Patents Assigned to Graphcore Limited
  • Patent number: 11372791
    Abstract: A computer comprising a plurality of interconnected processing nodes arranged in a configuration with multiple layers, arranged along an axis, comprising first and second endmost layers and at least one intermediate layer between the first and second endmost layers is provided. Each layer comprises a plurality of processing nodes connected in a ring by an intralayer respective set of links between each pair of neighbouring processing nodes, the links adapted to operate simultaneously. Nodes in each layer are connected to respective corresponding nodes in each adjacent layer by an interlayer link. Each processing node in the first endmost layer is connected to a corresponding node in the second endmost layer. Data is transmitted around a plurality of embedded one-dimensional logical rings with an asymmetric bandwidth utilisation, each logical ring using all processing nodes of the computer in such a manner that the plurality of embedded one-dimensional logical rings operate simultaneously.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2020
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventor: Simon Knowles
  • Patent number: 11366649
    Abstract: A method for generating a program to run on multiple tiles. The method comprises: receiving an input graph comprising data nodes, compute vertices and edges; receiving an initial tile-mapping specifying which data nodes and vertices are allocated to which tile; and determining a subgraph of the input graph that meets one or more heuristic rules. The rules comprises: the subgraph comprises at least one data node, the subgraph spans no more than a threshold number of tiles in the initial tile-mapping, and the subgraph comprises at least a minimum number of edges outputting to one or more vertices on one or more other tiles. The method further comprises adapting the initial mapping to migrate the data nodes and any vertices of the determined subgraph to said one or more other tiles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2020
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Mark Lloyd Pupilli, David Lacey
  • Patent number: 11340868
    Abstract: An execution unit for a processor, the execution unit comprising: a look up table having a plurality of entries, each of the plurality of entries comprising an initial estimate for a result of an operation; a preparatory circuit configured to search the look up table using an index value dependent upon the operand to locate an entry comprising a first initial estimate for a result of the operation; a plurality of processing circuits comprising at least one multiplier circuit; and control circuitry configured to provide the first initial estimate to the at least one multiplier circuit of the plurality of processing circuits so as perform processing, by the plurality of processing units, of the first initial estimate to generate the function result, said processing comprising applying one or more Newton Raphson iterations to the first initial estimate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2022
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Jonathan Mangnall, Stephen Felix
  • Patent number: 11334320
    Abstract: An execution unit configured to execute a computer program instruction to generate random numbers based on a predetermined probability distribution. The execution unit comprises a hardware pseudorandom number generator configured to generate at least randomised bit string on execution of the instruction and adding circuitry which is configured to receive a number of bit sequences of a predetermined bit length selected from the randomised bit string and to sum them to produce a result.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2020
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Stephen Felix, Godfrey Da Costa
  • Patent number: 11334400
    Abstract: A gateway implementing multiple independent sync networks. The independent sync networks can be used to allow for synchronisation between different synchronisation groups of accelerators. The independent sync networks allow synchronisations to be carried out asynchronously and simultaneously. The gateway has sync propagation circuitry that receives a first synchronisation request for an upcoming exchange phase and propagates this sync request through a first sync network. The first synchronisation request is a request for synchronisation between subsystems of a first synchronisation group. The sync propagation circuitry of the gateway also receives a second synchronisation request for a different exchange phase and propagates this sync request through the second sync network. The second synchronisation request is a request for synchronisation between subsystems of a second synchronisation group. The two exchange phases overlap in time. Therefore, the syncs are simultaneous and asynchronous.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2020
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Brian Manula, Daniel John Pelham Wilkinson
  • Patent number: 11327813
    Abstract: Implicit sync group selection is performed by having dual interfaces to a gateway. A subsystem coupled to the gateway selects a sync group to be used for an upcoming exchange by selecting the interface to which a sync request is written to. The gateway propagates the sync requests and/or acknowledgments in dependence upon configuration settings for the sync group that is associated with the interface to which the sync request was written to.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2020
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Brian Manula, Daniel John Pelham Wilkinson
  • Patent number: 11328015
    Abstract: A function approximation system is disclosed for determining output floating point values of functions calculated using floating point numbers. Complex functions have different shapes in different subsets of their input domain, making them difficult to predict for different values of the input variable. The function approximation system comprises an execution unit configured to determine corresponding values of a given function given a floating point input to the function; a plurality of look up tables for each function type; a correction table of values which determines if corrections to the output value are required; and a table selector for finding an appropriate table for a given function.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2022
