Abstract: The recovery of live ancient bacteria, fungi and other biological material from various sources fossilized in amber or related resins is described. Several ancient bacterial strains have been classified as related to various species of the modern genus Bacillus, for example, based upon their morphological and biochemical characteristics, and enzymatic activity profiles. Although some of the characteristics of the ancient microorganisms correlate well with their modern counterparts, several differences have been observed. In addition, several of the ancient microorganisms described herein exhibit potent antimicrobial activities against modern bacterial and fungal pathogens which attack animals and plants. Various uses for these ancient microorganisms are envisioned, including their use in agriculture, industrial processes, bioremediation, diagnostic and disease treatment.