Abstract: A method and apparatus for removal of volatile contaminants from substrate surfaces before the substrate enters a process chamber. Substrate cleaning is achieved by irradiating the substrate with a low-energy electron beam. The interaction of the electrons in the beam with the contaminants present on the surface of the substrate causes evaporation of low vapor pressure species which can be deposited on the surface. A cryoshield pumps the evaporated species. After evaporation and pumping, the substrate passes through a glow discharge chamber wherein the negative surface charge created by the electron beam is neutralized using positive ions. The inventive apparatus can be configured so that no separate vacuum chamber is needed to prepare the substrate.
Abstract: A discharge lamp comprises an arc tube 6 made of a translucent ceramic dosed with a metallic halide. The discharge is conducted between electrodes 20 disposed in the arc tube 6. The arc tube 6 comprises a main tube body 11 having a large diameter portion 11A and a small diameter portion 11C, and a narrow tube 12 airtightly fixed to the small diameter portion 11C while penetrating the small diameter portion 11C. In the discharge lamp, supposing that L (mm) is the length of a protrusion from the main tube body of the narrow tube portion 12 and P (W) is the rated power of the discharge lamp, L and P satisfy the relationship (P+268.75)/31.25≦L≦(P+456.25)/31.25 and 200≦P≦450.
Abstract: The present invention provides a pole change induction motor that can obtain an arbitrary ratio between the numbers of poles and that can select an arbitrary number of turns to thereby obtain a very wide operating range and stabilize an operation when the number of poles is changed. This pole change induction motor comprises a rotor having a squirrel-cage winding, a stator having at least a set of a 2n-pole first winding and a 2m-pole second winding wound around the same stator core, a first inverter connected to the first winding, and a second inverter connected to the second winding.
Abstract: A polymeric fluorescent substance exhibiting fluorescence in solid state and having a polystyrene-reduced number-average molecular weight of 103 to 108 wherein the polymeric fluorescent substance contains one or more of segments represented by the following formula (1) and one or more of repeating units represented by the following formula (2):
The polymeric fluorescent substance exhibits particularly strong fluorescence, and a high performance polymer LED which can be driven at low voltage and high efficiency is obtained.
Abstract: A laser beam having a high power and preferable quality is obtained by a laser using a laser medium having a wide active region or a large mode volume. The laser includes a laser source, first and second resonator mirrors as a laser resonator optical system, an array illuminator optical system which is placed within the resonator optical system and places, at even spacing in a plane perpendicular to an optical axis of the resonator, complex amplitude distributions including only a fundamental transverse mode in a uniform phase similar to a fundamental transverse mode component of a laser beam emitted from the laser beam source. A higher-order mode component is diffracted in an angle larger than its diffraction angle and eliminated outside the resonator.
Abstract: There is disclosed an image forming method for mixing a plurality of recording liquids to produce a mixed liquid with a desired density and/or color and transporting the mixed liquid to an image receiving medium to form an image. The actual value of the mixture proportion of the mixed liquid is constantly monitored in the vicinity of the confluent point of the recording liquids (in the vicinity of the downstream side of the confluent point or on the upstream side), and is compared with the target value of the mixture proportion obtained based on the image signal. And the supply amount of each recording liquid is subjected to feedback control in such a manner that the detected actual value agrees with the target value. The mixture proportion is prevented from fluctuating by influences of a recording liquid temperature, an atmospheric pressure, and the like and an image quality is enhanced.