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Jonathan Mangnall, Stephen Felix
  • Patent number: 11321272
    Abstract: The invention relates to a computer program comprising a sequence of instructions for execution on a processing unit having instruction storage for holding the computer program, an execution unit for executing the computer program and data storage for holding data, the computer program comprising one or more computer executable instruction which, when executed, implements: a send function which causes a data packet destined for a recipient processing unit to be transmitted on a set of connection wires connected to the processing unit, the data packet having no destination identifier but being transmitted at a predetermined transmit time; and a switch control function which causes the processing unit to control switching circuitry to connect a set of connection wires of the processing unit to a switching fabric to receive a data packet at a predetermined receive time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2022
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Simon Christian Knowles, Daniel John Pelham Wilkinson, Richard Luke Southwell Osborne, Alan Graham Alexander, Stephen Felix, Jonathan Mangnall, David Lacey
  • Patent number: 11294635
    Abstract: A pseudo random number generator implemented in hardware. The pseudo random number generator comprises a state post processing circuit for processing two state values to produce a random number. The circuit having a first combinatorial logic comprising a XOR or XNOR gate configured to process a first pair of bits from the state values, a second combinatorial logic comprising an OR or AND gate configured to process a second pair of bits from the state value, and third combinatorial logic comprising an OR or AND gate configured or process a third pair of bits from the state value. The circuit has fourth combinatorial logic configured to process the outputs of the first three set of combinatorial logic so as to provide a result bit of the random number. The fourth combinatorial logic comprises an AND or OR gate and a XOR or XNOR gate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2022
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Stephen Felix, James William Hanlon
  • Patent number: 11281506
    Abstract: A system comprising a gateway for interfacing external data sources with one or more accelerators. The gateway comprises a plurality of virtual gateways, each of which is configured to stream data from the external data sources to one or more associated accelerators. The plurality of virtual gateways are each configured to stream data from external data sources so that the data is received at an associated accelerator in response to a synchronisation point being obtained by a synchronisation zone. Each of the virtual gateways is assigned a virtual ID so that when data is received at the gateway, data can be delivered to the appropriate gateway.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2021
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Brian Manula, Harald Hoeg, Ola Torudbakken
  • Patent number: 11269806
    Abstract: A time deterministic computer is architected so that exchange code compiled for one set of tiles, e.g., a column, can be reused on other sets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2022
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Stephen Felix, Simon Christian Knowles
  • Patent number: 11263017
    Abstract: A processor includes: memory; an execution pipeline having a plurality of pipeline stages configured to process data provided to the execution pipeline and to store a result of the processing into the memory; a receive pipeline having a plurality of pipeline stages configured to handle incoming data to the processor and storing the incoming data into memory; context status storage configured to hold an exception indicator of an exception encountered by the execution pipeline while the execution pipeline processes data; wherein the receive pipeline is configured to determine that an exception has been committed to the context status storage by the execution pipeline, to suppress a write to memory of any incoming data to be handled by the receive pipeline and to commit a corresponding exception indicator to the context status storage at a final one of its pipeline stages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2021
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: James Pallister, Jamie Hanlon
  • Patent number: 11263081
    Abstract: A system comprising: a first subsystem comprising at least one first processor, and a second subsystem comprising one or more second processors. A first program is arranged to run on the at least one first processor, the first program being configured to send data from the first subsystem to the second subsystem. A second program is arranged to run on the one more second processors, the second program being configured to operate on the data content from the first subsystem. The first program is configured to set a checkpoint at successive points in time. At each checkpoint it records in memory of the first subsystem i) a program state of the second program, comprising a state of one or more registers on each of the second processors at the time of the checkpoint, and ii) a copy of the data content sent to the second subsystem since the respective checkpoint.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2022
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: David Lacey, Daniel John Pelham Wilkinson
  • Patent number: 11262787
    Abstract: The invention relates to a computer implemented method of generating multiple programs to deliver a computerised function, each program to be executed in a processing unit of a computer comprising a plurality of processing units each having instruction storage for holding a local program, an execution unit for executing the local program and data storage for holding data, a switching fabric connected to an output interface of each processing unit and connectable to an input interface of each processing unit by switching circuitry controllable by each processing unit, and a synchronisation module operable to generate a synchronisation signal, the method comprising: generating a local program for each processing unit comprising a sequence of executable instructions; determining for each processing unit a relative time of execution of instructions of each local program whereby a local program allocated to one processing unit is scheduled to execute with a predetermined delay relative to a synchronisation signal
