Patents Assigned to Research Frontiers Incorporated
  • Patent number: 10394232
    Abstract: A control system controls one or more appliances or devices and includes a remote control unit, or other device, to provide instructions for controlling the devices and appliances based on user input and other information provided to the remote control unit or other device. The other information may be information provided by sensors in the remote control device itself, or elsewhere, or information obtained by the remote control device from outside the remote control device. Information may be provided from outside the remote control device via a communication system and/or a computer system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2019
    Assignee: RESEARCH FRONTIERS INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Joseph M. Harary, Seth Van Voorhees, Steven M. Slovak
  • Patent number: 10137668
    Abstract: A laminated glazing including a moisture-sensitive functional insert included within the glazing, the laminated glazing comprising a stack comprised of a plurality of glass or plastic plies, the plies being joined together by interlayers located between the plies, wherein a central area of the stack comprises at least one optically clear interlayer; the stack further including a moisture-sensitive functional insert; wherein an inner perimeter of the laminated glazing is formed with a frame comprised of a hydrophobic moisture-resistant material, the frame having a thickness substantially corresponding to a combined thickness of the interlayers within the glazing plus the insert. In addition, a method of reducing or eliminating exposure of a moisture-sensitive insert within a laminated glazing constructed as above is also described herein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2018
    Assignee: RESEARCH FRONTIERS INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Dongyan Wang, Seth Van Voorhees, Steven M. Slovak, Robert L. Saxe
  • Patent number: 9417471
    Abstract: A display device comprising a Suspended Particle Device film or other material for controlling the amount of illumination transmitted to an object from one or more light sources to protect the object from degradation by light is described. The display is capable of being dark when the object is not being viewed and being highly transmissive when the object is to be viewed. If desired, the display device may be controlled so as to provide a substantially constant amount of illumination when the object is viewed or intended to be viewed. A method of protecting an object using the display device is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Assignee: RESEARCH FRONTIERS INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Robert L. Saxe, Steven M. Slovak, Seth Van Voorhees, Gregory M. Sottile, Dongyan Wang
  • Patent number: 8922872
    Abstract: A light valve film forming a light-modulating element of a light valve, the film comprised of a cross-linked polymer matrix with a plurality of droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed therein. The film has a phase ratio: % particle number value calculated by the formula: Matrix / capsule ? ? ratio % ? ? particles ? ? in ? ? the ? ? capsule = Phase ? ? ratio ? : ? ? % ? ? particle ? ? number In one embodiment the light valve film has a relatively low visible transmittance in the unpowered Off state such that the film has a % T of <0.05 and a ?T of >42%. In another embodiment the light valve film has a relatively high visible transmittance in the On state such that the film has a % T of >70% and a ?T of >57%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Xiao-Ping Chen, Steven M. Slovak, Seth Van Voorhees
  • Patent number: 8670173
    Abstract: A moisture-resistant suspended particle device film comprising a cured suspended particle device emulsion having a plurality of uncrosslinked droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed throughout the cured emulsion; first and second glass or plastic sheets located outwardly from and sandwiching the cured emulsion, wherein located on an inner aspect of each sheet, adjacent the cured emulsion, is a thin, transparent, electrically conductive coating, the coating serving as an electrode to permit passage of an applied electric field through the cured emulsion; and a moisture-resistant barrier located around an entire outer peripheral edge portion of the film, wherein the barrier is comprised of a barrier material that eliminates or at least reduces passage of moisture from outside the film into the cured emulsion, thus preventing development of a light-frame pattern in the film that would otherwise be caused by the moisture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Dongyan Wang, Steven M. Slovak, Robert L. Saxe, Xiao-Ping Chen
  • Publication number: 20130208342
    Abstract: A light valve film forming a light-modulating element of a light valve, the film comprised of a cross-linked polymer matrix with a plurality of droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed therein. The film has a phase ratio: % particle number value calculated by the formula: Matrix / capsule ? ? ratio % ? ? particles ? ? in ? ? the ? ? capsule = Phase ? ? ratio ? : ? ? % ? ? particle ? ? number In one embodiment the light valve film has a relatively low visible transmittance in the unpowered Off state such that the film has a % T of <0.05 and a ?T of >42%. In another embodiment the light valve film has a relatively high visible transmittance in the On state such that the film has a % T of >70% and a ?T of >57%.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2013
    Publication date: August 15, 2013
    Applicant: RESEARCH FRONTIERS INCORPORATED
    Inventor: RESEARCH FRONTIERS INCORPORATED
  • Publication number: 20120236393
