Abstract: A method for extracorporeal treatment of blood includes preparing a treatment liquid from a liquid and two concentrated solutions by circulating the liquid in a preparation conduit at a flowrate Q0; injecting a first concentrated solution containing at least a first ionic substance A and a second ionic substance B into the preparation conduit at a flowrate Q1; and injecting a second concentrated solution containing at least the first ionic substance A into the preparation conduit at a flowrate Q2. The ionic substance B may have a first concentration in the first concentrated solution and a second concentration, different from the first concentration, in the second concentrated solution. The method may also include regulating the injection flowrates Q1 and Q2 in such a way that at any given time the diluted solution resulting from the mixing of the liquid and the concentrated solutions has a desired concentration of the first ionic substance A and a desired concentration of the second ionic substance B.
Abstract: A method for continuously determining a parameter (D, Cbin, K, Kt/V) indicative of an extracorporeal blood treatment includes flowing patient's blood and a treatment liquid flow on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane. The treatment liquid has a characteristic (Cd) associated with the effectiveness of the treatment flow through the exchanger. A succession of variations are caused in the characteristic (Cd) upstream of the exchanger, and a plurality of values (Cdin1 . . . Cdinj . . . Cdinp) of the characteristic (Cd) upstream of the exchanger are continuously stored in memory. Similarly, plurality of values (Cdout1 . . . Cdoutj . . . Cdoutp) adopted by the characteristic (Cd) downstream of the exchanger are continuously stored in memory. From the stored values, the effectiveness of the treatment is calculated using a mathematical model.
Abstract: A filtration unit is disclosed for a dialysis machine. The unit includes a casing with a number of first connecting elements and a support provided with a number of second connecting elements. Structure is provided for locking the filter on the support when the first and second connecting elements engage each other. The lock structure may include a pair of slides movable between a locking position, in which locking parts interact with stopping portions, and a release position, in which the filter is not locked to the support. An elastic structure may be provided for resiliently urging the slides into the locking position.
Abstract: An insertion guide is used for inserting an arterial needle, which takes blood out from the body, and a venous needle, which returns purified blood into the body, into one or two fistulae formed in a vein running beneath the skin of the arm. The insertion guide may include a holder having an arterial guide hole, which guides the arterial needle downwards at an incline from the shoulder side to the wrist side relative to the fistula, and a venous guide hole, which guides the venous needle downwards at an incline from the wrist side to the shoulder side relative to the fistula.
Abstract: In an extracorporeal blood treatment system, non-treated blood may be withdrawn from a patient through an arterial line connected to a first compartment of a blood treatment apparatus. The blood treatment apparatus also includes a second compartment separated from the first component by a semi-permeable membrane. Treated blood may be returned to the patient through a venous line connected to the second compartment. In order to determine blood recirculation, i.e., a mixture of treated blood and non-treated blood in the arterial line, the ultrafiltration rate of plasma water through the semi permeable membrane of the treatment apparatus may be temporarily increased or decreased, and the resulting variation of the blood concentration, i.e., of the ratio of the volume of the plasma volume to the blood volume, is determined.
May 3, 1999
Date of Patent:
March 25, 2003
Giovanni Cavicchioli, Enrico Canini, Massimo Fava
Abstract: A system is provided for sterilizing, by irradiation, a plurality of products, each product having an identification code. The products are carried on product carriers which include a carrier identification code. The system includes a product loading station, a product unloading station, an irradiation blocking containment, and an irradiation station location located within the containment. A conveyor passes from the loading station through the containment to the unloading station. Code readers are located along the conveyor for detecting and reading both the product identification code and the carrier identification code. A control and monitoring circuit receives the codes, and stores in memory an association between specific carriers and the products located on those carriers.
Abstract: A sampling system for a blood treatment circuit is disclosed, and is designed to collect a sample representative of all waste liquid discharged from a blood treatment apparatus during a treatment session. The circuit includes a feed line for supplying fresh treatment liquid to the blood treatment apparatus and a discharge line for evacuating waste liquid. A withdrawal line connects the discharge line to a collecting container, and a flow meter in each of the discharge line and the withdrawal line measures liquid flow. A controllable flow restrictor such as a valve is provided in the withdrawal line. A controller selectively opens the flow restrictor each time a predetermine volume is measured in the discharge line and closes the flow restrictor each time another predetermined volume is measured in the withdrawal line.
