Abstract: An optical movement measuring method and apparatus measures a movement of an object. A light from a light source is irradiated on a diffraction grating which is provided on the object so as to generate diffracted lights of different order of diffraction. The diffraction grating has light transmitting portions and light blocking portions which are alternately and periodically arranged. Interference fringes which comprises bright and dark stripes which occur alternately and are generated by overlapping spots of diffracted lights of different order of diffraction are detected, and a movement of the object is measured based on a counted number of stripes of the detected interference fringes.
Abstract: A rotation quantity measuring method and system measures a rotation quantity of an object body. The rotation quantity is measured by irradiating a light from a light source on a grating pattern which is formed on a peripheral surface of a cylindrical body which rotates integrally with the object body, and detecting a shadow picture pattern which is generated by a reflected light received from the grating pattern based on a diffraction caused by the grating pattern. Then, the rotation quantity of the object body is measured based on a movement of the shadow picture pattern as the object body rotates.
Abstract: A masking layer is formed on the light-emitting mirror surface of a semiconductor laser body. The masking layer is capable of blocking light emitted from the semiconductor laser body and of being thermally melted and evaporated by exposure to the emitted light. When the masking layer is formed on the light-emitting mirror surface of the semiconductor laser body, a small light-emitting hole is defined in the masking layer by the heat of the emitted light which is effective to prevent the material of the masking layer from being evaporated on a portion of the light-emitting surface.
Abstract: A masking layer is formed on the light-emitting mirror surface of a semiconductor laser body. The masking layer is capable of blocking or cutting off light emitted from the semiconductor laser body and of being made optically transparent by exposure to the light emitted from the semiconductor laser body dependent on the amount of energy of the emitted light. When the light is emitted from the semiconductor laser body on which the masking layer is deposited, a small light-emitting hole is defined in the masking layer, the light-emitting hole having a desired diameter commensurate with the amount of energy of the emitted light which is applied to the masking layer.
Abstract: An object to be measured for the amount of movement thereof has a uniformly periodic structure. The object is illuminated with divergent light emitted from a coherent spot light source. By positionally adjusting the spot light source, the object, and a light sensor, an enlarged shadow-picture-like diffraction pattern of the uniformly periodic structure is generated at a position in which the light sensor is disposed. The shadow-picture-like diffraction pattern is moved when the object is moved across the divergent light from the spot light source. The amount of movement of the shadow-picture-like diffraction pattern is detected by the light sensor for thereby measuring the amount of movement of the object.