Abstract: Characterizing the value of a particular property, for example, seismic velocity, of a subsurface region of ground is described. In one aspect, the value of the particular property is represented using at least one continuous analytic function such as a Chebychev polynomial. The seismic data may include data derived from at least one crosswell dataset for the subsurface region of interest and may also include other data. In either instance, data may simultaneously be used from a first crosswell dataset in conjunction with one or more other crosswell datasets and/or with the other data. In another aspect, the value of the property is characterized in three dimensions throughout the region of interest using crosswell and/or other data. In still another aspect, crosswell datasets for highly deviated or horizontal boreholes are inherently useful.
September 14, 1998
Date of Patent:
May 14, 2002
John K. Washbourne, James W. Rector, III, Kenneth P. Bube
Abstract: The invention is a method and apparatus for acoustic logging including one or more acoustic transmitters and one or more acoustic receivers. One or more of the elements of a set made up of the acoustic receivers and acoustic transmitters are spaced radially apart from one or more of the remaining elements of the set. The acoustic receivers and acoustic transmitters are configured along with electronics and software incorporated in the tool to allow the acoustic receivers and acoustic transmitters to act as multi-pole receivers and multi-pole transmitters, respectively. The tool is configured to compute one or more acoustic velocities and to provide storage for unprocessed and processed, compressed and error correction coded data. The tool is configured to provide the data for transmission to the surface.
September 22, 1998
Date of Patent:
April 2, 2002
Dresser Industries, Inc.
Georgios L. Varsamis, Laurence T. Wisniewski, Abbas Arian
Abstract: A magnetic incremental motion detection system for outputting a plurality of voltage and/or current signals in analog or digital form wherein the voltage and/or current signals are a collective representation of any incremental rotational, linear, or pivotal movement of an object. A target of the system is adjoined to an object to synchronously move with the object. A plurality of indications are adjoined to the target, and uniformly and serially disposed along an area of a surface of the target. The system further comprises one or more magnetic sensors spatially positioned from the area of the surface to define air gap areas therebetween. Each of the magnetic sensors are operable to output at least one analog signal in response to a synchronous movement of the target with the object. The outputted analog signals have the same duty cycle, and are consistently out of phase with each other by the same degree.
Abstract: A magnetic rotary position sensor including a base (20) upon which a plurality of radially extending magnetic sensing elements (22) are mounted. Interleaved with the sensing elements (22) are a plurality of uniformly spaced magnetic concentrators (30). The sensor assembly (18) is placed in a uniform magnetic field created, for example, by opposite polarity magnets (32, 34) mounted on opposite sides of the sensor assembly, and rotatable relative to it. The relative rotary position of the sensor assembly to the magnetic field is determined by comparing the relative values of the sensor elements (22) in the array to each other.
Abstract: An apparatus for detecting and measuring axially extending defects in ferrous tube includes a magnetizing coil for inducing a longitudinal magnetic field in the ferrous tube. Linear magnetic transducers are used to detect parallel non-linking flux leakage that occurs from axially extending defects. An analog to digital converter digitizes the measured signals representing the amount of parallel non-linking flux leakage detected. A processor subtracts signals typical of ferrous tube with no axially extending defects from the measured signals. The processor further processes the resulting signals after subtraction, by separating the alternating AC components from the constant DC components to remove the effects of perpendicular flux leakage, which may exist in the measured signals. The processor then calculates the percentage of missing material due to the axially extending defects by applying a proportionality equation to the remaining DC components of the measured signals.
Abstract: Provided is a technique, including a method and a computer program product, to dynamically measure characteristics of geologic formations while hydrocarbons are being extracted therefrom. Specifically, the present invention allows measuring the resistivity of geologic formations in which a borehole has been formed therein and encased with a conductive casing, such as a conductive liner. This has been achieved by providing a method and computer program product that compensates for the effects of a conductive liner by measuring the characteristics of the geologic formation as a function of a ratio of two magnetic fields sensed by a receiver disposed in one of the boreholes.