Abstract: The subject of the present invention is the use of at least one alkyl ester of adipic acid in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composition for the production of products made from biocompatible material, in particular blood lines, to increase the resistance of these products to irradiation with penetrating rays.
Abstract: A method for automatic dialysis using a dialysis unit which, in service, is connected to a patient undergoing a dialysis treatment, including the phases of acquiring allowed values of input parameters and desired values of patient parameters, acquiring actual values of the patient parameters, the patient parameters including the relative variation in blood volume (BV) and the weight loss (WL), acquiring actual values of machine parameters including the weight loss rate (WLR) and the conductivity of the (CD) dialysis fluid, and controlling the operation of the dialysis unit using controlled values of the machine parameters to make the patient parameters take on the desired values.
Abstract: A method and apparatus are disclosed for flushing a blood treatment apparatus. The blood treatment apparatus has a first compartment and second compartment separated by a semipermeable membrane substantially impermeable to gas. A flushing circuit is set up by connecting an inlet of the blood treatment apparatus to a flushing liquid source and an outlet of the blood treatment apparatus to a discharge pipe. Liquid is circulated through the flushing circuit in pressure waves. These pressure waves dislodge air bubbles adhering to an inner wall of the blood treatment apparatus and discharge the air bubbles in the flushing liquid.
Abstract: The device for controlling the rotation speed of electric motors comprises an adjustable frequency generator (2) generating an output signal (s.sub.1) having a frequency which can be adjusted in relation to the desired speed (v.sub.d), a pulse generator (3) having a pre-determined period controlled by the adjustable frequency generator in such a way as to generate a control signal (s.sub.2) comprising a series of pulses at the adjustable frequency set by the frequency generator (2). The control signal (s.sub.2) is provided to a control unit (5) for the motor (6) whose rotation speed is to be controlled. The control unit thus provides a supply to the motor (6) corresponding to the control signal pulses. FIG. 1.
Abstract: A method for determining a significant parameter (Cb, D, K, Kt/V) of the progress of an extracorporeal blood treatment carried-out using a membrane exchanger, includes the steps of successively circulating three treatment fluids through the exchanger. Each fluid has a characteristic Cd linked to at least one of the significant parameters of the treatment (Cb, D, K, Kt/V). The value of the characteristic in the first fluid upstream of the exchanger is different from the value of the characteristic in the second fluid upstream of the exchanger, the latter being itself different from the value of the characteristic in the third fluid upstream of the exchanger. Two values for each of the three treatment fluids are measured, respectively upstream and downstream of the exchanger, and at least one value of at least one significant parameter of the progress of the treatment (Cb, D, K, Kt/V) is calculated from the measured values.
Abstract: A filtration device includes an ultrafilter having an inlet chamber, an outlet chamber, and an ultrafiltration membrane separating the inlet chamber from the outlet chamber. An inlet line flow connects the inlet chamber to a source of dialysis liquid. Pressure sensors determine pressure values on opposite sides of the membrane, and a controller calculates a transmembrane pressure therefrom and compares the calculated transmembrane pressure with a predetermined threshold value. If the threshold value is reached, the controller emits a threshold signal to either warn an operator or alternatively to automatically divert flow to bypass the ultrafilter.
Abstract: An apparatus and method for anticipating side effects which are manifested in a patient during a dialysis treatment, respectively comprising a device and step for measuring at least one haemodynamic value of the patient a predetermined number of times to obtain a parameter corresponding to the variation of the haemodynamic value with respect to time, a device and step for calculating a rating corresponding to a mean variation of the parameter with reference to a predetermined period, a device and step for comparing the value of the rating with a reference value delimiting a range of safety values, and a device and step for emitting an alarm signal each time the value of the rating falls outside the range of safety values delimited by the reference value.
Abstract: A device for measuring the quantity of ultrafiltrate eliminated during a dialysis treatment. The device comprises two vessels of a known capacity wherein the ultrafiltrate coming from a pump is alternately received and then discharged by means of valves. The device further comprises two level measuring sensors which each emit a signal each time the ultrafiltrate attains a predetermined level in the corresponding vessel. Such sensors are connected to a processing and count control mechanism for analyzing the above-mentioned signals and for establishing the quantity of ultrafiltrate eliminated by the pump.