    Abstract: A suspended particle device (SPD) film or laminate thereof. The film includes substrates coated on their inner surface with a polythiophene-based conductive polymer serving as electrode means. The polymer may be applied in the form of an aqueous composition also comprising solvent(s) and binder(s). A preferred polymer is a polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDT) polymer. The polymer may be doped with polystyrene sulfonate. The polymer may be connected to a conductive material that extends beyond an outer boundary of the film to connect with a voltage source. Adhesive strength between the cured emulsion and the polymer is at least 1.46 N/25 mm. A further aspect constitutes a method for increasing adhesion between a cured suspended particle device emulsion and electrode means in a light valve film. The method comprises applying the polymer on an inner surface of the substrates constituting the film to serve as the electrode means.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 4, 2012
    Publication date: September 20, 2012
    Applicant: RESEARCH FRONTIERS INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Steven M. Slovak, Xiao-Ping Chen, William J. Hull, Dongyan Wang
  • Patent number: 7920321
    Abstract: An electro-optical device, e.g., a suspended particle device (SPD) adapted for controlling the transmission of radiation wherein the device is provided with at least one layer of an overcoating adapted to enhance adhesion on at least a portion of a surface between a film serving as a light modulating element and electrode means for applying an electrical field to said film, wherein the overcoating is formed from a material comprising a member selected from the group consisting of (a) titanium dioxide (TiO2) alone and (b) a combination of SiOx and an inorganic material having an index of refraction at 589 nm greater than 1.54. A method of producing the device with the application of such overcoating is additionally described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2011
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Robert L. Saxe, Steven M. Slovak, Xiao-Ping Chen
  • Patent number: 7847033
    Abstract: An emulsifier for use in forming a film for a suspended particle device (SPD) wherein the film is comprised of a cross-linked matrix polymer having a plurality of droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed therein. The emulsifier is formed of a copolymer material comprising at least first and second segments, the segments differing from one another in at least one of their chemical affinities, their compositions and their polarities. A first one of the segments is soluble in an uncured liquid matrix polymer used in forming the film, but insoluble in a liquid suspension medium of which the droplets are dispersed. A second segment is soluble in the liquid suspending medium in the droplets and insoluble in the uncured liquid matrix polymer. The first and second segments have substantially the same index of refraction and the index of refraction of the segments is within 0.010 of that of each phase of an emulsion formed with the emulsifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Srinivasan Chakrapani, Robert L. Saxe, Steven M. Slovak
  • Patent number: 7791788
    Abstract: A film suitable for use as the light-modulating element of an SPD light valve. The film comprises a cross-linked polymer matrix and has droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed in the cross-linked polymer matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Steven M. Slovak, Xiao-Ping Chen, Robert L. Saxe
  • Publication number: 20090153944
    Abstract: An electro-optical device, e.g., a suspended particle device (SPD) adapted for controlling the transmission of radiation wherein the device is provided with at least one layer of an overcoating adapted to enhance adhesion on at least a portion of a surface between a film serving as a light modulating element and electrode means for applying an electrical field to said film, wherein the overcoating is formed from a material comprising a member selected from the group consisting of (a) titanium dioxide (TiO2) alone and (b) a combination of SiOx and an inorganic material having an index of refraction at 589 nm greater than 1.54. A method of producing the device with the application of such overcoating is additionally described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 1, 2008
    Publication date: June 18, 2009
    Applicant: RESEARCH FRONTIERS INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Robert L. Saxe, Steven M. Slovak, Xiao-Ping Chen
  • Patent number: 7417785
    Abstract: Methods and circuits for distributing power to suspended-particle-device (SPD) film products including SPD windows, SPD shades, and other SPD products, which are referred to generally as SPD loads. A driving voltage derived from a primary power source is provided to an SPD load by backbone wiring which carries a low AC or DC voltage derived from the primary power source, and a conversion stage which converts the low voltage to an AC driving voltage which is then supplied to the SPD load.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2008
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventor: Albert P Malvino
  • Patent number: 7361252
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a method for laminating a suspended particle device (SPD) film which comprises forming a suspended particle device film; positioning the suspended particle device film within an unlaminated stack of components for forming a laminated suspended particle device film, wherein the stack comprises at least one hot melt adhesive sheet or film contacting an outer surface of the suspended particle device film; subjecting the unlaminated stack to at least a partial vacuum, preheating the unlaminated stack of components under the vacuum for a time and at a temperature selected to permit at least partial degassing of the stack and applying a sufficient net pressure to the stack at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to produce a laminated suspended particle device film from the unlaminated stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2008
