Abstract: The present invention provides catheter apparatus and catheterization methodology for generating an arteriovenous fistula or a veno-venous fistula on-demand between closely associated blood vessels and at a chosen anatomic site in-vivo. The catheter apparatus is preferably employed in pairs, each catheter of the pair being suitable for percutaneous introduction into and extension through a blood vessel. The catheterization methodology employs the catheter apparatus preferably in conjunction with conventional radiological techniques in order to place, verify, and confirm a proper alignment, orientation, and positioning for the catheters in-vivo prior to activating the perforation means for generating a fistula.
Abstract: The present invention provides non-invasive methods for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in a living human subject. One method employs a non-invasive automated apparatus which can continuously monitor pupil diameter size over time; repetitively measure pupil diameter size over time for a pre-chosen duration ranging from about less than 1 second to about 5 minutes; and cumulatively record size information as it is obtained over time. A second method employs an apparatus which can repetitively measure pupil constriction velocity for a pre-chosen duration both before and after stimulation by visible light. Both methods require the administration of at least one neural transmitter mediator to a targeted eye of the living subject in an amount insufficient to cause marked changes in pupil diameter size over time in a person who is not afflicted with Alzheimer's disease.