Abstract: Electrical connective terminals for an input use and an output use of magneto-electric conversion element and a magnet are insert molded to a synthetic resin holder. At least one part of one end face of magnet is covered by one end of the synthetic resin holder 5. At an outer face of the covering part a circuit board 6 on which the magneto-electric converter element is mounted is installed. The covering part is arranged between the magnet and thr magneto-electric converter element. Thereby a predetermined gap is assured between the magnet and the magneto-electric converter element. When a distance formed between the magnet and the rotor of magnetic material is expressed as L, a distance formed between the magnet and a magnetic sensing part of the magneto-electric converter element is expressed as L1, then L1 equals to ¼L−¾L (L1=¼L−¾L) and the distance L1 is set with a range of 1.5 mm−4.5 mm.
November 20, 1998
Date of Patent:
September 18, 2001
Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Car Engineering Co., Ltd.
Abstract: A non-destructive method of measuring physical characteristics of a medium, such as uncemented sediment, sandstone, or limestone. A pseudo-random code is generated and is used to generate a pseudo-random acoustic signal. This signal is transmitted into the medium to be measured through the use of a transducer, such as a piezoelectric element, and is received by a plurality of hydrophones. The received signal is then processed to obtain an image of its velocity and attenuation. A universal geoacoustic model of the medium for a given set of measured data is determined, and the model is solved to obtain a pair of permeability-porosity results for the medium. The one of this pair of permeability-porosity results which is correctly indicative of the physical characteristics of the medium is then determined.
Abstract: A device (10) for sensing a predetermined relative position of first and second parts (12 and 18) which are movable relative to each other includes a magnet (92) which creates a magnetic field and a pivotal lever (100) which has first and second opposite surfaces (104 and 106). The lever (100) has a first position in the magnetic field wherein the first surface (104) has a first magnetic polarity and the second surface (106) has a magnetic polarity opposite the first magnetic polarity. The lever (100) has a second position in the magnetic field when the first and second parts (12 and 18) are in the predetermined relative position. The first and second surfaces (104 and 106) move away from the magnet (92) as the lever (100) pivots from the first position to the second position.
Abstract: Eddy currents are generated in an object constructed of a conductive material by transmitting an electromagnetic signal to the object and detecting electromagnetic signals generated by eddy currents induced in the object, and an electromagnetic signal V(t) is described by a product of two factors F and G(t), wherein F is a function of the geometry and electrical and magnetic properties of the material and G(t) is a function of geometry of the material, the electrical and magnetic properties of the material, the thickness perpendicular to the surface of the material, and time.
Abstract: A wheel for roller skates or roller boards, the wheel having a non-rotating axle of rotation and a wheel body rotatable around an axle of rotation, the wheel includes means for measuring the speed at the wheel and means in the wheel for determining its rate of rotation and/or the actual rate of travel of a user of the roller skate or roller board or other sports equipment containing the wheel.
Abstract: An improved hand-held sensor having a recessed LED array for indicating the location of an object behind a wall surface. The array displays in an arrow shaped format the location of the sensor relative to the object. The LED's can be offset both laterally and in depth from the surface of the sensor exterior case and are recessed from the surface. The sensor includes a soft feeling slip-resistant gripping surface for the user. One form of the sensor includes a slide switch actuator, which is retained in one wall of the sensor case to enable actuation of a switch mechanism without physical loading on the switch mechanism.
Abstract: A system and method of processing seismic signals wherein seismic data resulting from a reflected seismic wave is received at a multi-component receiver. A mask trace is generated as a function of the seismic data received at the multi-component receiver, and a single type of seismic signals from the seismic data received at the multi-component receiver is identified and extracted utilizing the mask trace. Generating the mask trace further includes multiplying the seismic data received at two of the components of the multi-component receiver to produce a first result. A positive/negative sign of the first result is identified to produce a first binary result. The first binary result is divided by a scaling factor to produce the mask trace.
