Abstract: In some embodiments of the present disclosure, systems and methods for effecting a physiological effect are provided. In some embodiments, a system is provided which comprises a plurality of current sources, where each current source having a positive output and a negative output and each being configured to provide a first current. The system may also include a plurality of stimulating electrodes electrically connected with the plurality of current sources such that at least a pair of the stimulating electrodes share at least one output of at least one of the plurality of current sources. The stimulating electrodes may be configured to provide electrical energy to tissue of a patient at the first current. The system may further include at least one sentinel electrode, and a first voltage monitor configured to monitor a first voltage across the at least one sentinel electrode and at least one of the plurality of stimulating electrodes.