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Steven M Slovak, Srinivasan Chakrapani, Robert L Saxe
  • Patent number: 6987602
    Abstract: The invention contemplates anisometrically shaped carbon-containing particles for use as the particles of a liquid light valve suspension, films and light valves. The anisometric carbon-containing particles are crystalline or amorphous particles and can have various geometrical shapes including, for example, flakes. The above object is achieved by carefully controlling the size and shape of such particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2006
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventor: Robert L. Saxe
  • Patent number: 6936193
    Abstract: A film suitable for use as a light-modulating unit of a suspended particle device light valve, comprising a plurality of particles dispersed in a liquid suspending medium, distributed within an optionally crosslinked matrix polymer. The suspending medium is substantially immiscible with the matrix polymer, has a boiling point greater than about 100° C., has an electrical resistivity of at least about 0.8×106 ohms per square, and has an in endex of refraction at 25° C. which differs from that of the matrix polymer by no more than about 0.002.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 30, 2005
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Robert L. Saxe, Steven M. Slovak, Srinivasan Chakrapani, Matthew Forlini
  • Patent number: 6900923
    Abstract: A film suitable for use as a light-modulating unit of a suspended particle device (SPD) light valve. The film comprises a siloxane matrix polymer which has a refractive index>1.4630 and has droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed within the matrix. The liquid light valve suspension preferably comprises a polyalkyl (meth)acrylate and/or fluorinated (meth)acrylate suspending polymer and optionally may comprise one or more non-polymeric liquids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2005
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Srinivasan Chakrapani, Steven M. Slovak
  • Patent number: 6897997
    Abstract: A voltage controlling device includes an AC terminal receiving an AC voltage signal, a voltage dividing device adapted to divide the AC voltage signal into a plurality of distinct voltage signals within a predetermined range, a controller adapted to control the voltage dividing device to provide a selected voltage level based on voltage level information and an SPD terminal for providing the selected voltage level to a suspended particle device. Voltage level information may be provided via an input device and/or from a photocell that monitors a light level at the suspended particle device. A separate AC power supply may also be provided. The controller may also monitor an SPD load voltage to control the voltage level provided to the SPD terminal in order to prevent shocking of a user.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2005
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventor: Albert P. Malvino
  • Publication number: 20040257634
    Abstract: A film suitable for use as a light-modulating unit of a suspended particle device (SPD) light valve. The film comprises a siloxane matrix polymer which has a refractive index>1.4630 and has droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed within the matrix. The liquid light valve suspension preferably comprises a polyalkyl (meth)acrylate and/or fluorinated (meth)acrylate suspending polymer and optionally may comprise one or more non-polymeric liquids.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 18, 2003
    Publication date: December 23, 2004
    Applicant: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Srinivasan Chakrapani, Steven M. Slovak
  • Publication number: 20040201001
    Abstract: A film suitable for use as a light-modulating unit of a suspended particle device light valve. The film comprises a matrix polymer and has droplets of a liquid light valve suspension comprising a plurality of particles dispersed in a liquid suspending medium distributed within the matrix. The suspending medium (a) is substantially immiscible with the matrix polymer, (b) has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure greater than about 100° C., (c) has an electrical resistivity of at least about 0.8×106 ohms per square, and (d) has an index of refraction at 25° C. which differs from that of the matrix polymer, measured at substantially the same temperature, by no more than about 0.002.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 14, 2003
    Publication date: October 14, 2004
    Applicant: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Robert L. Saxe, Steven M. Slovak, Srinivasan Chakrapani, Matthew Forlini
  • Patent number: 6804040
    Abstract: A voltage controlling device includes an AC terminal receiving an AC voltage signal, a voltage dividing device adapted to divide the AC voltage signal into a plurality of distinct voltage signals within a predetermined range, a controller adapted to control the voltage dividing device to provide a selected voltage level based on voltage level information and an SPD terminal for providing the selected voltage level to a suspended particle device. Voltage level information may be provided via an input device and/or from a photocell that monitors a light level at the suspended particle device. A separate AC power supply may also be provided. The controller may also monitor an SPD load voltage to control the voltage level provided to the SPD terminal in order to prevent shocking of a user.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2004
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventors: Albert P. Malvino, Robert L. Saxe, Joseph M. Harary