Patents Assigned to American Science and Engineering, Inc.
  • Patent number: 10955367
    Abstract: Methods for characterizing living plants, wherein one or more beams of penetrating radiation such as x-rays are scanned across the plant under field conditions. Compton scatter is detected from the living plant and processed to derive characteristics of the living plant such as water content, root structure, branch structure, xylem size, fruit size, fruit shape, fruit aggregate volume, cluster size and shape, fruit maturity and an image of a part of the plant. Ground water content is measured using the same technique. Compton backscatter is used to guide a robotic gripper to grasp a portion of the plant such as for harvesting a fruit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2021
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Aaron Couture, Calvin Adams, Rafael Fonseca, Jeffrey Schubert, Richard Mastronardi
  • Patent number: 10830911
    Abstract: The present specification describes an X-ray detector that includes at least one scintillator screen for absorbing incident X rays and emitting corresponding light rays, a wavelength shifting sheet (WSS) coupled with the at least one scintillator screen for shifting the emitted light rays, at least one wavelength shifting fiber (WSF) coupled with at least one edge of the WSS for collecting the shifted light rays, and a photodetector for detecting the collected light rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2020
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Aaron J. Couture, Jeffrey M. Denker
  • Patent number: 10720300
    Abstract: A two-dimensional X-ray scanner that includes a beam steerer for steering an electron beam to impinge upon a target; and a collimator further including an aperture adapted for travel in an aperture travel path for rotating the X-ray beam plane spanned by the electron beam impinging upon the target along a focal track for emitting a scanning X-ray beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Martin Rommel, Jeffrey R. Schubert
  • Patent number: 10712293
    Abstract: Methods for characterizing living plants, wherein one or more beams of penetrating radiation such as x-rays are scanned across the plant under field conditions. Compton scatter is detected from the living plant and processed to derive characteristics of the living plant such as water content, root structure, branch structure, xylem size, fruit size, fruit shape, fruit aggregate volume, cluster size and shape, fruit maturity and an image of a part of the plant. Ground water content is measured using the same technique. Compton backscatter is used to guide a robotic gripper to grasp a portion of the plant such as for harvesting a fruit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Aaron Couture, Calvin Adams, Rafael Fonseca, Jeffrey Schubert, Richard Mastronardi
  • Patent number: 10670740
    Abstract: The present specification provides a detector for an X-ray imaging system. The detector includes at least one high resolution layer having high resolution wavelength-shifting optical fibers, each fiber occupying a distinct region of the detector, at least one low resolution layer with low resolution regions, and a single segmented multi-channel photo-multiplier tube for coupling signals obtained from the high resolution fibers and the low resolution regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2019
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2020
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Aaron J. Couture, Jeffrey M. Denker
  • Patent number: 10656304
    Abstract: Methods and an x-ray source for sweeping an x-ray beam across an object of inspection. A beam of electrons is emitted by a cathode, while a sweep controller applies a signal to a beam controller in a prescribed path on an anode, thereby causing an x-ray beam to be emitted from an aperture disposed at one apex of a snout of variable length. The aperture may be a Rommel aperture that allows for forming a scanning x-ray of desired size and flux independently of the angle at which the beam is emitted. Scanning rate may be varied during the course of a scan. Multiple x-ray beams may be formed simultaneously, where one beam is inside a conveyance while the other is outside the conveyance, for example.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2020
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Lee Grodzins, Dan-Cristian Dinca, Martin Rommel
  • Patent number: 10591629
    Abstract: A conveyance and methods for x-ray inspection of an object. The conveyance has a bed with attached wheels and detector elements disposed along a pontine structure coupled to the conveyance. A source of penetrating radiation is coupled to the conveyance and disposed so as to irradiate each of the detector elements from a single position. An automated manual transmission couples power from an engine to a set of the wheels of the conveyance, both for road travel and for x-ray inspection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2020
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Jason Toppan
  • Patent number: 10535491
    Abstract: Methods for maintaining a specified beam profile of an x-ray beam extracted from an x-ray target over a large range of extraction angles relative to the target. A beam of electrons is generated and directed toward a target at an angle of incidence with respect to the target, with the beam of electrons forming a focal spot corresponding to the cross-section of the electron beam. At least one of a size, shape, and orientation of the electron beam cross-section is dynamically varied as the extraction angle is varied, and the extracted x-ray beam is collimated. Dynamically varying the size, shape or orientation of the electron beam cross-section may be performed using focusing and stigmator coils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 14, 2020
