Abstract: Systems and methods for measuring fat content of a body are provided. An instrument may be employed that generates light with different center wavelengths without the use of narrow optical band-pass filters and without the use of any light diffusing material. The instrument may include at least two different center wavelengths infrared emitting diodes (IREDs) having center wavelengths that are about 10 nanometers apart. A first IRED may have a center wavelength between 935 and 945 nanometers, and a second IRED may have a center wavelength between 945 and 955 nanometers. The IREDs may be arranged in a circular pattern in holes in an opaque medium. A near-infrared optical detector may be located at the center of the circular pattern. The instrument may perform a body fat measurement at a fixed distance from the crease in the elbow towards the biceps of the arm. The instrument may instead perform the body fat measurement at a fixed distance from the elbow bone towards the triceps of the arm.
Abstract: In one aspect, the present invention provides a multi-function, self-service health kiosk. In another aspect, the present invention provides a wheelchair accessible health kiosk. In another aspect, the present invention provides a blood pressure measurement apparatus for use in a health kiosk.
March 1, 2005
Date of Patent:
November 4, 2008
Arthur G. Carr, Samuel G. Guss, Thomas E. Piston, Jr., Robert D. Rosenthal
Abstract: In one aspect, the present invention provides systems and methods for non-invasively determining the amount of an analyte in a subject's blood using a set of light sources and a set of light detectors for measuring optical density. Advantageously, in embodiments of the invention, the light sources are operated such that each of the light sources outputs light at the same time, thereby concurrently illuminating the fingertip with light from each light source, and while the fingertip is illuminated by the light sources, a data processor reads data output from each light detector substantially simultaneously.
Abstract: A system and method for detecting whether a subject has a physiological abnormality. The system includes a fingertip sensor and a data collection and analysis system coupled to the fingertip sensor.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for measuring a blood analyte concentration using an inexpensive, low precision sensor device is provided. One embodiment of the method includes obtaining energy absorption measurement data through a body part of an individual. A plurality of indicator variables are subsequently calculated from the energy absorption measurement data. An indicator variable from the plurality of indicator variables having the highest correlation to blood glucose level is determined, and a first optical term based on the indicator variable with the highest correlation to blood glucose level is allocated to form a regression analysis equation. An estimated value of the blood analyte concentration using the regression analysis equation is calculated.
Abstract: In a method to improve the calibration of a non-invasive, near infrared (NIR) measurement device, a plurality of data terms is formed for the NIR measurement device. Then the codependence of the data terms is evaluated by forming cross-products terms using the data terms. Next, sets of prespecified sizes are randomly formed from the data terms and the cross-product terms. Each of these sets of terms is evaluated by testing the ability of the set to predict a set of accurate measurements using regression analysis. The method then selects one of the sets based on preselected criteria and uses the selected set to calibrate the NIR measurement device.
Abstract: In a self-service health parameter measuring apparatus and method, a person's elbow is placed at a spatial reference point, and means surrounding a user's forearm locate an infrared body fat apparatus measurement point at a substantially fixed distance from the spatial reference point. Motor drive means adjustably tighten or loosen a cuff around an upper arm so that measurements on each user are made at substantially the same pressure of the measuring apparatus against a forearm irrespective of the size of the arm. In a preferred form, the preselected measurement pressure is achieved by inflating the cuff to a maximum level, and allowing deflation. Measurement is made when a lower, second preselected level is reached. Blood pressure is also measured in connection with the inflation and deflation operation. Further health parameters may be measured.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for performing quantitative noninvasive measurement of blood analytes, includes correction for measurement interference caused by pulse beat and changing body chemistry associated with blood circulation through the part of the body being measured as a function of time. A hypoglycemia monitor and alarm is provided which takes advantage of the methods described for separating pulse beat information from the measurement signals.
Abstract: A light probe method and apparatus is provided for an infrared body chemistry measurement instrument. The light probe includes an illumination ring of a light-conducting material, having facets on an exterior circumferential surface, and an inner circumferential surface at about a forty-five degree angle, infrared light emitting devices positioned at each facet, a coaxially located optical detector, a shielding ring coaxially located between the optical detector and the illumination ring, and a cover having a central opening which exposes the optical detector, the shielding ring, and the illumination ring, wherein a length dimension of the light probe is less than a diameter dimension.
Abstract: A procedure for verifying the accuracy of a non-invasive blood glucose measurement instrument utilizes in vitro or invasive measurement instruments, the accuracy of which is independently verifiable. Several glucose readings are taken with each instrument at approximately the same times. The measurement data from the in vitro instrument is transferred to the non-invasive instrument where it is compared to the data regarding the non-invasive measurements. If the difference between the measurements of the respective instruments is within a preset range, the non-invasive instrument is permitted to be used for an additional period of time. However, if the difference is beyond an acceptable limit, then the non-invasive instrument is prevented from taking any additional measurements and must be serviced or repaired.
