Abstract: An optical simulation system comprising a model (12) and collimating optics (16) is disclosed. An image is presented to an observer (32) by means of a plurality of lenses (24, 26) and mirrors optically alligned with the collimating optics. The optics of the system are adjustable so that the range changes of the model can be accommodated without moving large optical elements.
Abstract: An optical simulation system comprising a model (12) and collimating optics (16) is disclosed. An image is presented to an observer (32) by means of a plurality of lenses (24, 26) and mirrors optically aligned with the collimating optics. The optics of the system are adjustable so that the range changes of the model can be accommodated without moving large optical elements.
Abstract: A target designation system for use in training an observer to acquire and recognize targets is disclosed. A scenario with targets is displayed in front of the observer who aligns his line of sight so that a reticle is superimposed on the acquired target. The display system consists of film illuminated by a cathode ray tube. Film is used to provide color, resolution and realism not available from cathode ray tubes or any other display system. Light rays from the display are partially transmitted through a beam-splitter to the observer and partially reflected through an optical window onto a photodetector. In addition, the projected image of the reticle is reflected by the beam-splitter toward the observer. The photodetector and optical window are positioned so that light rays from the scanning spot of the CRT raster impinge on the photodetector only when the scanning spot occupies a point on the CRT screen corresponding to the location on the film at which the image of the reticle is superimposed.
Abstract: An apparatus (10) simulates scenic translation and comprises simulator controls (64) which generate signals (18-26) corresponding to the horizontal position of a vehicle. Video storage unit (12) generates a raster (54) including video information (58) representing a scene to be viewed. A microprocessor (65) responsive to the simulator controls generates control signals for selecting a portion (50 or 52) of said raster corresponding to the position of the vehicle. Horizontal and vertical delay gates (112,114) responsive to the microprocessor select a portion of each line in said raster. A video monitor displays the selected portions.
Abstract: A system for presenting a head-up display to the operator of a vehicle is disclosed. This system comprises a light source fiber optic bundle (52) which is secured to the helmet of the vehicle operator and generates a light beam signal which travels at an angle proportional to the orientation of the pilot's head and, accordingly, his line-of-sight. This beam is detected by a detector (68) which is optically coupled to the light beam and provides line-of-sight information at its ouput. A computer (96) receives the line-of-sight information together with other information and sends it via a cathode ray tube (112) and an optical coupler (14) to a beamsplitter (16) which provides that information to the operator of the vehicle while allowing the operator to see through the beamsplitter (16), thus providing the operator with additional information without obstructing his view.
Abstract: A robotic system for grasping a randomly oriented object, comprising grasping means for grasping said object is disclosed. Motor means places the grasping means at a desired position and causes performance of a gripping function. Camera means forms a first image of the object. An optical train conveys an image from a predetermined point to the camera means, the predetermined point being fixed relative to the grasping means. Image means contains a second image of the object to be grasped. Comparison means compares the first image to the second image. First coupling means couples the image means to the comparison means. Second coupling means couples the output of the camera means to the comparison means. Image rotation means causes rotation of the second image with respect to the image produced by the camera means.
Abstract: Monochromatic exciting light is transmitted in a forward direction from a source through a sample to a spherical mirror. The spherical mirror reflects the light in a backward direction through the sample and images the light upon a flat mirror. The flat mirror reflects the light in the forward direction, through the sample, to the spherical mirror, thereby causing the light to be reflected in the backward direction, through the sample, to the source. The reflections increase the optical path length of the light through the sample, thereby enhancing a fluorescent emission therefrom.
Abstract: A first monochromator includes a diffraction grating that is adapted for occlusion by a mirror. When the mirror occludes the grating, a white light input is transmitted through the first monochromator and through a sample under test, thereby causing a transmission of non-absorbed light from the sample. When the grating is unoccluded, monochromatic light is transmitted from the first monochromator so that a selected bandwidth of fluorescence excitation energy is incident on the sample. Fluorescence emission from the sample is diffracted by a second monochromator which provides diffracted light which is recorded by a vidicon.
Abstract: Optical simulation apparatus using a video target image superimposed upon an appropriately blanked-out film transparency of background is used to train an observer in target tracking. The apparatus also includes means to occult all or a portion of the target image presented to the trainee by an appropriate foreground image.
Abstract: Undesired images and reflections are eliminated in an in-line infinity display system by tilting the bi-refringent package of the display system at an angle with respect to a plane normal to the optical axis of the curved mirror in the display system and the observer's location so that the undesired images and reflections are directed outside the observer's field of view.
Abstract: A dual beam differential spectrophotometer using a rotating chopper wheel having reflective transparent, and opaque sectors transmits light alternately through standard and sample material cells for comparison. Diffuse reflectors insertable in the material cells permit the apparatus to be used either as a differential spectrofluorometer or as a differential absorption meter.
Abstract: Optical simulation apparatus in which three relatively movable images are input to the system. One of the images is produced by a physical display object and the other images are presented on display screens, superimposed by a beam-splitting mirror, and directed to an infinity display system. True apparent distances and relative parallax of the three images are simulated. The simulation is enhanced by tilting elements of the infinity display system and one of the display screens relative to the optical axis of the apparatus.
Abstract: A lens system for modifying the spherical aberration of optical apparatus comprises three groups of lens elements arrayed in order along an optical axis of the apparatus: a first lens group has a negative optical power; a second lens group has substantially zero optical power and is bent to have a substantial amount of spherical aberration; and a third lens group has a positive optical power. The relative spacing between the second lens group and the first and third lens groups is variable to modify the spherical aberration introduced into the optical apparatus.
Abstract: Apparatus for forming at or closer than infinity an image of a primary image source is disclosed. The apparatus employs a reflection-type holographic analog of a spherical mirror and a birefringent array of optical elements. The primary image source is linearly polarized and made incident upon the holographic mirror analog. The light from the primary image passing through the analog is given a circular polarization by a first quarter-wave plate, and a fraction of this light is reflected by a plane beam-splitting mirror back to the analog where it is collimated and transmitted again through the first quarter-wave plate, beam-splitting mirror, a second quarter wave plate and a second polarizer for viewing by an observer. The remaining fraction of circularly polarized light from the primary image passing through the first quarter-wave plate which is not reflected by the beam-splitting mirror passes through the second quarter-wave plate, which gives that light a linear polarization at a 90.degree.