Abstract: To produce a composite building unit having a polymer-cladded surface, a polymerizable resin binder and a blend of filler particles are combined to provide a resin binder/filler mixture which is deposited in a mold. A concrete substrate is then positioned in the mold with a face surface contacting a transition layer comprising a lightly filled resin binder/filler layer portion of the deposited mixture overlying a highly filled resin binder/filler layer portion of the deposited mixture. The resin binder in the transition layer migrates into pockets and pores in the substrate face surface to create mechanical locks when the resin binder is cured. These locks, in addition to chemical bonding, serve to permanently affix the cured resin binder as a surface cladding to the substrate. Initiators may be added to the resin binder to promote thermal and/or UV radiation cures thereof.
Abstract: Composites useful in building structures such as floor tiles, are prepared having a very strong bond between a highly filled polymeric surface layer and a cementitious backing. The composite comprises: a first layer of solid particles intimately mixed with a polymeric binder; a second layer of an organic and/or inorganic solid; and a transitional layer located between the first and second layers comprising both the polymeric binder and the organic and/or inorganic solids wherein the polymeric binder is contained in pockets within the organic and/or inorganic solid and at least some of the pockets of the polymeric binder extend from the first layer.
Abstract: A hydromechanical transmission receives split power inputs from a vehicle engine, one split input driving a hydrostatic power unit and the other split input driving a mechanical power input. The infinitely variable hydrostatic power output is combined in the mechanical power unit with multiple ratios of its split input power to achieve multiple ratios of hydromechanical output power for smoothly propelling a vehicle from rest through multiple transmission ranges to maximum speed, with synchronous shifting between ranges.
Abstract: A continuously variable hydrostatic transmission includes an input shaft connected to drive a hydraulic pump unit, a grounded hydraulic motor unit, and an output shaft. A wedge-shaped swashplate is pivotally mounted to the output shaft in driving connection to receive output torque resulting from the exchange of pressurized hydraulic fluid between the pump and motor units through ports in the swashplate. A hydraulically actuated ratio controller is pivotally linked to the swashplate to selectively adjust the swashplate angle relative to the output shaft axis and thereby change transmission ratio.
Abstract: To resist mechanical forces tending to unseat a fluid valve applied to seal against a high fluid pressure, a fluid valve assembly is equipped with a valve block that, in response to the high fluid pressure, causes a locking member to be forcibly wedged into clamping engagement with the stem of a valve, thereby securing the valve in its closed, seated position. When the high fluid pressure is relieved, the valve stem is unclamped, and the valve can then be readily lifted to an open position.
Abstract: A continuously variable hydrostatic transmission includes axially aligned input and output shafts journaled by a transmission housing and respectively coupled to a prime mover and a load. The input shaft drives a hydraulic pump unit, while a hydraulic motor unit is grounded to the transmission housing. A wedge-shaped swashplate is pivotally connected to the output shaft in operative position to accommodate pressurized hydraulic fluid exchanges between the pump and motor units. A controller is coupled to adjust the angular orientation of the swashplate relative to the output shaft axis and thus set the transmission ratio. A hydraulic circuit, connected into the hydraulic motor unit, is selectively operable to vent high and low fluid pressure sides of the swashplate to atmosphere, thus imposing a neutral transmission ratio condition regardless of the transmission ratio set by the controller.
October 16, 1995
Date of Patent:
July 1, 1997
Martin Marietta Corporation
Robert Francis Larkin, Donald Mark Purcell
Abstract: To achieve programmed inflation of an airbag in a vehicle occupant restraint apparatus, movement of a piston, that separates a combustion chamber from a liquid propellant reservoir, is utilized to vary the opening size of an injection port through which liquid propellant is regeneratively pumped from the reservoir into the combustion chamber for combustion, such that the rate at which the bag inflation gas is generated during an inflation period may be controlled.
June 5, 1996
Date of Patent:
June 17, 1997
Lockheed Martin Corporation
John Mandzy, Steven Joseph Brown, Neale Arthur Messina, Larry Stefan Ingram
Abstract: A booster stage is positioned down-bore from the breech of a gun to contain a charge of liquid propellant that is ignited by the combustion gases of a detonated breech propellant charge trailing the projectile down the gun bore. The detonated liquid propellant increases the bore gas pressure and thus accelerates the projectile to a higher muzzle velocity.
Abstract: An ammunition round reorienter is equipped with a gear train having parallel drive paths connecting a common motor to concurrently rotate a platform about a vertical axis and to pivot a tray about a horizontal axis, such that an ammunition round carried by the tray is reoriented both in azimuth and elevation as it is translated between receiving and handoff orientations.
Abstract: A compact ammunition magazine of high storage density contains an endless ammunition conveyor running in a serpentine path. The conveyor includes a succession of units consisting of a pair of rigidly connected tubes that receive ammunition rounds in snug-fitting relation. The tube units are pivotally interconnected by links of a single conveyor chain that is driven by plural drive sprockets to index the tubes to a single magazine port through which uploading/downloading of ammunition rounds is conducted. Guide rollers, fitted on the tubes at positions laterally spaced from the conveyor chain, roll on horizontal tracks within the magazine to provide conveyor support and guidance.
Abstract: To provide pressure relief in a fluid line of a fluidic circuit, the ball element of a shutoff valve incorporates a tube that is aligned with a pair of valve ports when the ball is in the closed valve position. A miniature check valve, positioned in the tube, operates, depending on its orientation, to check fluid flow through the tube between the valve ports in one direction and to vent fluid through the tube in the opposite direction in response to excessive fluid pressure. In an alternative embodiment, a pair of tubes are incorporated into the ball valve element, with the check valves therein oriented in opposed directions to provide bidirectional pressure relief between the valve ports.