Abstract: A method and apparatus are disclosed for improving an accuracy characteristic of a quantitative measurement instrument for measuring a blood analyte concentration by using lower precision sensor devices. One embodiment of the method includes calculating a correction factor based on an elapsed time from a last meal and a substantially typical rise and fall pattern of blood analyte concentrations in the bloodstream. The correction factor is part of a regression analysis equation employed by the blood analyte measurement instrument. A second embodiment includes a method whereby a series of indicator variables are allocated based on the elapsed time from a last meal, and uses the indicator variables in a regression analysis equation.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for performing near-infrared (NIR) quantitative analysis includes the steps of providing NIR radiation at a plurality of different wavelengths for illumination of an object to be analyzed, and varying the amount of time that radiation at each wavelength illuminates the subject according to the output level of radiation at each wavelength so as to provide substantially similar detection data resolution for each of the plurality of wavelengths. The method is particularly applicable to non-invasive quantitative measurement of blood analytes such as blood glucose levels, using low cost IREDs operating outside their one-half power bandwidths.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for accurately providing general calibration of near-infrared quantitative analysis instruments for almost any individual user. The general calibration method comprises comparing an individual's near-infrared spectrum to a plurality of near-infrared spectral clusters. Each near-infrared spectral cluster has a set of calibration constants associated therewith. The calibration constants of the spectral cluster most closely associated with the individual spectra are used to custom calibrate the near-infrared analysis measurement instrument.
Abstract: An improved near-infrared quantitative analysis instrument includes a number of removable finger inserts each dimensioned for a different finger size, which facilitates properly aligning and fitting an individual user's finger into the optical system of the analysis instrument taking into account the size of the individual's finger. The insert according to the present invention can be also designed to accommodate samples of various substances for quantitative analyte measurement.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for preventing undesirable index finger rotational motion within a non-invasive quantitative blood analyte measurement instrument includes placing at least the middle finger or the thumb into proper alignment with the index finger when inserted in the instrument to prevent the index finger from rotating with respect to the instrument's optical axis. The natural pincer-type relationship of the thumb and index finger is used to align the index finger in the optical axis by the positioning of the thumb and the positioning of the middle finger is used to hinder the rotation of the finger toward the thumb away from the optical axis. Conductive material is provided in grooves formed on the instrument housing to dissipate EMI energy from the test subject.
Abstract: An improved near-infrared quantitative analysis instrument is disclosed comprising a removable finger insert which facilitates properly aligning and fitting and individual user's finger into the optical system of the analysis instrument. The finger insert according to the present invention also prevents the analysis instrument's optical system from being damaged by foreign matter typically introduced by a user's finger. The finger insert can also be provided with filters which will enable the insert to be used to as an optical standard for the analysis instrument.
August 16, 1993
Date of Patent:
July 25, 1995
Robert D. Rosenthal, John J. Mastrototaro, Joseph K. Frischmann, Reynaldo Quintana
Abstract: A low cost means for increasing measurement sensitivity in LED near-infrared instruments is disclosed which utilizes a current modification means for modifying the driving current supplied to each IRED as a function of the opacity of the particular sample being measured. The current modification means is part of the processing means and comprises means for measuring a signal level for each IRED at an analog-to-digital converter. Based upon the signal level detected for each IRED, the current modification means modifies the current to each IRED to a value that is as high as possible without saturating the analog-to-digital converter. Thus, by modifying the driving current of each IRED to such a maximal value, the analytical instrument of the present invention provides high resolution without the use of expensive electronic circuitry. Also provided is a system for generating and storing an optical signature of a particular user, thus further insuring the accuracy of measurements taken by the instrument.
November 23, 1992
Date of Patent:
November 15, 1994
Don E. Krueger, Jr., Robert D. Rosenthal
Abstract: A method and means for generating synthetic spectra allowing quantitative measurement utilizes dual chip alternatively energized IREDs with optical bandpass filter(s) passing two optical bands which is be combined with curvilinear interpolation to be utilized in a low cost small size quantitative measuring instrument.
Abstract: A collapsible railing having an upper rail and a plurality of posts hingedly attached to the upper rail at spaced apart locations. A crank including a shaft portion and an arm portion which is mounted for rotation about the long axis of the shaft portion is connected to each post. An actuator actuates the motion of the crank to pivot the posts and the upper rails between a collapsed position in which each post is oriented generally horizontally, and an erect position in which the posts are in an upright position.
Abstract: A near-infrared quantitative analysis instrument for measuring a constituent of a sample material is disclosed which effectively utilizes energy in the 1200 to 1800 nanometer wavelengths regions by isolating and employing harmonic wavelengths emitted by typical, low cost commercially available light emitting diodes (LEDs) or infrared emitting diodes (IREDs). The analysis instrument utilizes these very desirable wavelength regions for quantitative analysis measurements by interposing suitable narrow bandpass filters which permit passage of only the selected harmonic wavelengths.