Abstract: A structural beam has a generally T-shaped cross-sectional profile with a column portion and a capital portion. The capital portion has a top surface and downwardly and inwardly converging sidewalls, while the column portion has downwardly and inwardly converging sidewalls and a bottom surface, with the rate of convergence of the capital portion being greater than the rate of convergence of the column portion. Such beam can be employed as a floor beam in a flooring system for a building structure, wherein the ends of a plurality of such floor beams are supported by the inner flanges on opposed foundation beams having an inverted T-shaped profile. The foundation beams can be positioned end-to-end to form shuttering for an in situ cast concrete slab. A layer of a thermal insulating material can be positioned on top of the floor beams, and a concrete slab can be cast on top of the insulating layer such that the top of the concrete slab is no higher than the top of the foundation beams.
Abstract: A pile (18) has a preformed disc-like load spreading member (34) fixed to its upper end after the pile (18) has been driven into the ground. A recess (16) is formed around the top of the pile and can be filled with particulate material (22) to position the load spreading member (34) while a bonding agent (23) fixing the load spreading member (34) to the pile (18) sets. A downwardly converging hollow concrete conical member (40), driven into the ground, has a cover (46) placed thereon to distribute the load to the conical member (40). A pile (56) can be driven through the hollow chamber of the conical member (40) and fixed to the conical member (40) by pouring concrete into the chamber after the pile (56) has been driven.
Abstract: A cast in situ pile (12, 112) has a pile cap assembly (14, 114), comprising a plate (16, 116) with fixing bolts (18, 118) extending upwardly therefrom and at least one tube (28, 128) extending downwardly therefrom. The pile cap assembly is fitted to the pile prior to the concrete setting, whereby the pile cap assembly can be moved relative to the unset pile to achieve optimum positional accuracy.
Abstract: A method of driving a sectional hollow concrete pile comprises applying a direct driving force to the upper end of a first pile section and driving it into the ground. Thereafter, a second similar pile section is applied to the top of the first driven pile section and the composite sectional pile is driven to the required depth. Further, similar sections may be applied one on top of the other and the composite pile thereby formed after the application of each further pile section is driven to the required depth.
Abstract: A building method is provided that avoids the use of the traditional excavated foundation. The method comprises placing primary support members (10) into the ground in which the structure is to be built at predetermined intervals, spanning the gap between support members (10) by pre-cast reinforced concrete beams (14) of generally inverted T-shape and predetermined length and building, for example, a double skin wall (42, 44) on the outer flange (22) and top of the beam while the inner flange (22) supports a floor slab of beams (40) blocks (46) and screed (48) and abuts the inner face (31) of the upright of the beam to resist inward lateral movement thereof.
Abstract: A method of forming a pile and a method for supporting a building structure by utilizing a pile so formed comprises driving a pile casing (19), with an enlargement (24) near its leading end (20) to a desired depth and supplying under pressure a settable mixture through the top of the casing so that it flows through apertures (26) at the enlargement to fill the oversize hole left by the enlargement around the casing. The casing can be driven through a hole formed in the building structure to be supported and the settable mixture may flow up the pile casing to fill a void under the structure.
Abstract: A method of forming a base for a building structure comprises forming a plurality of holes in the ground on which the structure is to be supported, each hole diverging upwardly and pouring a mould for a concrete support column formed in situ therein, the support columns supporting beam sections forming a ring beam on which the building structure can be built.
Abstract: A soil displacement tool, or mole, comprises a hollow cylindrical body in which is provided an hydraulically reciprocal piston the movement of which drives the tool through the soil to form a hole, the body and piston being annular such that the tool is hollow.
Abstract: Several underpinning arrangements are described. In each, a concrete pile is cast in a hole formed adjacent to the structure to be underpinned. The hole is formed from at or near ground level and is vertical or at an angle close to the vertical. At least one supporting limb is also formed. This extends from the pile hole and engages the structure. When the pile is cast in the pile hole, the pile and supporting limb are made to form a unitary element so that forces exerted on the supporting limb by the structures are transmitted to and borne by the pile. Various configurations of supporting limb are described, as are various arrangements for ensuring that the supporting limb is retained in a position in which it supports the structure. A drilling assembly for use in the method is also described.
Abstract: A method of forming a support or foundation for a building structure comprises forming a number of upwardly diverging support members interconnected at their upper ends by making correspondingly shaped holes in the ground on which the structure is to be supported thereafter pouring concrete into the holes and allowing it to set to form the foundation. In certain grounds it may be necessary to extend the support structures by driving piles from their base.
Abstract: A pile section for a sectional pile including a string of sections includes a concrete member (10) having at least one longitudinally reinforcing rod (12), the rod including a spigot (14) at one end and a socket (18) at the other which in use are adapted for permanent interconnection so that on driving one section against its neighbor a continuous reinforcing element is provided.
Abstract: A method of supporting a structure comprises driving a pile casing through a hold in a structure to be supported until the leading end of the pile casing reaches its desired position and thereafter introducing a cutter into the top of the pile casing, positioning a cutting element of said cutter to a location at or near the lower surface of the structure to be supported, actuating the cutter to cut off the pile above said location so that the unwanted top portion of the pile can then be removed and introducing concrete into the pile casing and hole through the structure.
Abstract: The specification discloses a in situ cased pile and method for constructing same under the footing of a building. The invention is particularly suited to the stabilization of building footings in regions of unstable soil subject to uplift or subsistence. The cased pile extends through the unstable soil to a region of stable soil, and rests thereon. An enlarged pile footing in the stable soil is used. The movement of the unstable soil is isolated from the pile by means of a casing or tubular sleeve which surrounds the casing. A method of forming this structure in situ, without removing the unstable soil, is also disclosed. In the practice of this method a self-propelled soil displacing mole forms a hole in the subsoil and draws down a steel tube (15) to line the hole. The mole is withdrawn, a PVC or cardboard tube (16) is slid down the lined hole, and the lined hole is filled with concrete. The mole is re-run to produce a pile footing (17) and is again withdrawn.