Abstract: The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.
Abstract: A layer of electrically conductive polymers is applied by a process in which carbon fibers of filaments or sheet-like structures of carbon fibers or filaments are coated with sulfonic acids of phthalocyanines or porphyrins, the filaments treated in this manner are made the anode in a solution which contains monomers from the class consisting of the 5-membered heterocycles, and the monomers are anodically polymerized so that a conductive layer is formed on the fibers, filaments or sheet-like structures.
August 25, 1986
Date of Patent:
February 9, 1988
Herbert Naarmann, Franz Haaf, Gerhard Fahrbach
Abstract: An aqueous electrolytic solution of a molybdate ion and an oxidizing agent is effective to detect phosphorus segregates in a metallic material, particularly cast steel through electrolysis. Segregated phosphorus can be detected by (a) applying a test sheet against a surface area of the metallic material to be examined for segregation, (b) introducing an aqueous electrolytic solution comprising 0.1 to 20% by weight of a molybdate ion and an oxidizing agent between the metallic material surface area and the sheet, (c) contacting a cathode plate with the sheet, (d) effecting electrolysis with the metallic material made anode, (e) removing the sheet from the metallic material surface, and (f) treating the sheet with a reducing agent.
Abstract: An oxygen concentration detection system includes an oxygen sensor unit sensitive to oxygen in ambient oxygen-containing gases, an activating current supply operative to supply an activating current to the oxygen sensor unit. The oxygen sensor unit is responsive to the activating current and operative to produce a sensor signal voltage variable with the concentration of oxygen in the oxygen-containing gases. A reference signal generator produces a predetermined reference signal, the activating current supply means is responsive to the reference signal for producing the activating current. A current limiting circuit limits the oxygen concentration below a predetermined value which is variable with one of the activating current and the sensor signal voltage.
Abstract: An improvement in electrophoretic apparatus is provided for non-mechanical fluid transfer between the anode and cathode electrode containing chambers of the apparatus. Buffering fluid is transferred from one electrode containing chamber to the other via gas collecting means and a conduit which extends at a positive angle of include between the electrode containing chambers. By providing a constant and uniform rate of fluid transfer, a uniform pH value is maintained throughout the apparatus without use of mechanical pumps for the duration of the electrophoresis.
Abstract: The higher chloroalkanes, advantageously the higher chloromethanes, are continuously produced from at least one lesser chloroalkane, by (i) continuously introducing chlorine and said at least one lesser chloroalkane into a stream of reaction medium continuously and essentially autogenously recirculating in a loop circuit which comprises an essentially vertical principal reaction zone, (ii) continuously chlorinating said at least one lesser chloroalkane in said essentially vertical principal reaction zone, and (iii) continuously withdrawing higher chloroalkane product from said stream of essentially autogenously recirculating reaction medium.
Abstract: The present invention relates to novel perfluoro chemicals (PFC), particularly perfluorocyclic ethers and polyfluorinated compounds containing a few chlorine atoms and to a method for the preparation thereof.
Abstract: Chlorine dioxide is transferred by membrane pervaporation from one chamber filled with aqueous chlorine dioxide-generating reactants or other chlorine dioxide donor medium across a gas-permeable hydrophobic membrane to a recipient aqueous medium filling a second chamber. The recipient medium may be water, pulp suspension or sodium chlorite solution. The membrane typically is expanded polytetrafluoroethylene.
December 24, 1985
Date of Patent:
July 28, 1987
Tenneco Canada Inc. (ERCO division)
Zbigniew Twardowski, James D. McGilvery
Abstract: A process is disclosed for recovering renatured polypeptides and proteins (collectively "polypeptides") from solution thereof and/or of their S-sulfonate derivatives (collectively "solution of polypeptides") in denaturants comprising:introducing said solution into a renaturant chamber (compartment, cell, space) of an electrodialysis ("ED") apparatus, said chamber bounded by membranes each of which is substantially permeable to low molecular weight singly charged ions of at least one charge sign and substantially impermeable to said polypeptides and S-sulfonate derivatives, said membranes separating said renaturant chamber from juxtaposed rinsing chambers on each side of the renaturant chamber;introducing rinsing solutions into said juxtaposed rinsing chambers, said rinsing solutions synergetically with said membranes facilitating a decrease in the chaotropism of said denaturant in said renaturant chamber when a direct electric current is imposed through said renaturant and rinsing chambers in series;applying
Abstract: p-Amino phenols of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 nd R.sub.2 are independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, halogen, COOH, SO.sub.3 H or NO.sub.2, are produced by electrolytic reduction of p-phenylazophenols of the formula ##STR2## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are as defined above, in an aqueous basic medium at a pH value at least equal to the pKa value of the p-phenylazophenol and at a temperature of at least 50.degree. C., preferably 70.degree. to 100.degree. C.The compounds (I) can hereby be produced without problems, in particular of an environmental nature, which are associated with the chemical reducing methods.The process is particularly useful for the preparation of the compound 5-aminosalicylic acid which is a valuable active component of certain medicaments for the treatment of colitis ulcerose and Crohn's disease.
Abstract: Method, system and apparatus for carrying out the cathodic protection of structures wherein evaluation of true current and true voltages at the counter electrode is carried out by an integration procedure which is timed in conjunction with the cross-over times of the originating a.c. input to the power source. The system also may employ an IR drop free potential measurement of a variety employing a reference electrode and a control which periodically turns off the fluctuating current drive to the working electrode for purposes of carrying out potential measurement from the reference electrode. To improve performance of the system, as well as the true current measuring features, difference networks are used to develop the difference between the signals of one channel, i.e. ground, and the parallel channel, i.e. positive, leading to the working and reference electrodes. With the arrangement, spurious noise phenomena are cancelled.