Patents Assigned to Optel Corporation
  • Patent number: 4152490
    Abstract: A device capable of converting radiant energy to electrical energy and storing said electrical energy for future use is described. The device comprises a pair of electrodes, at least one of which is transparent, a compensator layer in contact with one of said electrodes, and a layer of a charge storage material in contact with the other of said electrodes and said compensator layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1979
    Assignee: Optel Corporation
    Inventor: Horst Witzke
  • Patent number: 4138532
    Abstract: A photogalvanic cell having a light transparent electrode and a spaced counterelectrode separated by an electrolyte. The electrolyte includes an n-methylphenazine dye system which not only contributes to the conversion of light to electrical energy but also is capable of storing electrical charge after light is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 1976
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1979
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventor: Schoen-nan Chen
  • Patent number: 4137524
    Abstract: The present invention includes a multi-electrode structure including a counterelectrode, a display electrode in registry with the counterelectrode and finally an intermediately positioned apertured background electrode. Display material is contained between the counterelectrode and the background electrode. Depending upon the electric field conditions existing between the various electrodes, a display image may be created with a first dark-light contrast relationship relative to a background. An appropriate driving circuit is capable of changing the field relationship between the electrodes so that a reverse contrast relationship appears between a displayed image and its background.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: January 30, 1979
    Assignee: Optel Corporation
    Inventors: Schoen-nan Chen, Kenneth J. Harrison
  • Patent number: 4120568
    Abstract: An electrochromic device having an electrochromic layer and an electrolyte sandwiched between electrodes. A charge compensator ion permeable layer is interposed between the electrochromic layer and the electrolyte. The latter-mentioned interposing layer serves as a protective overcoat for the electrochromic layer and minimizes the structural decay of the cell which might otherwise occur. SUFIELD OF THE INVENTIONThe present invention relates to electrochromic devices and, more particularly, to such a device having a protective overcoat layer interposed between an electrochromic layer and an electrolyte.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ARTThe prior art has recognized the usefulness of electrochromic devices wherein the electromagnetic absorption characteristics may be reversibly altered by a controlled electric field. The device is particularly useful as a display device or in light valve-type applications.U.S. Pat. No.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1977
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1978
    Assignee: Optel Corporation
    Inventors: Satyendra Kumar Deb, Horst Witzke
  • Patent number: 4118546
    Abstract: A photogalvanic cell includes a glass substrate with a transparent electrode which receives irradiating light energy. A second electrode is positioned in spaced relationship from the first electrode and has a thin film of charge storing tungsten oxide deposited thereon. Spaced from both the transparent electrode and the tungsten oxide thin film is a counterelectrode. An electrolyte having TiO.sub.2 powder mixed therein forms a photoactive site at the surface of the transparent electrode. By physically separating the tungsten oxide thin film from the transparent electrode, more light irradiates the TiO.sub.2 thereby increasing the photoconversion of the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1977
    Date of Patent: October 3, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventors: Horst Witzke, Schoen-nan Chen, Satyendra K. Deb, Michael A. Russak
  • Patent number: 4118547
    Abstract: A sealed device includes an electrode having a semiconductor thin film coating. A liquid electrolyte contacts the thin film to form a photoactive interface which converts light energy to electrical energy. A counterelectrode is positioned in spaced relation to the electrode and also contacts the electrolyte. Leads are connected to the electrode and counterelectrode so that a load may be driven by the device when the device is exposed to light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1977
    Date of Patent: October 3, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventors: Horst Witzke, Schoen-nan Chen, Satyendra K. Deb, Steven Robert Jost, Joseph Reichman, Michael A. Russak
  • Patent number: 4117210
    Abstract: A photogalvanic cell includes a conducting SnO.sub.2 electrode upon which is deposited a semi-transparent film of Ti. A metal oxide thin film, such as TiO.sub.2 is in turn deposited upon the semi-transparent Ti thin film. An aqueous (acid or base) electrolyte contacts the metal oxide thin film to form a photoactive site for converting light to electrical energy. The semi-transparent film reduces the internal resistance of the cell by assisting charge transfer between the metal oxide film and the electrode. Also, use of a semi-transparent film permits bi-directional irradiation of the cell to increase photoconversion efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventors: Satyendra K. Deb, Schoen-nan Chen, Horst Witzke, Michael A. Russak, Joseph Reichman
  • Patent number: 4115631
    Abstract: A photogalvanic cell having an electrode and a counterelectrode positioned in spaced registry. A charge storage layer containing a transition metal oxide covers the electrode while a semi-solid electrolyte covers the counterelectrode. An overcoat layer containing tin oxide is disposed in intervening contact between the charge storage layer and the semi-solid electrolyte. The cell converts light energy to electrical energy and also stores electrical charge for use after the cell is no longer exposed to light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventor: Satyendra Kumar Deb