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Martin Rommel, Louis P. Wainwright
  • Patent number: 10368428
    Abstract: Methods for generating a multiple-energy X-ray pulse. A beam of electrons is generated with an electron gun and modulated prior to injection into an accelerating structure to achieve at least a first and specified beam current amplitude over the course of respective beam current temporal profiles. A radio frequency field is applied to the accelerating structure with a specified RF field amplitude and a specified RF temporal profile. The first and second specified beam current amplitudes are injected serially, each after a specified delay, in such a manner as to achieve at least two distinct endpoint energies of electrons accelerated within the accelerating structure during a course of a single RF-pulse. The beam of electrons is accelerated by the radio frequency field within the accelerating structure to produce accelerated electrons which impinge upon a target for generating Bremsstrahlung X-rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2019
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Aleksandr Saverskiy
  • Patent number: 10228487
    Abstract: An X-ray cargo inspection system and method. A lead-in conveyor on a first trailer receives a cargo container for inspection. An inspection module disposed on a second trailer then scans the cargo container with penetrating radiation, detects penetrating radiation that has interacted with the cargo container, and produces an inspection signal. An exit conveyor disposed on a third trailer projects the cargo container following scanning. The inspection module may contain transmission or scatter detectors, or both. Multiple lead-in conveyors may serve to load additional cargo containers for subsequent scanning by the inspection module.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2019
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard Mastronardi
  • Patent number: 10209372
    Abstract: Methods for discriminating among x-ray beams of distinct energy content. A first volume of scintillation medium converts energy of incident penetrating radiation into scintillation light which is extracted from a scintillation light extraction region by a plurality of optical waveguides that convert the scintillation light to light of a longer wavelength. An x-ray beam initially incident upon the first volume of scintillation medium and traversing the first volume is then incident on a second volume of scintillation medium. The first and second scintillation media may be separated by an absorber or one or more further volumes of scintillation medium, and may also have differential spectral sensitivities. Scintillation light from the first and second scintillation volumes is detected in respective detectors and processed to yield a measure of respective low energy and high-energy components of the incident x-ray beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2019
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Anatoli Arodzero, Joseph Callerame, Dan-Cristian Dinca, Rajen Sud, Lee Grodzins, Martin Rommel, Peter Rothschild, Jeffrey Schubert, Aaron Couture, Jeffrey M. Denker, Jonathan Edward Everett
  • Patent number: 9867271
    Abstract: Methods for generating a multiple-energy X-ray pulse. A beam of electrons is generated with an electron gun and modulated prior to injection into an accelerating structure to achieve at least a first and specified beam current amplitude over the course of respective beam current temporal profiles. A radio frequency field is applied to the accelerating structure with a specified RF field amplitude and a specified RF temporal profile. The first and second specified beam current amplitudes are injected serially, each after a specified delay, in such a manner as to achieve at least two distinct endpoint energies of electrons accelerated within the accelerating structure during a course of a single RF-pulse. The beam of electrons is accelerated by the radio frequency field within the accelerating structure to produce accelerated electrons which impinge upon a target for generating Bremsstrahlung X-rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2018
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Aleksandr Saverskiy
  • Patent number: 9841386
    Abstract: Systems and methods for detecting clandestine fissile or radioactive material on the basis of emitted radiation and particles (such as neutrons and alpha particles) arising from within the material. Emission by the fissile or radioactive material is detected in conjunction with a conventional x-ray imaging system that includes an external source of illuminating penetrating radiation, at least one detector configured to detect at least the penetrating radiation and to generate a detector signal, and a processor configured as a detector signal discriminator to generate an output indicating whether the detector signal is triggered by an origin other than illuminating penetrating radiation. Active and passive modes of detection are described by some embodiments. Other embodiments are directed toward neutron detection, gamma ray detection with energy resolution, and designs of detectors to enhance the detection of clandestine nuclear material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2017
    Assignee: AMERICAN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, INC.
