: A novel waveform synthesizer that generates a select output waveform, through simulating the multiplication of the components of the output waveform, is disclosed. One embodiment of this synthesizer is based on the following equation:Sin(Sin.sup.-1 V+Cos.sup.-1 U)+Sin(Sin.sup.-1 V-Cos.sup.-1 U)=2*U*V.The components U, V of the select output waveform are generated in parallel by at least three different ways. They can be fed in externally or they can be read from pre-stored waveforms in Read-Only-Memories or they can be the outputs of phase accumulators. The components or their trigonometrically transformed versions are then added together or subtracted from each other to generate intermediate waveforms. These intermediate waveforms or their trigonometrically transformed versions are then added together to generate the selected output waveform. Therefore the product of any two waveforms can be generated without the need of multiplying them together.
Abstract: A reference voltage source which provides a plurality of reference voltages with equal step size between voltages despite loads connected to the reference voltage source. The reference voltage source is composed of a plurality of slave resistors connected in series to produce a plurality of output nodes and a plurality of master resistors connected in series to produce a plurality of compensation nodes. Each compensation node corresponds with one of the output nodes. A compensation resistor connects between a compensation node and the corresponding output node. A current flows through the slave resistors to generate a reference voltage at each output node.
Abstract: A method for encapsulation of an integrated circuit array that suppresses or eliminates absorption and subsequent out-gassing of water vapor and suppresses or eliminates out-gassing of toxic constituents of the encapsulation layer such as trimethyl borate. A first layer of borophosphosilicate glass is deposited on the integrated circuit array, followed immediately by deposit of a thin cap layer of undoped oxide of silicon. The method also allows use of boron and phosphorous concentrations in the borophosphosilicate glass as high as 9 weight percent with no loss of stability of that layer, before or after thermal treatment. Reflow processing temperatures as low as T.sub.r =700.degree.-900.degree. C. may be used here. Alternatively, silicon nitride can replace the silicon oxide in the cap layer, using either a high temperature process or a lower temperature plasma-enhanced process.