  • Patent number: 4097655
    Abstract: A photogalvanic cell includes an electrode and counterelectrode supported on a substrate with a semi-solid electrolyte layer intervening therebetween. Titanium oxide is suspended in the electrolyte. A voltage appears between the electrode and counterelectrode in response to light. Charge storage is exhibited by the cell after light is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1976
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventor: Horst Witzke
  • Patent number: 4086398
    Abstract: A number of aligned and spaced photogalvanic cells/compartments have interior passages formed therebetween to permit the free passage of electrolyte. Each compartment includes spaced electrodes and a TiO.sub.2 -electrolyte photoactive site. A layer of charge storing material, such as tungsten oxide may be incorporated in each compartment. As a result, each compartment is capable of converting light energy to electrical energy and also storing charge within the cell after light irradiation ceases. By connecting the various electrodes of the compartments in parallel, greater current flow may be appreciated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventors: Donald K. Cartmell, Horst Witzke
  • Patent number: 4085257
    Abstract: A device capable of converting radiant energy to electrical energy and storing said electrical energy for future use is described. The device comprises a pair of electrodes, at least one of which is transparent, a compensator layer in contact with one of said electrodes, and a layer of a charge storage material in contact with the other of said electrodes and said compensator layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1975
    Date of Patent: April 18, 1978
    Assignee: Optel Corporation
    Inventor: Horst Witzke
  • Patent number: 4084043
    Abstract: A charge storing photogalvanic cell including spaced electrode and counterelectrode "sandwiching" a charge storage layer and a compensating layer. Various dopants to the charge storage layer have been determined to vary cell performance as follows: increasing photosensitivity and charge retention; increasing electrical response; increasing device life; decreasing charge retention; changing optical absorption of charge storage layer; or localizing destruction of charge storage capability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventors: Horst Witzke, Satyendra Kumar Deb
  • Patent number: 4080488
    Abstract: A photogalvanic cell has a glass substrate through which irradiating light passes. A light transparent conductive thin film serves as an electrode, the film being deposited upon the glass substrate. Another layer is an electrolyte and includes an aqueous medium having TiO.sub.2 suspended therein, the TiO.sub.2 forming photoactive sites with the remaining ingredients of the electrolyte. The electrolyte layer further includes N-methylphenazine methosulfate dye which has photoconversion and electrical storage properties. During irradiation the cell may drive a load, or stored energy resulting from irradiation may drive a load after the source of irradiation is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventors: Schoen-Nan Chen, Satyendra K. Deb, Horst Witzke
  • Patent number: 4076904
    Abstract: A multilayer device has a coated photoelectrochemical electrode and a counterelectrode. The device is packaged without an electrolyte. However, when the device is immersed in sea water, the water acts as an electrolyte by contributing ions which makes photogalvanic action possible. The device may be fabricated in the form of flexible sheets which are easily transported and deployed for use in sea water. The device will generate electricity for a utilization device after it is immersed in sea water and exposed to light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 1976
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1978
    Assignees: Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventor: Schoen-nan Chen
  • Patent number: 3955355
    Abstract: There is disclosed an integral instrument providing timekeeping and display with calculator functions and display accomplished by means of a keyboard assembly mounted on the watch casing and adapted to be worn about a user's wrist. Included is time sharing circuitry to enable common display drivers for the timekeeping and calculating modes as well as power sharing circuitry to enable the use of inexpensive and reliable P-MOS circuitry in the calculator mode without constantly dissipating power. A time-zone setting circuit utilizes logic circuitry to automatically enable the user to change time by direct access to the existing keyboard assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1976
    Assignee: Optel Corporation
    Inventor: Nunzio A. Luce
  • Patent number: 3955879
    Abstract: An electrochromic device comprises, in a layered structure, a first electrode, an electrochromic material, an electrolyte and a back electrode which is of a material different than said first electrode. The device is characterized as having a nonlinear voltage response, a well defined threshhold, and an internal electromotive force which is uniquely determined by the color state of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1973
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1976
    Assignee: Optel Corporation
    Inventors: Horst Witzke, Matthew D. Miller
  • Patent number: 3955353
    Abstract: A converter utilizes a low voltage battery to develop a higher potential by the use of capacitors which are charged sequentially according to digital waveforms provided by counting type circuits and gates. The charge transfer circuits afford a low impedance charging path and a high impedance discharge path via a series of transmission gate controlled capacitors.The apparatus permits the conversion of low battery voltages while being completely compatible with ultra-miniature electronic systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1976
    Assignee: Optel Corporation
    Inventor: Brian Astle