Abstract: A method and apparatus determines a quantity of liquid in a tank when at least one liquid sensor is inoperative. In a first embodiment, a plurality of tables are stored in memory which are grouped by identities of the possible inoperative sensor or sensors. One group of tables is selected based on the identified inoperative sensor or sensors. Then, that one group of tables is accessed, and the quantity of liquid in the tank is calculated based on the readings of the operative sensors. In a second embodiment, a first plurality of tables stores quantity readings for each sensor as if all sensors are operable. A second plurality of tables includes one table for each possible configuration of inoperative sensor or sensors. When the inoperative sensor or sensors are identified, one particular table in the second plurality is accessed and a quantity amount is then added to the liquid quantities determined from the first plurality of tables to provide a total liquid quantity in the tank.
Abstract: An evaluation method of a flow analysis on molding of a molten material is achieved in a system of performing a flow analysis on an in-mold molten material through breakdown of a molded part model into minute elements and numerical analysis thereof including the calculi of finite elements, boundary elements, finite differences, FAN and the like. One or more temperature conditions of the molten material are provided with a plurality of loading times respectively for conducting an analysis and from the obtained operational results of the temperature distribution of the molten material after loading, an average temperature or a medium layer temperature of each element is calculated as a function Tn=fn(t) having a variable of the loading time. This function is graphically indicated on a display apparatus to determine the ranges of the molten material temperature and the loading time at a predetermined mold temperature.
Abstract: An evaluation method analyzes flow on molding of a molten material. This is achieved in a system of making a flow analysis on an in-mold molten material through division of a molded part model into minute elements and numerical analysis thereof including the calculi of finite elements, boundary elements, finite differences, FAN and the like. One or more temperature conditions of the molten material are provided with a plurality of loading times or mold temperatures respectively for performing an analysis and from the obtained operational results of the pressure distribution of the molten material a function of the maximum molten material pressure of each element is provided. This function is graphically indicated on a display apparatus to evaluate the appropriate ranges of the molten material pressure and the loading time at a predetermined molten material temperature.
Abstract: A data transmission system avoids charging of line utilization fees when it is attempted to send data to a destination incapable of receiving the data and can be readily operated even by an operator having little technical knowledge. By storing function information relating to the terminals of a plurality of parties, the system automatically determines prior to transmission whether data is capable of being transmitted to a destination. On the basis of the function information and the data to be transmitted, a list of parties which are and are not capable of receiving a transmission is displayed on a CRT, thereby enabling the operator to visually identify in advance which parties can and cannot be sent data. The system makes it possible to identify at least the form of data to be transmitted and to display the list of parties which are and are not capable of receiving a transmission.
Abstract: A method and apparatus measured and calculates the derived thermodynamic state of a heat-pump or air conditioning system using information from transducers sensing elementary thermodynamic variables in the system. Elementary signals such as pressure, temperature, power, humidity, air flow, and others as required are derived using transducers from closed and open portions of the thermodynamic system, and which signals are then transmitted using appropriate transmission media. These signals are input to a computer, which could take many forms (electrical analog, electrical digital, pneumatic, hydraulic, and others), and these signal inputs along with known and tabulated thermodynamic characteristics of the working fluid (refrigerant) and psychrometric properties of the cooled media (air for example), are used to calculate thermodynamic output variables such as entropy, enthalpy, pressure, temperature, and volume at various states in the thermodynamic cycle.
Abstract: The presence, size and location of a crack in a shaft is determined by comparing actual measured natural frequencies of the shaft system with the results of an analytical model. From a multi-station analytical model of an uncracked shaft system, natural frequencies and associated mode shapes are derived. A suspected axial location of a crack is defined, and a natural frequency of interest is selected which has an associated mode shape exhibiting significant localized bending at the suspected axial location of the crack and at a site of response measurement. The analytical model is modified to include a representation of an asymmetric crack at the suspected crack location, and a predicted split and downward shift of a lateral natural frequency of interest and/or a predicted downward shift of a torsional natural frequency of interest as a function of crack depth is calculated from the modified model. The actual shaft system is subjected to an excitation force, and vibrational response measurements are taken.
