Abstract: A method and a circuit arrangement for driving a two co-ordinate mechanical oscillator with the aid of a deformed rotating field of forces defined by a plurality of exciting and pick-up components. The power dissipation of the employed circuits is kept at a low level by operating the oscillator near the mechanical resonance frequency. The exciting signals are achieved by comparing phase shifted electrical signals derived from the mechanical motion of the oscillator in a first pick-up component with the undisplaced signals of the second directional component and by supplying the difference signal obtained therefrom to the second exciting components of the oscillator. This is continued to the next adjacent components until the ring is closed.
Abstract: A fluorophosphate glass of a high positive anomalous partial dispersion .DELTA..nu..sub.e within the range of from about +10.0 to about +21.0, a relatively high index of refraction n.sub.e within the range of from about 1.47 to about 1.54, and an Abbe number .nu..sub.e within the range of from about 84.1 to about 51.0 is provided. A simple process of melting such a glass is disclosed.
Abstract: An improved photographic still pocket camera, where the film is inserted in a cassette provided with a feed part or spool and a take-up part or spool, these parts or spools connected by a film guide ledge. A zoom lens is mounted inside the camera, with the picture-taking beam path of the zoom lens located essentially parallel to the film plane and hence transverse to the direction of picture taking. The movable lens elements of the zoom lens are also movable parallel to the film plane.
Abstract: Digital timers for the electronic control of a camera shutter having a pulse generator and a number of binary dividers each associated with a resistor, the total of these resistors performing a digital to analog conversion and being connected to a common point. The potential of the common point being representative for the number of the binary dividers being in "1" state. A comparator actuating a shutter solenoid when the potential of the common point reaches a predetermined value. All the resistors having the same conductance so that at those times corresponding to powers of 2 (reference timing series) values of potential are formed, which correspond to the logarithm of the time obtained.
Abstract: An oscillator for generating non-sinusoidal, preferably triangular movements from a harmonic synthesis of individual sine oscillations. The oscillator comprises a plurality of mechanically intercalated resilient oscillator systems which each comprise an exciter drive means drivingly coupled to an oscillatable element. Each oscillator system has a natural frequency chosen in accordance with Fourier analysis of the oscillatory motion to be synthesized. From the total of the natural frequencies the desired motion is generated.
Abstract: A method for generating switching signals from an alternating current containing a harmonic or from a mixture of at least two alternating currents containing harmonics with adjacent fundamentals, characterized in that one even and one odd harmonic is filtered from the frequency range, then they are amplified, rectified and compared, and a switching signal is generated when a given and adjustable ratio is achieved between these two potentials, for instance when the ratio is unity.
March 4, 1975
Date of Patent:
October 26, 1976
Ernst Leitz G.m.b.H.
Rudolf Bohme, Klaus Heinecke, Fromund Hock
Abstract: The glass ceramic material of the present invention has the following composition, in weight percent,:About 20 to about 60 percent of silicon dioxide SiO.sub.2,about 5 to about 40 percent of phosphorus pentoxide P.sub.2 O.sub.5,about 2.7 to about 20 percent of sodium oxide Na.sub.2 O,about 0.4 to about 20 percent of potassium oxide K.sub.2 O,about 2.9 to about 30 percent of magnesium oxide MgO, andAbout 5 to about 40 percent of calcium oxide CaO,and may contain betweenAbout 0.5 and about 3.0 percent of fluorine.The glass ceramic material is produced by melting the mixture of components and subjecting the resulting melt to a specific annealing or tempering treatment to cause formation of nuclei and ceramization. Such glass ceramic material is especially useful as bone and tooth replacement material in humans and animals.
Abstract: Means for stabilizing the line of sight between an object and an optical viewing system which can move relative to each other, characterized in that electrical signals are derived with the aid of an optical grating (3',3") as a correlator, which signals correspond to the deviation from the line of sight (4) with respect to magnitude, direction, and arithmetic symbol; and that these signals are fed to a follower system (11,12) such as disclosed in L. M. Biberman: Reticles in Electro-Optical Devices, Pergamon Press, 1966, p. 45 which displaces the line of sight (4) until the original condition has been restored and the deviation has become zero again.
Abstract: The method of imparting contrast to the surface of an object to be viewed microscopically comprises the steps of introducing the object into a vacuum chamber, connecting the object to the positive pole of a high voltage d.c. source, evacuating the chamber, bombarding the surface of the object with a gas-concentrated electron-ion beam, and feeding into the chamber a gas which reacts chemically with the bombarded object surface. Under the effect of the electron beam and negative or neutralized ions a reaction layer then forms which is characteristic of the component parts of the object material. This layer, after the conclusion of the contrasting process can be observed and evaluated under a microscope.
Abstract: The maximum braking or powering effect due to changing road conditions, preferably for the case of full braking of a rubber-tired vehicle is determined in the system of the present invention during normal driving conditions. In this system measurement apparatus known per se are used wherein1. acceleration or deceleration and/or powering or braking torques, and simultaneously2. the positive or negative slippages occuring from at least one powered or braked running memberAre measured and compared with one another as a function of time over a predetermined period, and the characteristics obtained possibly following intermediate storage from this comparison are fed to a display system and/or, following comparison with other data relating to extant traffic conditions, are fed to a control or regulation system so as to act on the braking or powering system.
