Abstract: The combustion gas passages leading to a fluidized bed in a hot water or steam boiler are kept free of deposits which might block them by pulses of gas. The gas pulses may be generated from a pressurized reservoir with periodic or aperiodic openings of a valve in a gas line leading from the reservoir to the passages. Where the bottom of a fluidized bed comprises a pair of plates defining a plenum space therebetween and the combustion gas passages define nozzles extending through the plenum space, combustion air may be fed to the nozzles via the plenum space and the cleaning pulses may also be generated from gas supplied to the plenum space.
Abstract: To prevent the tube to a pressure measuring means from being blocked by solid material mobile in a pressure container, a small part of the clean pressure medium from a source of such medium is injected into the tube so that the tube is continuously purged with clean pressure medium. By locating the pressure medium input at a suitable position along the tube relative to the pressure measuring means, the desired purging of the tube is obtained without appreciably increasing the pressure in the tube, and thus minimizing possible errors in measurement of the pressure. If, for example, pressure medium is passed into a pressurized combustion chamber through a surrounding pressurized container, and the tube to the pressure-measuring means passes through said surrounding pressurized container, the clean pressure medium can be bled into the tube through a hole bored in the side of the tube within the pressurized container.
Abstract: A gas turbine plant comprises a compressor, a turbine and, therebetween, a pressurized container containing a combustion chamber with a fluidized bed. The plant further comprises a valve means for shutting off the compressor and the turbine, respectively, from the combustion chamber at a sudden load drop out and a valved by-pass duct for direct connection of the compressor and the turbine.At a rapid load drop out, when the valve means are operated to shut off the combustion chamber from the compressor and the turbine and there is a direct connection between the compressor and the turbine, the fluidized bed of the combustion chamber is passivated, by short-circuiting, by means of a further valve means which connects the pressurized container supplying combustion air to the inlet side of the combustion chamber with the outlet side of the combustion chamber, so that the fluidized bed collapses and the air flow through it is interrupted.
Abstract: A gas turbine plant includes a compressor and a turbine and therebetween a pressurized combustion chamber with a fluidized bed arranged within a pressurized container. The plant is also provided with valves for shutting off the compressor and the turbine from the combustion chamber upon a sudden load drop out and a valved by-pass duct for direct connection of the compressor and the turbine. To rapidly release the pressure in the combustion chamber when there is a direct connection between the compressor and the turbine, hot gas from the fluidized bed and colder compressed air from the container are mixed in a mixing chamber prior to discharge into the surroundings. In this way, the blow-off valve is protected from very hot gases which would damage it.
Abstract: A fluidizable bed combustion chamber comprises an intermediate partition (2,7) which divides the chamber into an upper combustion space (1a) and a lower plenum (1b) and which is provided with means (4,4a,8) for injecting fuel into the upper combustion space in which, during use of the combustion chamber, a bed of fluidized material (6) is created. The intermediate partition is composed of a plurality of nested modules (7), each of polygonal shape and having a substantially centrally positioned fuel supply member (8). Each corner surface (9) of each module is upwardly inclined in the direction away from the center of the module, and these corner surfaces are provided with openings (10) enabling air to be injected into the upper combustion space from the plenum chamber. Preferably, the modules are of regular polygonal shape, for example triangular, quadratic or hexagonal.
Abstract: A fluidized bed combustion chamber (3) is provided with a perforated bottom plate (4) into which air nozzles (18, 19) are pressed in a manner similar to that used for tubes in a tube sheet of a heat exchanger. About one-third of the nozzles (18) are connected to a startup or auxiliary combustion chamber (14) for blowing in hot gas for heating the bed to the flash-point or ignition temperature of the fuel. Further, the bottom plate is insulated (20) between the nozzles. (FIGS. 1, 4.) A method of operating such a combustion chamber also is disclosed.
Abstract: A marine transmission comprising a gear box (7), a coupling (7) for connection of the gear box (2) to a propulsion machinery (2) and a propeller shaft (3) for transmitting drive force to a propeller (3). The propeller shaft is journalled in two radial bearings. The gearing is supported on a free end portion of propeller shaft via two radial bearings. These bearings may also constitute the front bearing of the propeller shaft.
Abstract: An assembly and method for heating a fluidized bed combustion chamber to ignition temperature, wherein a heated gas flows through heat exchange tubes extending into the fluidized bed to provide sufficient heat for raising the temperature of the bed material and the combustion air to allow for ignition of the combustion fuel. A conduit system is provided for selectively recycling combustion air through the combustion chamber during the ignition process.
Abstract: The invention relates to a back pressure turbine (2) for a district heating plant (15), in which a cut-off valve (22) is provided between the turbine (2) and the condenser (5). The valve makes it possible to use the turbine condenser for heating the water of the district heating system through direct supply of steam from the steam boiler (1) when the turbine is shut off.