Abstract: Valve leakage is quantified by measuring a variable that is commensurate with a heat transfer characteristic of the pipe wall (30) and comparing the measurements to data stored in a database (84) which embodies a quantitive relationship between an index commensurate with the heat transfer characteristic variable and a range of valve leakage rates that could occur for the given valve. In a straight forward implementation of the invention, a thermal hydraulic analysis of the specific valve and associated piping are performed a priori to establish a database of pipe wall temperature downstream of the valve as a function of steam flow rate. The wall temperature is simply measured and compared with the database. In another embodiment, an air cooled sleeve (54) is installed around the pipe (48) downstream of the valve (50) and a controlled flow of air is passed through the annulus (62) between the pipe and the sleeve.
Abstract: A system for the transmission and reception of wide-band real time multi-channel signals for video, audio, facsimile and/or data information, over a single or multiple satellite transponder, or over a carrier of available bandwidth for program distribution using single sideband suppressed carrier amplitude modulation which requires, for example, only 6 MHz of radio frequency bandwidth to transmit a full NTSC color television channel and which permits the use of small apertured dishes and simple conversion for the consumer's television receiver, for a nationwide signal distribution or, wherever television reception is wanted, at an economical cost.
Abstract: A method for determining total landfill gas production capability and pollutant emission rates involves measuring gas pressure in a soil cover at various locations around the landfill. These measurements are preferably made successively and repeated. The tester determines an average gas pressure and its spatial uncertainty envelope and measures soil pneumatic permeabilities by taking soil samples, preferably at various locations. The soil is tested to determine viscous and inertial resistance coefficients to characterize permeability. The gas composition is determined preferably at each pressure measuring location, and the coefficients, gas pressure and composition measurements are used to calculate total gas emission.
Abstract: Parameters indicative of gas turbine engine operational characteristics are sensed and the signals processed to derive further operational characteristic information therefrom, each information signal being compared in a subroutine to a corresponding threshold signal for exceedence thereof, the magnitude of each threshold signal being indicative of incipiency of compressor stall, a counter being incremented in the subroutine upon any threshold exceedence occurrence, the amount of counter increment depending on the ability of each information signal to predict the incipiency of stall, the higher the counter value the greater the stall incipiency. The counter is decremented during each subroutine execution, the counter value during the current subroutine execution being compared to that of the previous subroutine execution to determine the direction of stall incipiency. The counter is utilized as a bias signal to an engine acceleration schedule to vary the rate of acceleration as the counter is varied.
Abstract: A liquid level and composition sensor includes a first interdigitated capacitor mounted substantially vertically in a tank, and a second interdigitated capacitor mounted substantially horizontally in and near the bottom of the tank. An electronic processor is responsive to the value of capacitance of the first capacitor for producing a first voltage signal proportional to the level of the liquid in the tank and is responsive to the value of capacitance of the second capacitor for producing a second voltage signal having a voltage level corresponding to the composition or dielectric constant of the liquid. The processor also multiplies the first and second voltage signals together to produce a liquid level voltage output signal having a constant slope for voltage amplitude versus liquid level, regardless of the composition of the liquid in the tank.
Abstract: An ID unit storing ID data of an article is attached to the article to be recognized. A write/read control unit writes or reads predetermined data in a contactless manner into/from the ID unit through a head. A monitor unit can be attachably and detachably connected to the write/read control unit. The monitor unit has a mode setting device, a key input apparatus, and a display device. When the RUN mode is set, the control unit performs the writing/reading operations for the ID unit under control of an upper control apparatus. When the MONITOR mode is set, the control unit performs the writing/reading operations for the ID unit in response to an input command from the key input apparatus of the monitor unit. When the TEST mode is set, the writing/reading operations are continously executed and a check is made to see if each of the writing/reading operations has correctly been executed or not, and the result of the discrimination is displayed on the display device of the monitor unit.
