Patents Assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
  • Patent number: 5508183
    Abstract: A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Timothy C. Scott, Charles D. Scott, Brendlyn D. Faison, Brian H. Davison, Jonathan Woodward
  • Patent number: 5506475
    Abstract: An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source includes a primary mirror coil disposed coaxially around a vacuum vessel in which a plasma is induced and introducing a solenoidal ECR-producing field throughout the length of the vacuum vessel. Radial plasma confinement is provided by a multi-cusp, multi-polar permanent magnet array disposed azimuthally around the vessel and within the primary mirror coil. Axial confinement is provided either by multi-cusp permanent magnets at the opposite axial ends of the vessel, or by secondary mirror coils disposed on opposite sides of the primary coil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 9, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Gerald D. Alton
  • Patent number: 5503372
    Abstract: A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Warren G. Sisson, Michael T. Harris, Timothy C. Scott, Osman A. Basaran
  • Patent number: 5503898
    Abstract: The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the, solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert J. Lauf
  • Patent number: 5501268
    Abstract: A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 26, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Therese K. Stovall, John J. Tomlinson
  • Patent number: 5499599
    Abstract: A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Douglas H. Lowndes, James W. McCamy
  • Patent number: 5497707
    Abstract: A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: W. Donald Box
  • Patent number: 5496522
    Abstract: The present invention relates to chemical sensor and biosensor probes for measuring low concentration of metals and metal ions in complex samples such as biological fluids, living cells, and environmental samples. More particularly the present invention relates to a gel-based Indo-1 and Fura-2 chemical sensor probes for the measurement of low concentrations of calcium, cadmium, magnesium and the like. Also disclosed is a detector device using the sensors of the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Tuan Vo-Dinh, Pierre Viallet
  • Patent number: 5493730
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 27, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Tuan Vo-Dinh
  • Patent number: 5494811
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 27, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Joseph A. Marasco
  • Patent number: 5486280
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for the application of a control variable having a fractal structure to a body or process. The process of the present invention comprises the steps of generating a control variable having a fractal structure and applying the control variable to a body or process reacting in accordance with the control variable. The process is applicable to electroforming where first, second and successive pulsed-currents are applied to cause the deposition of material onto a substrate, such that the first pulsed-current, the second pulsed-current, and successive pulsed currents form a fractal pulsed-current waveform.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan S. Bullock, IV, Roger L. Lawson
  • Patent number: 5483841
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Donald A. Casada
  • Patent number: 5483833
    Abstract: Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Larry M. Dickens, Howard D. Haynes, Curtis W. Ayers
  • Patent number: 5484730
    Abstract: A method of eluting trinitrotoluene (TNT) from soil using a dispersant from bacterial intra-amoebic isolate 1s, ATCC 75229.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Tyndall, Arpad Vass
  • Patent number: 5483037
    Abstract: A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Douglas N. Mashburn
  • Patent number: 5482003
    Abstract: A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Rodney A. McKee, Frederick J. Walker
  • Patent number: 5482257
    Abstract: A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Cressie E. Holcombe, William A. Pfeiler
  • Patent number: 5483338
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for evaluating structural weaknesses in polymer matrix composites is described. An object to be studied is illuminated with laser radiation and fluorescence emanating therefrom is collected and filtered. The fluorescence is then imaged and the image is studied to determine fluorescence intensity over the surface of the object being studied and the wavelength of maximum fluorescent intensity. Such images provide a map of the structural integrity of the part being studied and weaknesses, particularly weaknesses created by exposure of the object to heat, are readily visible in the image.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Eric A. Wachter, Walter G. Fisher
  • Patent number: 5482673
    Abstract: A process for preparing ceramic composite comprising blending TiC particulates, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 particulates and nickle aluminide and consolidating the mixture at a temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite having fracture toughness equal to or greater than 7 MPa m.sup.1/2, a hardness equal to or greater than 18 GPa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Kathleen B. Alexander, Terry N. Tiegs, Paul F. Becher, Shirley B. Waters
  • Patent number: 5481428
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert J. Lauf, Cressie E. Holcombe, Norman L. Dykes