Abstract: A suppressor assembly includes a suppressor that is mounted by rails slidingly received by the barrel clamp of a multi-barreled rotary machine gun to accommodate movement of the suppressor between a latched, operative position projecting beyond the barrel muzzles, effective to suppress blast pressure and flash incident to gun firing, and a latched, stowed position restoring the gun to its normal barrel length.
Abstract: A continuously variable transmission includes a pump driven by an input shaft against a wedge-shaped swashplate. Hydraulic fluid pressurized in the pump flows through ports in a pump cylinder block into kidney-shaped slots in the swashplate, and from there flows into and pressurizes a series of cylinders in a motor cylinder block. The pump and motor exert first and second components of torque on the swashplate in the rotational direction on the input shaft, and the hydraulic system pressure in the swashplate slots exerts a third component of torque in the same direction on the swashplate. The third torque component is a product of the hydraulic system pressure and the differential area of the two ends of the high pressure slot at the narrow and thick sides of the wedge-shaped swashplate. The swashplate drives an output shaft through a pin connection intersecting the centerline of the output shaft where it passes through a central opening in the swashplate.
Abstract: A double-acting hydraulic cylinder is controlled by a pair of three-way solenoid valves respectively fluid connected to the two ends of the cylinder and energized in parallel with a continuous stream of pulse width modulated (PWM) pulses to create a mean effective fluid pressure balance at the cylinder ends that hold a desired position of a connected load and mean effective fluid pressure imbalances in the cylinder ends that produce variable rate load movement in either of two directions to a desired new position, all determined by the pulse duty cycle.
Abstract: A superconducting single phase alternator is connected by a circuit breaker across the breech ends of a pair of conductive launching rails. At a predetermined point on the alternator voltage wave a projectile establishes a current path between the rails to initiate a transient, sinusoidal current pulse effective in accelerating the projectile along the rails. A switch is actuated in response to the projectile exiting the muzzle ends of the rails to impose a short circuit across the rails. The circuit breaker disconnects the alternator from the rails as the current pulse goes to zero. The system provides higher launcher efficiency and reduced muzzle flash with minimum barrel length penalty.
Abstract: A controller for changing the ratio of a continuously variable hydrostatic transmission, as determined by the angular position of a swashplate, including an actuator having a cylinder slidingly receiving a piston to define a pair of chambers. A pair of solenoid valves, each configured to connect a respective chamber selectively to sump pump pressure or atmospheric pressure, are energized with a stream of pulses to create differential fluid pressures in the chambers, thereby producing movement of the piston; the piston movement being linked to the swashplate to produce a corresponding adjustment of the swashplate angular position. The rate of change of the swashplate angular position is controlled by pulse width modulating the pulse stream.
Abstract: A continuously variable hydrostatic transmission includes an input shaft connected to drive a hydraulic pump unit, a grounded hydraulic motor unit, and an output shaft. A wedge-shaped swashplate is pivotally mounted to the output shaft in driving connection to receive output torque resulting from the exchange of pressurized hydraulic fluid between the pump and motor units through slots in the swashplate. A hydraulically actuated ratio controller shifts the axial positions of spherical bearings mounting a pump portplate in the hydraulic pump unit and a motor portplate in the hydraulic motor unit to adjust the swashplate angle relative to the output shaft axis and thereby change transmission ratio.
Abstract: A hydrostatic transmission includes wedge-shaped swashplate operatively positioned between a hydraulic pump unit driven by an input shaft and a grounded hydraulic motor unit to accommodate pumped exchanges of hydraulic fluid between the units. The swashplate, drivingly coupled to an output shaft, is angularly adjustable about a pivot axis oriented in intersecting, orthogonal relation to the output shaft axis to infinitely variable transmission ratios. Pilot bearings, mounted by the swashplate, support cylinder blocks of the hydraulic pump and motor units for nutating motions centered on the swashplate pivot axis to minimize the resultant moment on the swashplate. Piston rods in the hydraulic pump and motor units are oriented in outwardly flared, acute angles to the output shaft axis to expand the range of permissible angular adjustment of the swashplate by a ratio controller.
Abstract: To control the transmission ratio of a continuously variable hydrostatic transmission including an input shaft, an output shaft, an pump unit driven by the input shaft, a grounded motor unit, and an a wedge-shaped swashplate drivingly and pivotally connected to the output shaft in hydraulic fluid-communicating position between the pump and motor units, a ratio controller is provided having a hydraulically actuated piston incorporated internally of the output shaft. A pilot valve, also incorporated internally of the output shaft, operates to create differential fluid pressures at opposite end faces of the piston, forcing axial motion of the piston and ratio-changing pivotal movement of the swashplate linked to the piston.
Abstract: A continuously variable hydrostatic transmission includes an input shaft connected to drive a hydraulic pump unit, a grounded hydraulic motor unit, and an output shaft. A wedge-shaped swashplate is pivotally mounted to the output shaft in driving connection to receive output torque resulting from the exchange of pressurized hydraulic fluid between the pump and motor units through specially configured ports in the swashplate. A hydraulically actuated ratio controller is pivotally linked to the swashplate to selectively adjust the swashplate angle relative to the output shaft axis and thereby change transmission ratio.