Abstract: A magnetic field sensing element comprises an underlayer formed on a substrate, a giant magnetic resistance element formed on the underlayer for detecting a change in a magnetic field, and an integrated circuit formed on the substrate for carrying out predetermined arithmetic processing based on a change in a magnetic field detected by the giant magnetic resistance element, wherein the giant magnetic resistance element and the integrated circuit are formed on the same surface.
Abstract: A magnetic metal sensor having a high response speed and which can detect small-sized metal pieces and can elongate the separation from the metal pieces. A magnetic metal sensor 2 has a core 22 defining a substantially U-shaped open magnetic path and coils 23, 24 of the same polarity mounted on the core 22. A uniform magnetic field along the direction of magnetic sensitivity is applied by a magnet 25 across the coils 24, 24. If magnetic metal approaches to a open magnetic path portion of the core 22 of the magnetic metal sensor 2, the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic circuit formed by the core and air is changed, as a result of which the impedance of the cores 23, 24 is changed. The magnetic metal sensor 2 detects the possible presence of magnetic metal or its displacement based on impedance changes of the paired coils 23, 24.
Abstract: A magnetic sensor is constructed to be capable of detecting the change of tunnel current due to co-tunneling effect at a high S/N ratio by using a tunneling magnetoresistive element having a first magnetic layer of a soft magnetic material formed on a flat substrate, first and second tunnel barrier layers formed on the first magnetic layer, magnetic particles of a ferromagnetic material provided between the first and second tunnel barrier layers, and a second magnetic layer of a soft magnetic material formed on the second tunnel barrier layer so as to create tunneling junctions.
Abstract: Method and device for measuring the resistivity index curve (Ir) of a solid sample such as a geologic sample independently of the capillary pressure curve (Pc). Multi-frequency complex impedance measurements are carried out for a sample subjected to a radial confining pressure, during operations of drainage or imbibition of a first, initially saturating fluid, through a semipermeable membrane permeable to this first fluid, placed at a first end of a containment cell, by injection of a second fluid under pressure at the opposite end thereof. One or more injection pressure stages are applied and the continuous variations of the resistivity index (Ir) as a function of the average saturation (Sw) variation are measured without waiting for the capillary equilibria to be reached. Electrodes pressed against the sample on the periphery thereof are used, these electrodes having a given longitudinal extension in relation to the length of the sample and being connected to an impedance meter.
Abstract: A magnetic sensor includes: an oscillating circuit for allowing an a.c. magnetic field into a magnetic impedance element made of a ferromagnetic substance, having first and second electrodes on both ends thereof in a longitudinal direction thereof and having a structure in which a bias coil and a negative feedback coil are wound around the ferromagnetic substance through an insulator; a detecting circuit for detecting an a.c. voltage of the magnetic impedance element due to a change in the impedance of the magnetic impedance element which is caused by an applied external magnetic field; a peak holding circuit for holding the peak value of the output voltage of the detecting circuit; and an amplifying circuit for differentially amplifying the output of the peak holding circuit.
Abstract: In accordance with the invention, an electrical or electronic circuit is provided with one or more components of magnetoresistive material and disposed within the gap of a programmable and latchable magnet. This provides the circuit with programmable and latchable resistivity, particularly useful in transformers, amplifiers and frequency tuners.
Abstract: Apparatus and method for measuring the properties of rocks such as permeability, porosity and fluid properties downhole around a borehole (3) in which a seismic source (6) which radiates a seismic signal substantially radially within the borehole is lowered down the borehole (3) and the electrical signal generated by the seismic signal within the surrounding rock is detected by detectors (4, 5) mounted above and below the seismic source (6) so that signals are received from substantially all radial directions. Preferably a continuous wave signal is generated and the signal detected whilst the apparatus (1) is raised or lowered. The apparatus (1) gives a much better and more accurate measurement than previous methods.
April 17, 1998
Date of Patent:
May 1, 2001
Court Services Limited
John William Aidan Millar, Richard Hedley Clarke