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2020
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Simon Christian Knowles, Daniel John Pelham Wilkinson, Richard Luke Southwell Osborne, Alan Graham Alexander, Stephen Felix, Jonathan Mangnall, David Lacey
  • Patent number: 11258699
    Abstract: The provision of redundancy in a sync network, which protects the sync network against faults, such as broken cables in the sync network. The gateway comprises a sync propagation module configured to provide redundant sync requests that are sent along different pathways in the sync network. These sync requests are sent to towards different masters in the sync network. If a fault occurs at a point in one of the paths, the gateway will still receive a sync acknowledgment returned along the other path. Furthermore, the use of redundant sync networks, propagating the sync requests across different paths, allows fault detection in the wiring to be detected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2020
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2022
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventor: Lars Paul Huse
  • Patent number: 11237882
    Abstract: A gateway for interfacing a host with a subsystem for acting as a work accelerator to the host. The gateway enables the transfer of batches of data to the subsystem at precompiled data exchange synchronisation points. The gateway comprises a streaming engine having a data mover engine and a memory management engine, the data mover engine and memory management engine being configured to execute instructions in coordination from work descriptors. The memory management engine is configured to execute instructions from the work descriptor to transfer data between external storage and the local memory associated with the gateway. The data mover engine is configured to execute instructions from the work descriptor to transfer data between the local memory associated with the gateway and the subsystem.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2022
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Ola Tørudbakken, Daniel John Pelham Wilkinson, Richard Luke Southwell Osborne, Brian Manula, Harald Høeg
  • Patent number: 11176066
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to a method of scheduling messages to be exchanged between tiles in a computer where there is a fixed transmission time between sending and receiving tiles. According to the method a total size of message data to be sent or received by each tile is determined. One of the tiles is selected based at least on the size of the message data to schedule a first message. The first message to be scheduled is selected from the set of messages on that tile. In order to schedule the message the other end points of this selected message are determined, and then respective time slots are allocated at the sending and receiving tiles for that message. The size of the selected message is then deducted from each of the tiles acting as end points for the message, and then the sequence is carried out again until all messages have been scheduled. This technique optimises message exchange in an exchange phase of a BSP system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2021
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Richard Luke Southwell Osborne, Stephen Felix
  • Patent number: 11169778
    Abstract: A hardware module comprising at least one of: one or more field programmable gate arrays and one or more application specific integrated circuits configured to: receive a number in floating-point representation at a first precision level, the number comprising an exponent and a first mantissa; apply a first random number to the first mantissa to generate a first carry; truncate the first mantissa to a level specified by a second precision level; add the first carry to the least significant bit of the mantissa truncated to the level specified by the second precision level to form a mantissa for the number in floating-point representation at the second precision level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2021
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Stephen Felix, Mrudula Gore, Alan Graham Alexander
  • Patent number: 11169777
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for handling overflow conditions resulting from arithmetic operations involving floating point numbers. An indication is stored as part of a thread's context indicating one of two possible modes for handling overflow conditions. In a first mode, a result of an arithmetic operation is set to the limit representable in the floating point format. In a second mode, a result of an arithmetic operation is set to a NaN.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2021
    Assignee: Graphcore Limited
    Inventors: Alan Graham Alexander, Edward Andrews, Stephen Felix, Mrudula Chidambar Gore
  • Patent number: 11169956
    Abstract: One aspect of the invention provides a computer comprising a plurality of interconnected processing nodes arranged in a ladder configuration comprising a plurality of facing pairs of processing nodes. The processing nodes of each pair are connected to each other by two links. A processing node in each pair is connected to a corresponding processing node in an adjacent pair by at least one link. The processing nodes are programmed to operate the ladder configuration to transmit data around two embedded one-dimensional rings formed by respective sets of processing nodes and links, each ring using all processing nodes in the ladder once only.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2020
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2021
    Assignee: GRAPHCORE LIMITED
    Inventors: Simon Knowles, Ola Torudbakken, Stephen Felix, Lars Paul Huse