Abstract: A gas turbine plant having a gas turbine and an associated compressor that is operated to produce compressed air. The compressed air is applied to support the combustion of an ignited fluidized bed of combustible material disposed within a main combustion chamber. Combustion gases from the fluidized bed are applied to drive the turbine and the compressor. Auxiliary heating chambers are employed to heat the combustible material of the fluidized bed to an ignition temperature over a turbine start-up interval. An ignition combustion chamber is connected in parallel with the fluidized bed and is operated during the turbine start-up interval to apply its combustion gases to drive the unloaded or lightly loaded turbine and compressor.
Abstract: A combined nozzle for air and fuel to a fluidized bed (20) comprises two fixed portions (1, 10) mounted at the top and bottom of an air chamber (4) and a movable, withdrawable portion (2) which connects the two fixed portions and is guided by them. The movable portion blocks the lower fixed portion (10) outwardly and conducts air and fuel to the upper fixed portion (1). Further, there is a device (3, 26) for sealing the lower fixed portion when the movable portion is removed for inspection during operation. (FIG. 2).
Abstract: Fuel and additional material are dried prior to entering the combustion chamber of a thermal power plant using drying chambers having fluidized beds. The heat required for drying is extracted from the hot ashes from the power plant by means of an oxygen-poor gas which circulates through heating chambers containing the ashes and drying chambers containing the fuel in a substantially closed loop. The loop may include a condenser for dehumidification of the circulating gas.
Abstract: A gas turbine plant having a combustion chamber (1) separate from the turbine (15) includes a conduit (16) with an inner tube (17), which conducts heated propellant gas from the combustion chamber (1) to the turbine (15); and an outer tube (18), which surrounds the inner tube (17) to form an annular gap (20) which conducts compressed air from a compressor (10) to the combustion chamber (1). (FIG. 1.
September 11, 1979
Date of Patent:
August 4, 1981
Stal-Laval Turbin AB
Pehr Borjesgard, Renzo Cetrelli, Anders Kullendorff, Stur Schon, Jan Wikner
Abstract: A pressurized combustion chamber assembly wherein a fluidized bed extends in a longitudinal direction through an elongated, cylindrically shaped outer casing. A multi-stage cleaning plant is positioned within the casing, whereby a plurality of cleaning devices are each connected in parallel to an outlet of the fluidized bed and a plurality of second stage cleaning devices are each connected to an outlet of one of the first stage cleaning devices, respectively. The combustion chamber assembly is formed from a plurality of separate prefabricated chamber modules separably attached to one another.
February 8, 1979
Date of Patent:
May 26, 1981
Stal-Laval Turbin AB
Pehr Bojesgard, Anders Kullendorff, Jan Wikner
Abstract: A gas turbine plant having an ignition combustion chamber for applying heated gas to heat the fluidized bed material to ignition temperature. In starting up the plant, a starter motor is employed to rotate a turbine and thereby to cause a compressor to produce compressed air. Liquid or gaseous fuel is applied to the ignition combustion chamber and is ignited within the chamber to heat compressed air from the compressor. The compressed air is passed through the fluidized bed combustor to heat the bed material up to ignition temperature. During the start-up operation, bed material in the fluidized bed combustor is reduced to reduce the pressure requirements for the heated compressed air.
Abstract: A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.
Abstract: A novel turbo-machine of the axial type including a rotor assembly rotatably supported within a stator housing, wherein the stator housing includes a plurality of partition wall sections, with each section supported within a separate ring member along a limited contact surface, and with each of the ring members attached to each other and to the stator housing in a manner ensuring proper alignment of the turbine assembly.
Abstract: A novel turbo-machine of the axial type including a rotor assembly supported within a stator housing which includes a plurality of partition wall sections positioned adjacent one another, with each pair of sections extending on opposite sides of a rotor blade attached to the rotor assembly. Each of the partition sections is formed of a pair of similarly-shaped members, with adjacent pairs of members being rotated a specific angle prior to joining all of the pairs of each other via fasteners extending therethrough, with the plurality of joined sections then attached to the stator housing in a manner which compensates for both axial and radial thermal expansion during operation.
Abstract: Steel surfaces are protected from erosion and corrosion by a coating which includes at least three metallic layers of increasing normal potential from the base layer lying on the steel surface to that layer farthest from the steel surface. Also, the base layer immediately adjacent the steel surface has approximately the same normal potential as the steel surface.
Abstract: Combustion system for gas turbines and the like, comprising an outer shell connected to a source of pressurized air and surrounding a flame tube which comprises a combustion chamber and a mixing chamber defined within a double wall construction comprising an outer wall and an inner wall forming an annular cooling jacket axially surrounding the mixing chamber. A portion of the pressurized air is directed radially into the mixing chamber through a plurality of nozzles which are spaced about the cooling jacket, while another portion of the air is passed into said annular jacket through apertures in the outer wall alternating with and spaced a distance from said nozzles to produce a plurality of diverging high velocity peripheral streams which sweep and cool the walls of the jacket preliminary to being passed into the mixing chamber through apertures in the inner wall which are aligned with said nozzles.
February 7, 1977
Date of Patent:
November 20, 1979
Stal-Laval Turbin AB
Laszlo Hunyadi, Leif Andersson, Martin Mansson