Abstract: A dye laser is described that has an optical resonator structure which is modular in construction. The resonator includes a first base plate that has all of the optical elements typically found in a basic linear dye laser. A second base plate is rigidly securable to the first base plate to extend the resonator structure for either ring operation or for more differing linear dye laser configurations. The second base plate can include those optical elements required to cooperate with the optical elements on the first base plate to provide ring operation. Additional and differing modular units can be provided and secured to the two base plates making up the optical resonator structure to satisfy many different criteria. Moreover, a third base plate is rigidly securable between the first two base plates to further extend the resonator structure as desired.
Abstract: A gas ion laser is described having a resonator structure which not only maintains the optical reflectors of the laser at the respective ends of the optical cavity in a selected relationship, it also maintains an optical element external of such laser in a predetermined relationship to the output beam of the laser. The resonator structure includes a plurality of rods which extend between mounts for the optical reflectors parallel to and adjacent the laser optical cavity. Such rods project beyond the one of the optical cavity mounts selected to hold a partially transmissive optical reflector to define the laser output beam, and terminate in a third mount which maintains a desired optical element in a predetermined relationship relative to the laser output beam.
Abstract: Both a nozzle for forming a free jet stream of a liquid and its method of manufacture is described. The exit aperture of the nozzle is provided by a nozzle end assembly made up of a plurality of blocks of material which are in optical contact with one another. The liquid channel defined by the blocks is provided with optically flat surfaces which minimize interference with uniform liquid flow therethrough. Moreover, edges are provided for the exit aperture defined by the blocks by polishing the same while they are supported, so that the resulting edges have a minimum of imperfections.
Abstract: A dye laser having an improved dye jet nozzle and its method of manufacture is described. The exit aperture of the nozzle is provided by a nozzle end assembly made up of a plurality of blocks of material which are in optical contact with one another. The liquid channel defined by the blocks is provided with optically flat surfaces which minimize interference with uniform liquid flow therethrough. Moreover, edges are provided for the exit aperture defined by the blocks by polishing the same while they are supported, so that the resulting edges have a minimum of imperfections.
Abstract: A gas ion laser is described having two separate plasma tube assemblies serially aligned with one another between a single set of optical reflectors, i.e., in a single resonator. Unbalanced stresses on the resonator due to the forces of gravity on the separate plasma tube assemblies are obviated by appropriately locating the mounting structure connecting the resonator to the laser base. Each of the plasma tube assemblies is so connected to the resonator structure that its axial alignment within the same can be adjusted. Moreover, a vernier drive arrangement for adjusting the angular orientation of the optical reflectors relative to one another is provided.
Abstract: Several embodiments of a gas laser plasma tube are described having one or more internal gas return paths doubled back upon themselves within the structure which defines the gaseous discharge bore, to increase their length so that electrical gaseous discharge in the same is inhibited.
Abstract: A laser is described having a protective mechanism for terminating its output beam without requiring the laser power to be disconnected. Such protective mechanism includes a barrier located within the laser optical cavity for movement between a position preventing the radiation oscillation responsible for lasing action and another position allowing the lasing action to take place. A feedthrough mechanism is included for transmitting motion imparted to an actuator external of the laser to motion of the barrier between its positions within the optical cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the feedthrough mechanism relies on a magnetic arrangement to insure that the hermetic isolation of the optical cavity from the atmosphere ambient to the laser is not deleteriously affected due to the necessity of transmitting motion from outside the optical cavity to its interior.
Abstract: An ion laser is described having an etalon incorporated therein so as to provide maximum mechanical and thermal stability of the etalon position, as well as enable the etalon to be tuned by temperature control without contamination of the laser optical cavity by the etalon heating element. The laser includes a resonator structure made up of a pair of reference plates positioned adjacent the ends of the laser optical cavity and maintained in a set, spaced-apart position and orientation by a plurality of resonator rods which are rigidly secured thereto and are made of a material having a low thermal coefficient of expansion. The reference plates are normally provided to facilitate obtaining the stable mounting of the laser optical reflectors relative to the optical cavity necessary for optimum lasing operation.
Abstract: A laser power meter is described which enables the direct measurement of the output power of lasers over a full range of differing beam wavelengths. The laser power meter includes not only the photocell for intercepting a laser beam and the needle-scale meter conventionally provided, but also calibration means for simple adjustment of the meter to provide a correct power reading irrespective of the wavelength of the beam whose power is being measured. The calibration means includes first and second pluralities of resistors which are selectively connected in series between the photocell and the needle-scale meter by switches which are calibrated in nanometers. A user of the device is able to obtain a true reading of the power in a laser beam merely by "dialing in" the wavelength of the beam and selecting the proper power range for the needle-scale meter.
Abstract: A laser is described which includes optical mirror mounting structure providing stable support for the optical mirrors and yet enabling precise and reproducible angular reorientation of the same with respect to the optical axis of the lasing tube. The mounting structure for each of such mirrors includes a pair of generally parallel, rectangular plates, one of which is rigidly associated with the lasing tube and the other one of which is a mount for the mirror. Such plates are adjustably connected together adjacent three corresponding corners to provide orthogonal adjustment of one with respect to the other. Each connection at a corner includes a tuning bolt which is threadably received within one of the plates and bears against the other. It also includes a leaf spring rigidly secured between such plates to provide a compressive force on its associated tuning bolt.