Abstract: A printed circuit board function testing system compares permissible range data to a waveform signal obtained from a given measuring point of a non-defective circuit board in actual operation and a waveform signal obtained from a corresponding given measuring point of a test circuit board in actual operation to judge whether the test circuit board is defective or not.
Abstract: A method and apparatus measures the gas bubble content of a flowing fluid on a continuous basis without extracting a sample of the fluid. A flowing fluid flows into a density sensor via a temperature and pressure sensor where the temperature, pressure and density of the fluid are determined. As the fluid exits the density sensor, a second pressure sensor determines the pressure of the exiting fluid. The outputs of the sensors are amplified and then input into a data processor. An operating panel supplies required constant data regarding the fluid and gas. The data processor calculates the gas bubble content using the above information in accordance with a predetermined formula.
Abstract: In a negative inspection apparatus for providing exposure correction data, a data input device inputs visual inspection data of film frames, and a frame scanner provides transmitted light data for a large number of points of the frame so as to compute scanning data. Exposure correction data of a film frame is provided based on inspection data and scanning data of frame.
Abstract: A method for predicting and controlling the strength development of concrete includes placing test concrete having the same composition as the subject concrete in a vessel which may be temperature regulated. The temperature inside the vessel is measured and recorded in a data memory and a data processor. The data is transmitted either in real time or from the data memory and data processor by way of a data transmission line to a temperature regulator for regulating the temperature inside the vessel. The temperature history of the test concrete can then simulate the temperature history of the reference concrete. The strength of the test concrete is measured at different times and the strength data of the test concrete is collected, processed and interpreted. A vessel for receiving the test concrete, a temperature regulator, a temperature controlling unit, a data recorder, a data transmitter and a computer are included.
Abstract: A method and apparatus accurately measures temperature even if a temperature difference exists between cold junctions of the main thermocouple. An auxiliary thermocouple is connected to one leg of the main thermocouple to provide cold junction compensation. Extension leads are connected to both cold junctions to take thermo emf from the thermocouple. The leads are made from a material having a thermoelectromotive characteristic in agreement with the thermoelectromotive characteristic of the other leg at low temperatures at which the cold junction compensation is provided. A converter converts the thermo emf of the composite thermocouple into temperature. The converter can separately set interpolations for converting the thermo emf of the auxiliary thermocouple into thermo emf of the main thermocouple and for coverting the sum of the converted thermo emf and the thermo emf of the main thermocouple into temperature.
Abstract: The disclosure involves a method for calibrating a system for determining thermal conductivity, k, and specific heat, c.sub.p of a fluid of interest. A proximately positioned heater and sensor are in thermal communication through a fluid of interest, and determinations are based on transient and steady-state temperature responses of the sensor to energy input in the heater. Calibration of the precise relations for each such system are determined by derivation using species of known physical property values.
Abstract: A wheel measuring machine includes juxtaposed first and second spindles relatively movable toward and away from one another for mounting a wheel to be measured therebetween. A first centering device is mounted on the first spindle to selectively center a first surface feature of the wheel on an axis. The second spindle includes a second centering device engageable with both the wheel and with the first spindle to selectively center a second surface feature on the axis when the first centering device disengages the wheel. A distance transducer sensingly engageable with a third surface feature of the wheel measures the distance between points along the surface feature and the spindle axis once when the first surface feature is centered on the axis and again when the second surface feature is so centered. From those measurements, parameter values describing dimensional relationships between the surface features are calculated.
Abstract: A defect detection system detects defective portions such as scratches, pinholes and dust on a pattern formed surface of a medium such as an optical card, optical disk, holographic memory medium or photomask, on which fine patterns are formed. A light source irradiates a controlled ray to a recording portion as an object of detection of the medium, a position regulating mechanisn contrasts a light receiving position of the recording portion, a reflected ray detector distinctively detects reflected rays from defective portions and normal portions of the medium and a reflected ray controller contacts the reflected rays in a manner that the detector can detect optical data by imaging only the reflected ray from a defective portion without the reflected ray from a normal portion.