    Inventors: Lee Grodzins, Peter J. Rothschild, William L. Adams
  • Patent number: 9658343
    Abstract: Methods for discriminating among x-ray beams of distinct energy content. A first volume of scintillation medium converts energy of incident penetrating radiation into scintillation light which is extracted from a scintillation light extraction region by a plurality of optical waveguides that convert the scintillation light to light of a longer wavelength. An x-ray beam initially incident upon the first volume of scintillation medium and traversing the first volume is then incident on a second volume of scintillation medium. The first and second scintillation media may be separated by an absorber or one or more further volumes of scintillation medium, and may also have differential spectral sensitivities. Scintillation light from the first and second scintillation volumes is detected in respective detectors and processed to yield a measure of respective low energy and high-energy components of the incident x-ray beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Anatoli Arodzero, Joseph Callerame, Dan-Christian Dinca, Rajen Sud, Lee Grodzins, Martin Rommel, Peter Rothschild, Jeffrey Schubert
  • Publication number: 20170055338
    Abstract: Methods for generating a multiple-energy X-ray pulse. A beam of electrons is generated with an electron gun and modulated prior to injection into an accelerating structure to achieve at least a first and specified beam current amplitude over the course of respective beam current temporal profiles. A radio frequency field is applied to the accelerating structure with a specified RF field amplitude and a specified RF temporal profile. The first and second specified beam current amplitudes are injected serially, each after a specified delay, in such a manner as to achieve at least two distinct endpoint energies of electrons accelerated within the accelerating structure during a course of a single RF-pulse. The beam of electrons is accelerated by the radio frequency field within the accelerating structure to produce accelerated electrons which impinge upon a target for generating Bremsstrahlung X-rays.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 14, 2015
    Publication date: February 23, 2017
    Applicant: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Aleksandr Saverskiy
  • Patent number: 9541510
    Abstract: X-ray inspection of moving cargo based on acquiring multiple image lines at one time or substantially at one time. An X-ray source with multiple-beam electron beam targets creates multiple parallel X-ray fan beams. X-ray inspection systems and methods employ such multiple-beam sources for purposes of inspecting fast moving cargo.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2017
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Anatoli Arodzero, Martin Rommel
  • Patent number: 9535019
    Abstract: A method for imaging a target with an x-ray scatter apparatus. Air scatter from air intervening between the x-ray scatter apparatus and a target overwhelms x-ray scatter from the target in that x-ray scatter from a position on the target is no more than 10% of the x-ray scatter due to intervening air scatter that reaches at least one point in the detector plane of the x-ray scatter apparatus. The target is illuminated with a beam of x-rays scanned across the target, and x-rays scattered by the target are detected using a detector with a centroid displaced with respect to the beam axis by at least five feet. The detector signal is then processed to generate an image of the target. The beam of x-rays may be unshielded, and/or the detector may be uncollimated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2017
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Peter J. Rothschild
  • Patent number: 9466456
    Abstract: An x-ray tube for generating a sweeping x-ray beam. A cathode is disposed within a vacuum enclosure and emits a beam of electrons attracted toward a rotating anode. The rotating anode is adapted for rotation with respect to the vacuum enclosure about an axis of rotation. At least one collimator opening or aperture corotates with the rotating anode within the vacuum enclosure, such that a swept x-ray beam is emitted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2016
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Martin Rommel, Peter Rothschild
  • Patent number: 9417060
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for determining the distance to a specified point or distances between specified points on one or more objects, where the specified points are obscured behind an opaque barrier and cannot be viewed. Specified points are illuminated with penetrating radiation from two or more successive locations, and scattered radiation from the specified points is detected, and distance is calculated based on illumination angles. The apparatus has a source of penetrating radiation, a beam scanner for directing the penetrating radiation, a detector for detecting scattered radiation, and a processor for calculating the distance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Jeffrey R. Schubert
  • Patent number: 9291582
    Abstract: An adjustable collimator for shaping a beam of particles, such as for purposes of inspecting contents of a container. The adjustable collimator has an obscuring element substantially opaque to passage of the particles in a propagation direction that is radial with respect to the axis of rotation of a ring of apertures. A gap in the obscuring element may be characterized by a length taken along a long dimension and a jaw spacing taken along narrow dimension, and at least one of the length of the gap and the jaw spacing is subject to adjustment, either manual or automatic. The adjustable collimator may be disposed either inside or outside the ring of apertures, and, in some embodiments, the jaw spacing may be a function of distance along the long dimension relative to an edge of the gap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2016
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Lee Grodzins, Jeffrey R. Schubert, Omar Al-Kofahi, Peter J. Rothschild