Abstract: A fluorophosphate glass which has an index of refraction n.sub.e of more than 1.57, an Abbe number .nu..sub.e of less than 70, and a relatively high positive anomalous partial dispersion +.DELTA..nu..sub.e is provided.
Abstract: In a method for focusing a reproducing objective, such as may be used for measuring distances, wherein multiplication of the image of the entrance pupil is achieved by image-splitting optical elements mounted in the plane of the object image, the improvement comprising:Projecting the light fluxes from different parts of the pupil image plane on separate sets or groups of photoelectric receivers, deriving a signal from the comparison of the output signals from these receiver groups and using this signal as a criterion for focusing as a function of magnitude and sign. Apparatus for performing the method includes a grid of prisms or pyramids, and a beam splitter for directing light through two separate photoelectric receiver masks.
Abstract: In an apparatus, an imaging system, at least one optically effective grating and a photoelectric receiver system are employed for determining the relative position of the plane of maximum amplitude of a spatial frequency component in the image of an object. The imaging system produces from light fluxes emanating from the object and traversing different regions of the entrance pupil of the imaging system an image of the object in a first, a second and a third intermediate image plane. The focussing screen mounted in the first plane is used for subjectively observing and focussing the object as well as for transmitting light fluxes to the optically effective grating which defines a given spatial frequency component and which is mounted at least in the vicinity of the second intermediate image plane for commonly modulating and splitting the light fluxes. The photoelectric receiver system generates therefrom electrical output signals used in devices for indicating and adjusting the sharp focussing of the object.
October 24, 1974
Date of Patent:
April 27, 1976
Ernst Leitz G.m.b.H.
Ludwig Leitz, Werner Holle, Knut Heitmann
Abstract: The angular position of a workpiece relative to a reference direction is determined by means of an optical correlator including an imaging system and an optical grating. The workpiece is imaged on the grating and means are provided for effecting a relative lateral displacement between the image and the grating. Photoelectric receiver means are positioned behind the grating in the direction of light flux for generating electrical signals of which the value depends on the angular position of the workpiece relative to the grating. The correlator is rotatable about its optical axis and the electrical signals are of an extreme value when the workpiece and the grooves of the grating are in alignment. Detecting means are connected to the receiver means for sensing this extreme value.
Abstract: In a slide projector having a partioned magazine for insertion into a magazine guide track so that the in turn, effective ejection side of the magazine is at right angles to or generally at right angles to the horizontal film aperture, the improvement comprising the operative bearing side of the magazine opposite the leading edge of the image stage side of the contained slide in the projector is foreshortened and the magazine guide path (1), considered in crosssection, is provided with a step (7) at least in the region of the film aperture (6), the profile of this step (7) adapted so that the bearing side (8) of the magazine containing a slide (10), and the face (10a) of the step which is situated at a higher level and thus suitable for receiving the slides as soon as the magazine is inserted, continues in the form of the film aperture (11).
Abstract: A circular magazine for a slide projector which is adapted to be molded in one piece. The magazine has a circular bottom wall (5) with an internal hub extending vertically therefrom defining an inside boundary wall (4). A plurality of slide compartment walls (2a) extend vertically from the bottom wall. At the upper right hand corner of each compartment wall a portion of the wall is elevated or expanded (6). Slides are held in position by the resilient pressure of the expanded portions (6) of corresponding compartment walls against the upper right hand corners of the slides and the lower left hand corners of the slides are seated against the L-shaped cross section of the bottom wall (5) and boundary wall (4). The legs of the bottom wall (5) and boundary wall (4) are foreshortened to lengths less than the linear dimensions of a slide so that a gripping device can extract the slides vertically to a projector or horizontally to the right into a projector.
Abstract: A radio-photoluminescence dosimeter glass of low energy dependence, high sensitivity, and good resistance to weathering is composed of an activating silver compound such as silver metaphosphate and at least one metal fluoride, preferably of metals of groups I, II, III, and/or IV of the Periodic System. Such a glass may contain at least one further metal oxide, preferably an oxide of metals of groups I, II, and/or III of the periodic System, phosphorus pentoxide, and, if desired, nitrogen pentoxide.
Abstract: An incident light illumination device or instrument for generating dark and light field illumination, wherein at least one optical component is used in a region where the dark field and the light field illumination beams are kept in separate zones. The inner zone is traversed by the light field beam and is endowed with an index of refraction other than the outer zone which is traversed by the dark field beam. A switchable stop for eliminating the light field beam is provided in the vicinity of the optical component (s). The index of refraction of the inner zone of at least one optical component is selected so that the light source is reproduced in the rear focal plane of a microscope objective. A mirror designed as a rotating body and reflecting from its inside surface is located in the optic path from the optic component to the microscope objective and this mirror solely reproduces the dark field beam as a light ring in a plane on the rear side of the microscope objective.