Abstract: A technique has been devised to pace the heart, defibrillate the heart, or ventilate the lungs of a patient using extremely low electrical power. These techniques use an internal esophageal electrode as the basic common terminal with chest electrodes positioned to direct a particular current to a particular place depending on whether pacing, defibrillation or ventilation is to be accomplished. In accordance with the present invention a particular configuration of multiple ring electrodes has been devised to facilitate these techniques.
Abstract: When the heart is in ventricular fibrillation, the heart cells that stimulate the heart muscles produce rapid repetitive excitation without coordinated contraction of the ventricle. There is no effective simultaneous action to make the heart beat in a rhythmic fashion. A defibrillator delivers to the heart cells and muscles, enough voltage to override the erratic voltages in the heart (called repolarization) so they can rearrange themselves with order. The heart can then start over to deliver a regular rhythm.In accordance with the present invention, two small intimately located electrodes, one in the lower esophagus where it is intimate to the posterior section of the heart and the other small electrode on the chest over the sternum where it is close to the anterior portion of the heart, provide a precise electrical path between the two electrodes.
Abstract: The invention relates to apparatus for inducing humans to breathe and comprises a first internal electrode having a contact which is disposed in the lower portion of the esophagus, and second and third external electrodes which are placed over the left and right sides of the chest on the pectoral muscles in the area of the nipples above the rib cage. An electrical circuit is connected to the electrodes and imposes a pulsed charge between the internal and external electrodes which stimulates the muscles of the diaphragm causing the patient's lungs to expand, which is the same as taking a breath. The pulsed charges will be at the rate of approximately 10 to 18 pulses per minute. With a pulse rate of 12 per minute each pulse increases from zero to maximum in approximately two seconds, followed by a drop to zero with a dwell period of approximately three seconds. The pulse is limited to approximately 100 milliamperes and a selected variable voltage of up to 50 volts.