Abstract: An operational amplifier including a differential amplifier circuit, and a reverse output buffer. The reverse output buffer has a first forward switch, a second forward switch, a first reverse switch, and a second reverse switch. The first forward switch and the first reverse switch and the second forward switch are connected in series between a reference voltage source and a grounding terminal. The second forward switch being connected between the output terminal of the operational amplifier and the grounding terminal. The second reverse switch and the second forward switch are electrically connected by a bias voltage provided from a bias voltage input terminal connected thereto, so that when the second bias voltage input terminal is at low potential and the first bias voltage is at high potential, the second reverse switch is on, and the second forward switch is off. The operational amplifier will then function normally.
Abstract: An OTP (One Time Programmable) micro-controller having a high-data/low-data switching unit adapted to separate input data into high-data and low-data for transmission to an EPROM (erasable programmable read only memory), so that input data of bit number greater than the number of data input/output pins of the micro-controller can be positively write in the EPROM at one time.
Abstract: A power edge detector includes a voltage divider, a pull-up circuit, and a cut-in pull-down circuit. The voltage divider receives and divides an input power voltage so as to generate a divided voltage. The pull-up circuit receives the input power voltage and transmits the input power voltage to an output terminal when the input power voltage does not exceed a predetermined threshold. The cut-in pull-down circuit is connected to the voltage divider and the pull-up circuit for pulling down the voltage level of the output terminal in response to the divided voltage when the input power voltage exceeds the predetermined threshold.